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Access to Freely Available Journal Articles: Gold, Green, and Rogue Open Access Across the Disciplines

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Access to Freely Available Journal Articles: Gold, Green, and Rogue Open Access Across the Disciplines

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A recent bibliometrics study found that 54% of 4.6 million scientific papers from peer-reviewed journals indexed in Scopus during the years 2011-2013 could be downloaded for free on the internet in April of 2014 (Archambault, et al. 2014). As time rolls on, authors and researchers are increasingly using more-and-less legal scholarly article sharing services to "take back the literature," or even just to access it more conveniently (Bohannon, 2016). The objective of this study was to evaluate a manageable sample of journal articles across the sciences, social sciences and humanities for their availability in gold, green and rogue open access forms, including ResearchGate and Sci-Hub. Attendees will gain a greater appreciation of the extent of open access availability through Google Scholar, Google and commercial discovery systems, and will be challenged to roll with the times by expanding the role of libraries in broadening access to the freely available literature.

A recent bibliometrics study found that 54% of 4.6 million scientific papers from peer-reviewed journals indexed in Scopus during the years 2011-2013 could be downloaded for free on the internet in April of 2014 (Archambault, et al. 2014). As time rolls on, authors and researchers are increasingly using more-and-less legal scholarly article sharing services to "take back the literature," or even just to access it more conveniently (Bohannon, 2016). The objective of this study was to evaluate a manageable sample of journal articles across the sciences, social sciences and humanities for their availability in gold, green and rogue open access forms, including ResearchGate and Sci-Hub. Attendees will gain a greater appreciation of the extent of open access availability through Google Scholar, Google and commercial discovery systems, and will be challenged to roll with the times by expanding the role of libraries in broadening access to the freely available literature.

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Access to Freely Available Journal Articles: Gold, Green, and Rogue Open Access Across the Disciplines

  1. 1. Access to Freely Available Journal Articles: Gold, Green, and Rogue Open Access Across the Disciplines Charleston Conference November 3, 2016 Michael Levine-Clark University of Denver John McDonald University of Southern California Jason Price SCELC Library Consortium
  2. 2. Single publisher referring Site URL data U of Denver
  3. 3. http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/04/whos-downloading-pirated-papers-everyone
  4. 4. http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/04/whos-downloading-pirated-papers-everyone
  5. 5. A Science survey of 11,000 researchers . . . http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/05/survey-most-give-thumbs-pirated-papers Yes No I don’t have access Convenience Other Object to profits off academics 23% 88% 51% 17% 9% 12%
  6. 6. Our Journal Article Sample • 300 articles indexed in Scopus • Published in 2015 • 100 from Arts & Humanities • 100 from Social Sciences • 100 from Life Sciences • 100 journal articles randomly selected from 2000-4000 English language records matching each subject area • extracted in August 2016
  7. 7. Definitions Availability • Presence of full text in a “free” version Search Locations • Google Scholar • Google • ResearchGate • Sci-Hub Access Type • ‘Gold’ OA – open access on the publisher’s website • ‘Green’ OA – open access in a repository or author website • ‘Rogue’ OA – freely available via an academic social network (ResearchGate, academia.edu) • Pirated – freely available via Sci- Hub, a pirate site
  8. 8. Methodology • Searched each article title in: • Google Scholar • Google • Counted: • Access type (gold, green, rogue) • Number of title match results • Number of results w/ available full text (from off campus) • Searched each article title in: • ResearchGate (if not already found there via Google Scholar or Google) • Sci-Hub.cc • Measured title match vs. freely available full-text results
  9. 9. Access Type Source of the full text article: Gold OA, Green OA, Rogue OA, Pirated
  10. 10. • How many articles are Gold OA? • How many articles are Green OA?  In Institutional Repositories  In Subject Repositories  On author websites • How many articles are available in Rogue and Pirate systems  ResearchGate & academia.edu  Sci-Hub Gold/Green/Rogue
  11. 11. Articles available via Gold OA Discipline Publisher Websites Arts & Humanities 23 Social Sciences 25 Life Sciences 32 Total 80/300 (26%)
  12. 12. Articles Available via Green OA Discipline Institutiona l Repository Subject Repositor y Author Website (Self- Archived ) Total Articles Arts & Humanities 6 4 5 13 Social Sciences 14 10 3 19 Life Sciences 7 27 2 27 41 10
  13. 13. Articles available in Rogue Systems ResearchGate academia.edu Total Rogue Arts & Humanities 11 20 26 Social Sciences 36 9 40 Life Sciences 44 5 45 ALL 91 (30%) 34 111 (37%)
  14. 14. Discipline All OA Sources Arts & Humanities 49 Social Sciences 60 Life Sciences 57 Total 166/300 (55.3%)
  15. 15. Discipline Pirated Articles available in Sci-Hub Arts & Humanities 86 Social Sciences 87 Life Sciences 87 Total 260/300 (87%)
  16. 16. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% ALL AH SS LS 80 23 25 32 24 10 8 6 Additive availability by article source Gold Green Not Gold Additive from Left -> Right
  17. 17. Additive from Left -> Right
  18. 18. Search Location Where do we find available full text? Google Scholar, Google, ResearchGate, Sci-Hub
  19. 19. Google Scholar ALL versions (average #) # w/ Google Scholar (right-hand) OA links Arts & Humanities 2.55 35 Social Sciences 3.63 39 Life Sciences 5.03 48 Total 3.74 122/300 (41%)
  20. 20. Google # of title matches OA Articles Available Arts & Humanities 2.94 37 Social Sciences 2.99 40 Life Sciences 3.62 45 Total 3.18 122/300 (41.3%)
  21. 21. Conclusions It’s hard to follow the rules: • 26% Gold OA • 20% Green OA • 37% Rogue OA • 87% Pirated *Starting with Google Scholar, supplemented by Google, is a slightly better strategy than starting with ResearchGate *Starting with Sci-Hub, and bypassing legitimate search options entirely, gives the best results for users willing to use pirated papers *Libraries and publishers should be concerned
  22. 22. Next Steps • Examine OA ‘discoverability’ and availability in library Discovery Systems • How effective are library linking tools in providing full-text access to OA articles?
  23. 23. 1) Collar Google Scholar? 2) Emulate ResearchGate? 3) Don’t ignore the Sci-hub pirate club! How should libraries respond?
  24. 24. 1) Collar Google Scholar? • Link to Scholar results from OpenUrl resolver results to leverage more full text OR • Draw Scholar OA full text links into the results menu when they are available?
  25. 25. 1) Collar Google Scholar? • Link to Scholar results from OpenUrl resolver results to leverage more full text OR • Draw Scholar OA full text links into the results menu when they are available?
  26. 26. 2) Emulate ResearchGate? • Include metadata for ALL faculty publications in Institutional Repositories (even if the an OA copy is not available) • Allow users to request a copy through the institutional repository listing
  27. 27. 2) Emulate ResearchGate? • Include metadata for ALL faculty publications in Institutional Repositories (even if the an OA copy is not available) • Allow users to request a copy through the institutional repository listing
  28. 28. 2) Emulate ResearchGate? • Include metadata for ALL faculty publications in Institutional Repositories (even if the an OA copy is not available) • Allow users to request a copy through the institutional repository listing
  29. 29. 3) Don’t ignore the Sci-Hub (pirate) club! Recall that: • 88% of researchers do NOT think it is wrong to download pirated papers • 87% of papers are available via Sci-Hub
  30. 30. 3) Don’t ignore the Sci-Hub (pirate) club! Recall that: • 88% of researchers do NOT think it is wrong to download pirated papers • 87% of papers are available via Sci-Hub

Notas do Editor

  • Need to note Academia.edu and that we didn’t search it directly, only noted it when it came up through Google or GS. Also note why the totals aren’t cumulative – some articles available both places.

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