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O impacto da Biblioteca Escolar nas aprendizagens dos alunos - Ross Todd

  1. Past Tense // Future Tense Why School Libraries Matter Dr Ross J Todd School of Communication & Information Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
  2. • to ensure the development of reasoning, reflection and scientific curiosity, as well as an enhanced knowledge on the key elements of a humanistic, artistic, scientific and technological culture • to promote the acquisition and application of knowledge, based on study, critical reflection, observation and experimentation • to educate young people interested in solving the country's problems and awareness of the international community issues • to promote vocational guidance and training through technical and technological support, with a view to their entry into the working life; • to create individual and group work habits, favouring the development of attitudes of methodical reflection, open-mindedness, sensitivity, openness and adaptation to change. Portugal Ministry of Education and Science: Comprehensive Law on the Education System
  3. Do we really need a school library? • Availability of information technology • Access to vast quantities of information on the Internet • Costly infrastructure; increasing cost of print material • Cost of personnel: certified school librarian • Students using libraries less since they first began using internet research tools • Search engines are primary starting point for information searching
  4. The Changing Information Landscape • Transformation of information access: digital devices, smart technologies, voice activation, haptic technologies • Changing arena of content publishing; apps-driven access; wearable computing; breakdown of traditional publishing control • Changing culture of reading: visual, linked, interactive, participatory • New technology frontiers for learning: VR, gaming, robotics, makers and innovation
  5. 6 https/stephenk1977/2046536210 CENTER FOR THE FUTURE OF LIBRARIES AmericanLibraryAssociation: FutureTrends
  6. 7 American Library Association: Future Trends
  7. 8 “With the school library literally the heart of the educational program, the students of the school have their best chance to become capable and enthusiastic readers, informed about the world around them, and alive to the limitless possibilities of tomorrow.” Mary Gaver, 1958 Gaver, M. Every child needs a school library. Chicago, ALA, 1958 Gaver, M. Effectiveness of Centralized Library Service in Elementary Schools. Rutgers University, 1963 Mary Gaver: 60 Years of Research
  9. What is a School Library? The school library is the school’s physical and virtual learning commons where reading, inquiry, thinking, imagination, discovery, and creativity are central to students’ information- to-knowledge journey, and to their personal, social and cultural growth. 
  10. 11 60 Years of Evidence of School Library Impact on Learning and Student Achievement
  11. The Value of the School Library: Research 12 • Access to quality and diverse information sources needed for deep learning • Nurturing reading and literacy development • Development of information, inquiry and critical literacy capabilities • Development of knowledge of subject curriculums • Development of technical, analytical and reflective skills for accessing information and constructing & producing knowledge • Development of independent learning capabilities • Academic achievement: Instructional interventions focus on how you undertake good research and apply research skills to constructing knowledge School Library Research: Guiding Principles for the Future
  13. • free voluntary reading • reading motivation • reading engagement • reading fluency • reading comprehension • strategic reading • reading for pleasure • reading remediation • Writing process, and support of for conventions of citation and writing formal papers • Communication in spoken and digital contexts • Prof. Stephen Krsashen Transformative Role of School Libraries: Reading and Literacy
  14. School Library Research and the Digital Context • The instructional role of SL is significant mechanism for the development of students as digital citizens • Help students recognize and access quality information in multiple modes and across multiple platforms • Develop digital communication in collaborative, ethical ways for students to share ideas, work together & produce knowledge • Provide sophisticated information technology tools to search, access, create and demonstrate new knowledge • Instruction that develops ethical uses & behaviors in relation to digital technologies • Help students understanding the dangers inherent in the use of complex information technologies – cyberbullying, pornography, stranger danger: mindfulness
  16. Model instructional strategies that center on: • Integrating and evaluating multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats • Engaging with strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis • Showing how themes interact and build on one another to produce a complex account • Analyzing and synthesizing multiple interpretations • Identifying and addressing conflicting information • Writing arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence • Producing clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience • Using technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing: knowledge producers
  17. Humanistic Study as Key to SL Futures • Schools and School Libraries as cradles of civilization and democratic society • Schools and school libraries as breeding grounds for ideas generation, disruption and intellectual discontent: diversity of ideas as foundation for critical thinking, argument, debate and building knowledge, developing powers of observation and comprehension, and an aversion to dogmatism. Ideas / Thinking Networks • Schools and school libraries as opportunities for social, collaborative and global learning: global, local, formal, informal, unofficial, unscheduled, impromptu learning: Social and Cultural Networks • Learning without borders: connected learning, global collaboration, removing obstacles, seeding community formation, encouraging conversation, and growing student networks. Community Networks
  18. 20 police-filmed-firing-4697300 FERGUSON, MISSOURI AUGUST 2014
  19. Scott Bonner and the Ferguson Municipal Public Library, Missouri 21
  20. Civil Discourse Informed Discourse Human Rights Human Agency Social Justice Civic Responsibility Open Access Equity of Access to Resources / Technology Community Building Diversity Commitment to the Social Good Humanistic Study
  21. From “Source” / ”Selfie” / “Ego-Centric” narratives to outcomes narratives that place focus on the subject: Communities transformed by….. Student Learning through Ohio School Libraries
  22. 24
  23. Disruption, Dualisms and Directions Donna Haraway: Cyborg Manifesto (1985) Breakdown of boundaries between human and machine • Breakdown of dualisms: self/other, male/female, civilized/primitive, right/wrong, truth/illusion, fact/fake news, god/human; • Role of technology in challenging these dualisms: technological development creates new interpretive & innovative opportunities. Mary Chakyo: Superconnected (2016) • Techno-social life: “digital life is simply real life” • Terms such as “virtual”, “cyberspace” even “digital” are misleading in that they imply something almost, but not quite real. • Amidst robotics, automation, devices immersion: critical set of dynamics and realities around human agency. • Creates the problematic around terms such as “digital natives” “digital citizens”
  24. 26
  25. “digital life is simply real life” Prof Mary Chayko
  26. touching-pic-of-kids-taking-a-selfie-with-slipper- 1987869
  27. SCHOOL ACTION: Visible Agenda and Evidence of Social / Cultural Diversity, Inclusion, Access, Justice & Wellbeing 29 • Diverse information ecosystem: for all, enabled by IT, regardless of social and economic and access circumstances. • Knowledge ecosystems: Opportunity to examine diverse interests, diverse perspectives, arguments, even controversial topics, in privacy and anonymity, and without interruption: inclusion for diversity. • Wisdom ecosystems: individual help, mentoring, empathy, resilience, coping, interacting as needed without any kind of judgment. Access to expertise, help, support • Safe ecosystems: where students can retreat and work without interruption and intervention by other people without any kind of threat: identity, sexuality, social relationships and interactions CONNECTION. OPENNESS. AUTONOMY. INNOVATION.
  28. FUTURE TENSE // FUTURE PERFECT • In an era of banishing truth and the suppression of ideas, we have to have professional, intellectual and social courage to live our values, ethics and practices = the courage to practice them. • Beyond pessimism: ok today, better tomorrow. Critical constructive capacity. • Leadership that is encouraging and nourishing: our students, our colleagues: wellbeing as a central mindset. • Sustainability is built on common language, common platforms, conversations and formative feedback (moving beyond the jargon / bibliobabble of librarianship) eg. Information Literacy.
  29. 2 studies In collaboration with Vjay Medina, Children and Youth Librarian, Qatar National Library
  30. 148 students in Grades 5 – 10; IB school Qatar Self-reported responses to 28 checklist items, as well as open-ended questions, developed by the Open University UK titled “Being digital: Digital literacy skills checklist” available at: ssible-pdf-35-self-assessment-checklist.pdf • Protocols with online communication • Identifying quality of information • Online researching • Online production 41% 59% GATHERINGEVIDENCE
  31. FINDINGS Confidence in digital worlds Overall, high levels of confidence in all attributes Highest confidence • technical skills of using digital tools • accessing and selecting information sources • perceptions of personal capacity • participation in online environments Higher levels of confidence • searching for information • finding information, evaluating sources, • keeping track of found information through bookmarking and citations; participating in forums • chatting with others online. Lower levels of confidence • advanced technical skills • integrating and using different media into research projects as different approaches to representing ideas • analysis and synthesis of information and the construction of one’s own knowledge.
  32. Perceptions of competence 1. Name some things that you find easy to do online? 3. What some of the difficulties you encounter when you are online? 2. What do you think that the (school) library can do for you to help you to become a good online learner? GATHERINGEVIDENCE
  33. ACTIONS&INERVENTIONS From Digital Confidence to Digital Competence: An Evidence-Based Action Plan
  34. RECOMMENDATION From Digital Confidence to Digital Competence: An Evidence-Based Action Plan
  35. ONLINE SAFETY AS CORE ELEMENT OF DIGITAL LITERACY: QUESTIONS • How do students define and describe online safety? • What does it mean to be safe in an online world? • How do students recognize whether a website is safe or not? • What are the actions/strategies students use to ensure they are safe in online environments? student-resources/digital-safety
  36. • Perceptions about unsafe websites • Grades 5 to 10 in 2 schools in Philippines. (425 Students approximately) • Series of regular library classes: general theme of digital awareness and safety • Mind mapping activity: unsafe websites • 38 groups (5-12 per group) Research Methodology
  37. Findings Category 1: Sexual and violent content; Category 2: Malware pop-ups and spam; Category 3: Privacy and security issues; Category 4: Technical errors/virus/auto download; Category 5: Social media: unsolicited sharing; Category 6: Search engines: unsolicited sites. FrequencyTerm
  38. FindingInsights • Specific knowledge of technical terms: eg Deep Web, Torrent; specific knowledge of risk web sites and malicious files. • Predominant conception of being unsafe online centers on aspects of access, technical structures, potential for technical harm. • Limited acknowledgement of role of self in the safety equation: eg stranger danger, establishing privacy boundaries, cyberbullying indicators, managing offensive posts, interactions and images. • “Unsafe” predominantly seen as system problem, not as personal- social-interaction problem: No explication of active role of self in the digital environment. • Shift from technical notions of unsafe, to understanding and enacting the role of self: building a mindset of digital safety; digital wellbeing
  39. Potential Interventions • interventions are not based on exaggerations of the nature and scale of risks • Focus on the development of coping and resilience strategies • Empower children to cope, provide advice to parents on how to mediate, and ensure library websites contain appropriate positive support and guidance. • Avoid top-down interventionist approaches which tend to be negative and ascribe blame and fear (this is akin to bullying tactics). • Develop active strategies equip children to manage online risks themselves in so far as they are able and practical to do. • Enabling children to craft meaningful profiles; what constitutes a good profile. • Build resilience, coping and self-efficacy through awareness of self-help resources that build understanding and provide proactive strategies that do not overdramatize the risks. • Anonymous help lines where children can discuss their issues in anonymity and privacy. • Open up communication avenues that create opportunities seek social support and talk to someone (peers, parents, teachers). Build trust.
  40. Constructing a Bright Future • Leadership role in fostering human agency and wellbeing in context of building information-knowledge capacity: access to devices, access to intellectual competencies, capacity for developing the ethics and values – wellbeing of our students; coping and resilience. • Leadership role in fostering enactment of the social good: our agenda is bigger than student achievement: it is about social justice, social good, community empowerment, sense of the global. • Leadership in duty of care for each other: mentoring, sharing, best- practice networks; communities of practice; nurturing the newbies. • Find your space to take time to reflect, to refresh, reshape, redirect.