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ELEMENTS OF MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

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MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS AND ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

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ELEMENTS OF MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

  1. 1. Mary Joy R. Cadaba The Elements of Music MAPEH 7
  2. 2. Music Music has been an important part of the activities of humankind since the beginning of recorded history. Today, music is important in ways that were unimaginable during earlier times. It plays a vital and important role in the lives of human beings. It is found everywhere in our world -- on television and radio; in our homes, automobiles, airplanes, and offices. Humans use music in a variety of ways--- for everything from personal entertainment to contemplative activities. Music has the power to influence psychological aspects of behavior both consciously and unconsciously and acquiring a knowledge of music may create a deeper sensitivity in humans for their environment and social culture and it is believed to enrich life.
  3. 3. The Elements of Music As with all the arts, Music has its own language called the Elements of Music. These Elements are: Melody Tempo Dynamics Harmony Form Timbre Rhythm
  4. 4. MELODY Melody is the tune of a song. Everyone knows the tune of Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star Twinkle, twinkle, little star, How I wonder what you are. Up above the world so high, Like a diamond in the sky. Twinkle, twinkle, little star, How I wonder what you are!
  5. 5. TEMPO Tempo: is the speed of a song. Largo: is slow speed Andante: is walking Allegro: is fast
  6. 6. DYNAMICS Dynamics: is volume within the song Anything with a “p” in music means soft p is soft (piano) pp is very soft (pianissimo) anything with an “f” means loud (forte) ff means very loud (fortissimo) m= medium (mezzo) NEVER used by itself: mp= medium soft (mezzo piano) mf= med. loud (mezzo forte) pp<ff crescendo (pronounced creshindoe) gradually getting louder ff>pp decrescendo (or diminuendo) gradually getting softer
  7. 7. HARMONY Harmony is 2 or more notes played at the same time. It normally takes at least 2 people to sing harmony or 2 instruments to play harmony. Exceptions are piano, guitar, banjo, harp, (or any stringed instrument)
  8. 8. FORM Form: is how the music is setup For example: • Twinkle, Twinkle little star • How I wonder what you are……(A) • Up above the world so high • Like a diamond in the sky………..(B) • Twinkle, Twinkle little star • How I wonder what you…………..(A) BUT it is not about the same words (as in poetry) its about the tune. (Sing it and see!)
  9. 9. Timbre Timbre: (pronounced timbar) is the sound quality of the instruments. For example, a piano sounds like a piano because of its timbre. You can always tell when you call your best friend if they answer or if another member of the family answers because you recognize the timbre of his or her voice.
  10. 10. Timbre In music this relates to the instrument families For example: • Brass---has a buzz mouthpiece to produce sound (trumpet, trombone, horn, tuba) • Woodwind—needs a wooden reed to produce sound (clarinet, saxophone, oboe, bassoon) • Percussion---sound is made by striking it to sound (drum, piano, cymbals, triangle) • Strings---sound is produced by plucking, or strumming to vibrate string (violin, viola, cello, bass) Voice Categories: • Soprano—high female • Alto---low female • Tenor---high male • Bass---low male
  11. 11. Rhythm Rhythm---length of notes and rests in music Quarter note=1 beat Half note= 2 beats Dotted half=3 beats Whole= 4 beats 1/8 note = ½ beat (2 8th notes = 1 beat) 1/16 note= ¼ ( 4 16th notes= 1 beat) Quarter rest=1 beat Half Rest= 2 beats Whole Rest= (do nothing for the whole measure or 4 beats) 8th rest= ½ rest
  12. 12. RHYTHM 4 3 2 6 > examples of time signature, top # tells you how 4 4 4 8 many beats per measure 4 4 timing means there are four beats per measure 1 + 2 + 1 = 4 4 3 + 1 = 4 2 + 1 + 1 = 4 Bar Lines Any combo works as long as it ads up to the top #
  13. 13. Mary Had A Little Lamb
  14. 14. Rondalla
  15. 15. Bandurria • Pear-shaped body with a round sound hole, the bandurria is the mainstay of the group. This instrument usually carries the main melody and plays melodies and counterparts.
  16. 16. Laud • Shaped similar to the bandurria but bigger, the laud has a longer neck and two f-sound holes. It usually plays the lower notes in accompaniments, counterparts, and in unison with the bass.
  17. 17. Guitar • Six-stringed with long, fretted neck which can be plucked with the fingers or with a plectrum, larger body than the octavina with round sound hole, the guitar (guitarra) plays the accompaniments, plays melodies and counterparts, and provides the permanent rhythm for the group using chordal and arpeggio accompaniments
  18. 18. Double Bass • The double bass, also called bass VIOL or contrabass, is four- stringed, the largest instrument of the rondalla, shaped like the violin with two f sound holes, provides the fundamental tone, and reinforces the rhythm.
  19. 19. The Brass Family
  20. 20. The Brass Family • These instruments are usually made out of brass, although they can be made out of wood, horn, and shell • Brass instruments are really just long metal tubes that flare at the end; they are bent and folded into compact shapes so they can be played more easily • Trumpet, French Horn, Trombone, Euphonium, Tuba
  21. 21. What Brass Instruments Have in Common • All brass instruments have a mouthpiece that you blow air, or “buzz,” into • They all have flared bells at the end that project the sound • The trumpet, french horn, euphonium, and tuba use valves to change pitch, but the trombone uses a slide
  22. 22. Trumpet • The trumpet can be traced back to Egypt and Greece, but the trumpet as we know it today evolved in the 1800s • Its loud, clear sound has been used to send signals and messages • The trumpet is the highest-sounding instrument in the brass family
  23. 23. Trumpet • To change the pitch, you press the valves • Until valves were added to the trumpet in the 1800s, trumpet players could only change pitch by varying the shape of the lips on the mouthpiece; valves make it so much easier! • Important Parts of the Trumpet:
  24. 24. French Horn • The very first french horns were made from the horns of animals • The french horn has a sound that can be heard from a far distance, and they were first used for hunting calls • The horn has the biggest range of all the brass instruments • The horn has a slightly lower sound than the trumpet and slightly higher than the trombone
  25. 25. French Horn • The horn is wound in a circle and flares out with a large bell • The valves and extra tubing are in the center of the horn • The left hand works the valves, and the right hand goes inside the bell • Important Parts of the Horn:
  26. 26. Trombone • Trombones were invented around 1400, as an improvement on the trumpet; back then, trumpets didn’t have valves, so a slide was a big improvement • The trombone forms the middle of the brass family • Its sound is between the trumpet and horns on top, and the low tubas below
  27. 27. Trombone • Instead of having valves like a trumpet or horn, the trombone uses a slide, which is about 2 feet long • To change the pitch, you push or pull on the slide • You can play one pitch at a time, or you can slowly change pitch by blowing as you move the slide • Important Parts of the Trombone:
  28. 28. Euphonium • The euphonium was invented in 1843 • The euphonium has the same range as the trombone • While the rest of the brass instruments are used in the orchestra, there are only around 20 pieces that include the euphonium
  29. 29. Euphonium • Important Parts of the Euphonium: • 1) Mouthpiece • 2) Main tube • 3) Bell • 6) 1st , 2nd , 3rd valves • 15) 4th valve • 8) Main tuning slide • 10) 1st valve slide • 11) 2nd valve slide • 9) 3rd valve slide
  30. 30. Tuba • The tuba is the largest member of the brass family • It has the lowest sound • The tuba is also the youngest brass instrument; it was first used in military bands • The tuba is very important because it keeps the band or orchestra together with its bass line
  31. 31. Tuba • The tuba has a very wide range and can, in fact, play very fast • Like the trumpet, horn, and euphonium, the tuba uses valves to change pitch • Important Parts of the Tuba
  32. 32. It’s Quiz Time!! • Name this instrument: • Name this instrument: • Name this instrument: • Name this instrument:
  33. 33. BUMBONG
  34. 34. BUMBONG • hollow pieces of bamboo put together and serve as the orchestra’s wind section – divided into “bass” (lower) and “horn” (higher) sections. The smaller the bamboo, the higher the note. Each piece of bamboo represents one note and is blown through a mouthpiece to produce the sound.
  35. 35. In the Hindu period and the era of the Kingdom of Sunda , the people of Sunda, as West Java is called, used the angklung to signal the time for prayer. Later, in Kingdom of Sunda these instruments were used as martial music in the Bubat War (Perang Bubat) as told in the Kidung Sunda. The angklung functioned to build community spirit. It was used by the Sundanese until the colonial era ( Dutch East Indies, V.O.C). At that time, the Dutch East Indies government forbade the playing the angklung. Because of this, the popularity of the instrument decreased and it came to be played only by children. from WP:SPS, "Articles and posts on Wikipedia may not be used as sources." was:[1][citation needed]
  36. 36. The angklung got more international attention when Daeng Soetigna, from Bandung, West Java, expanded angklung tuning not only to play traditional pélog or sléndro scales, but also the diatonic scale in 1938. Since then, angklung is often played together with other western music instruments in an orchestra. One of the first well-known performances of angklung in an orchestra was during the Bandung Conference in 1955. A few years later, Udjo Ngalagena, a student of Daeng Soetigna, opened his "Saung Angklung" (House of Angklung) in 1966 as a centre for its development.
  37. 37. First, Fell the bamboo that was more than 3 years old. And save it in the saving place more than 1 year. Second, you have to shape the Angklung. Each Angklung consists of three parts : The Voice Tube, Frame, and Base. Shaping is the most important step in Angklung making process. Third,Tuning the voice tubes process. Last, the finishing process.
  38. 38. Type Angklung is very diverse, small Angklung consists of 8 tones with the size of the user's school children to start kindergarten and primary school for children. Angklung  for adults consists of 15 types of tones, 18 tones, 37 tones, 43 funds that have even up to 49 tones
  39. 39. The left hand hold angklung and the right hand jar angklung. The left hand can hold angklung by hold the center ( between horizontal and vertical side). The angklung position is standing, it is better. The limit to body is far enough ( hand elbow almost stright) So it can has a good and maximal vibration. The right handhold corner of tube (horizontal) and ready to jar angklung.

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