1. Theories of crimes
The school of thought of criminology
Neo Classical School
The classical school of criminology
Mid -18th century rethink that the
Prevailing concepts of law and justice.
The punishments should be balance
This was based on the prevailing philosophy
Of time called Utilitarianism.
Utilitarianism emphasize the behavior and
Must be useful purposeful and reasonable.
Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794)
Famous reformers ( Cesare Bonessa
Marchese di Beccaria. )
A lawyer from Milan Italy
Book entitled “Dei Dellitie pene”
Committing crime and methods of tis control
was Publish in July 17, 1764. Based on the free
will means to Achieve pleasure and avoid pain.
Free will – a philosophy advocating punishment
Severe enough for people to choose to avoid
Jeremy Bentham – Utilitarian Theoty (1748-1832)
English legal philosopher devoted his life
In searching for scientific approaches in making of
Wit achieving the “The greatest happiness of
The greatest number of pain.”
Argument against the classical theory
Auguste Comte (178-1857)
A French national ( founder of Sociology )
Published in six volume “course de
Father of positivism.
The 3 proponents of the Italian or Positive School
Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909)
Father of Criminology
He determine whether law violators physically
different from people of conventional values
He helped stimulate interest in criminal
Classification of Criminal by Lombroso:
Born Criminal – Criminal according to
Lombroso, the belief that criminal behavior is
Criminal by Passion – individuals who are
easily influenced by great emotions like fit of
Insane Criminal – commit crime due to
abnormalities or psychological disorder.
Criminaliod – commit crime due to less
physical stamina / self-control.
Occasional Criminal – commit crime due
insignificant reasons that pushed them to do
at the given occasion.
Pseudo-criminals - those who kill in self-defense.
Enrico Ferri - (1956-1929)
Best known Lombroso’s associate.
Member of Parliament, accomplished public
lecture, brilliant lawyer, editor, and scholar.
Rafaelle Garofalo – (1852-1934)
Follower of Lombroso.
Italian nobleman, magistrate senator, and
professor of law.
Influenced on Lombroso’s theory of atavistic
stigmata ( animalistic behavior )
Types of Criminal by Garofalo
Murderers - who are satisfied from revenge
Violent criminals – who commit crime against
Lasciviousness criminals – who commit crime
Edwin Sutherland (1883-1950)
Theory of Imitation of Gabriel Tarde(1843-
Believe that criminal skills can be learned
He has been referred to as “the most
important criminologist of 20th century.”
2. Considered “Dean of modern criminology.”
Advocated the DAT – Differential Association
Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874)
Who began the “Cartographic school of
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
Advocated the “Anomie Theory”
According to him, crime – is a part of
human nature because it has existed during
the periods of both poverty and prosperity.
Robert King Merton
Advocated the “Strain Theory”.
Meaning he maintains that the failure of a
man to achieve a higher status/goal to be
Premier sociologist of the modern days who
Albert Cohen (1918)
Advocated the “The Sub-Culture Theory of
Cohen claims that the lower class cannot
socialize effectively as the middle class in
what is considered appropriate middle class
Cohen called this process as reaction
Gresham Sykes (1922)
Advocated the “Neutralization Theory”
Means that the individual will obey societal
rules depending upon his or her ability to
rationalize whether he is protected from
hurt or destruction.
Lloyd Ohlin (1928)
Advocated the “The Differential
Opportunity Theory (DOT)”
Frank Tennenbaum, Edwin Lembert, Howard Becer
Advocated the “Labeling Theory”
Meaning about social reaction to behavior.
Maintain the original cause of crimes
Earl Richard Quinney (1934)
Advocated the “Instrumentalist Theory”
A Marxist criminologist.
He claims the upper classes create laws that
protect their interest and at the same time
the unwanted behavior of all other
members of the society.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Theory of evolution.
Man is an organism having an animalistic
behavior that is dependent on other animal
Charles Goring Theory (1870-1919)
A medical officer in England who accepted
the Lombroso’s challenge.
Karl Marx, Frederick Engel, William Bonger (1818-
Proponents of the “Social Class Conflict
and Capitalism Theory”
Robert Ezra Park (1864-1944)
Advocate the “Human Ecology Theory”
Strong advocate of the scientific method in
explaining criminality but he is a sociologist.
Human Ecology – is the study of the
interrelationship of people and their
Control Theory (Social Control Theory)
It is the obedience of the rules and practices
of the society, founded on values, customs,
Social Conflict Theory
This theory is difficult to define and
3. FACTORS AFFECTING THE APPROACHES OF CRIMES
The Geographical Factors
Correlated climate, wind, velocity,
atmosphere pressure, rainfall, nature and other
geographic factors to the existence and
development of crimes and criminality.
North and South Pole – according to
Quetelet “Thermic law of delinquency”
Approach to the equator – according to
Monstesquieu (Spirit of laws, 1748)
criminality increase in proportion as one
approach the equator and drunkenness
increase as one approach the North and
Season of the year – crime against person
are more in summer than rainy seasons
while crime against property are more
during rainy seasons
Soil Formation – more crimes of violence
are recorded in fertile level lands than hilly
Month of the year – is the more incidences
of violent crimes during warm months from
April up to July,
Temperature – according to dexter, the
number of arrest increase quite regularly
with the increase of temperature.
Humidity and Atmosphere Pressure – this
explains that low and high humidity are
both vitally and emotionally depressing to
Wind Velocity – explains that during high
wind, the number of arrest were less.
The Biological Factors
A man as living organism has been the
object of several studies which has the purpose of
determining the cause of his crimes.
Physiognomy – the study of the
relationship between the facial feature and human
conduct of a person in relation to his crimes.
Phrenology or Craniology- the study of the external
formation of the skill that indicates the
conformation of the brain and the development of
its various parts in relation to the behavior of the
Physical defects and handicapped in relation to
Person who are suffering from physical
defects cause poor social relationship and
serious emotional disturbances.
It reduces his capacity to complete
occupationally and socially.
It may cause the development of inferiority
Person suffering from defects are
frequently irritated by friends and resort to
violent criminal behavior.
Johann Kasper Lavater (1741-1801)
they determine whether the shape, ear,
nose, and eyes and the distance between
them were associated with anti-behavior
physiognomist ( Giambattista della porta )
Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828)
Johann K. Spurzhein (1776-1832)
Charle Darwin (1809-1832)
Proponent of the evolution theory
The book “Origin of Species” published in
Phillipe Pinel – founder of French psychiatry, claimed
that some people behave abnormally even without
being mentally ill.
1882 – An American Benjamin Rush described
patients with an “innate preternatural moral
A criminological pioneer, English physician Henry
- Believe that insanity and criminal behavior
were strongly linked.
STUDY OF KALLIKAK FAMILY TREE (Goddard)
Martine Kallikak was a soldier of the
American revolutionary war.
143 feeble minded
4. STUDY OF JUKE FAMILY TREE (Dugdale &
Consisted of 6 girls some of whom were
Ada juke was known as “Margaret”
Mother of Criminals
STUDY OF SIR JONATHAN EDWARDS FAMILY TREE
He was a former preacher during the
His family tree was traced none of
descendants was found to be criminal.
PSYCHOANALYTIC AND PSYCHIATRIC FACTORS
Psychoanalytic – the analysis of human
Psychiatry – the study of human mind.
THE FOLLOWING ARE THE VARIOUS STUDIES OF
HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND MIND IN RELATION TO THE
CAUSE OF CRIMES:
Aichorn – 1925 book entitled wayward
Cause of crimes and delinquency is the
faulty development of the child during the
first few years of his life.
1945 – in his crime and human mind
This explains the causes of crime by this
formula “Criminal Behavior equals
Criminalistics tendencies plus crime
including situation divided by the Persons
mental or emotional resistance to
Cyrill Burt (Young Delinquent 1925)
He gave the theory of general emotionality.
Callous type of offenders may be due to the
deficiency in the primitive emotion of love
and an excuse of the instinct of hate.
Healy (individual Delinquency)
He claimed that crime is and expression of
the mental content of the individual.
Blomberg (Crime and the mind 1946)
Claimed that criminality is the result