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Tips on High Performance Server Programming

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Tips on High Performance Server Programming

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  • DOWNLOAD THE BOOK INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (New Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THE can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THE is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBOOK .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, CookBOOK, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, EBOOK, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THE Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THE the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THE Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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Tips on High Performance Server Programming

  1. 1. Tips on High Performance Server Programming Joshua Zhu June 9, 2009
  2. 2. Agenda • Fundamentals • Best practices and common tricks • Design issues • Tools and resources
  3. 3. Key Rules • Do NOT block • Avoid excessive system calls • Cache/preprocess as much as possible • Use efficient algorithms and data structures • Threads are usually a bad idea • Separate the I/O code from the business-logic code • Keep the most heavily used data near the CPU • Tune against the bottleneck
  4. 4. I/O Models • Blocking • Non-blocking • I/O multiplexing • Signal-driven I/O • Asynchronous I/O
  5. 5. I/O Multiplexing • Select • Poll • /dev/poll • Epoll/kqueue – Level triggered – Edge triggered
  6. 6. I/O Strategies • 1 thread, non-blocking, level-triggered • 1 thread, non-blocking, edge-triggered • 1 thread, AIO • 1 thread per client • Build the server code into the kernel
  7. 7. Let’s Face the C10K Problem • 10000 connections – CPU/memory usage per connection • 10000 hits/sec – 10 us per hit • Instruction (ns) • System call (us)
  8. 8. Agenda • Fundamentals • Best practices and common tricks • Design issues • Tools and resources
  9. 9. The Event-driven Model while (true) { for t in run_tasks: t.handler(); update_time(&now); timeout = ETERNITY; for t in wait_tasks: /* sorted already */ if (t.time <= now) { t.timeout_handler(); } else { timeout = t.time - now; break; } nevents = poll_function(events, timeout); for i in nevents: task t; if (events[i].type == READ) { t.handler = read_handler; } else (events[i].type == WRITE) { t.handler = write_handler; } run_tasks_add(t); }
  10. 10. Scheduler • Task scheduling – Run queue – Wait queue • Timers – Time jumps – The next timeout • Pass to select()/poll()/epoll_wait()... – Data structures • Red-black tree • Min-heap • Timer wheel
  11. 11. Unify Multiple Event Sources • I/O events • Timer events • Signals/threads – Use a pipe or socketpair • Register the read end in the event loop • Notify the event loop by writing to the write end
  12. 12. Buffer Management • Fixed size or not • R/W pointers operation – Producer/consumer • Circular buffer • Single buffering • Buffer chain
  13. 13. Memory • Memory fragment – Memory pool • Fixed size – MRU • Non-fixed size – Slab allocator • Memory operations are expensive – Allocation/free – Data copies • Pre-allocation/static-allocation – Array
  14. 14. Strings • Gotchas – Strlen() • Sizeof() - 1 – Strncpy() • Strlcpy() – Vsnprintf() –… • Algorithms – KMP/BM – AC/WM –…
  15. 15. Caching • Time – Reduce the number of gettimeofday() calls – Time resolution • ms or sec? • Content – Files • In-memory buffering – Database • Memcached • Preprocessing
  16. 16. Accept() Strategies • Accept-limit – Multi-accept – Accept-mutex • The thundering herd problem – Polling functions – Kernels – The amount of processes/threads
  17. 17. Concurrency • Threads – Pros • Utilize all the CPUs • True CPU concurrency – Cons • Context switches • Locks hurt performance – Deadlocks – Starvation – Race conditions • Error prone and hard to debug • Hard limits of operating systems
  18. 18. Concurrency (cont’d) • Categorize your service – CPU-bound – I/O-bound • Models – Thread pool – Process pool – SEDA – Master/workers • CPU affinity
  19. 19. Advanced I/O Functions • Gather read, scatter write – Readv/writev • Sendfile • Mmap • Splice and tee
  20. 20. Take Advantage of TCP/IP Options • TCP/IP options – SO_REUSEADDR – SO_RCVBUF/SO_SNDBUF – TCP_CORK – TCP_NODELAY – TCP_DEFER_ACCEPT –…
  21. 21. Misc. • Byte order – Little-endian – Big-endian • Max open file number – Ulimit/setrlimit
  22. 22. Agenda • Fundamentals • Best practices and common tricks • Design issues • Tools and resources
  23. 23. Protocol • Readability – Binary – Textual • Compatibility • Security – Heart beat – Invalid data • The state machine (FSM) – Granularity – Traceability
  24. 24. Security • Timeouts • Bad data • Buffer overflow • DOS attack • Encryption • Privilege • Working directory
  25. 25. Flexibility • Modularize – Modules – Plugins • Scriptable – Lua • Hot code update • HA
  26. 26. Introspection • Statistics – SNMP • Debugable • Tunable • Logs
  27. 27. Patterns • Reactor • Proactor • Half-Sync/Half-Async • Leader/Followers • …
  28. 28. Choose a Suitable Language • C • C++ • Java • Erlang • …
  29. 29. The Devil Hides in the Details • Find out the shortest plank in the bucket – Profile/benchmark • Take care of every line of your code! – Return values – Error code • EINTR • SIGPIPE • … • Tune your operating system if necessary – /proc • Make sure hardware is not the bottleneck – Network cards – Disk – …
  30. 30. Agenda • Fundamentals • Best practices and common tricks • Design issues • Tools and resources
  31. 31. Sharpen Your Tools • Ping • Traceroute • Netstat • Lsof • Strace • Nc • Wireshark • Gprof • Valgrind • Vmstat/iostat/dstat • Dot/gnuplot
  32. 32. Understand TCP/IP Well • Three-way handshake • Connection tear-down • TCP state transition – TIME_WAIT – CLOSE_WAIT –…
  33. 33. Learn By Reading Code • Frameworks – ACE – Libevent/libev – Boost::asio – … • Servers – HAProxy – Nginx – Lighttpd – Memcached – MySQL Proxy – …
  34. 34. Recommended Books • Advanced Programming in the UNIX Environment • UNIX Network Programming • TCP/IP Illustrated • Effective TCP/IP Programming • Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture • C++ Network Programming • Programming With POSIX Threads • Introduction to Algorithms
  35. 35. Thank You! Visit www.zhuzhaoyuan.com for more info

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