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  1. 1. Propaganda 20. 3. 2017 Josef Šlerka Some notes and quotations from Wiki and other sources (ver.2)
  2. 2. Propaganda “Propaganda is a persuasive and widespread message designed to represent the interests of a particular group. However, what truly sets propaganda apart from other techniques of mass communication is that it attempts to bypass logic through faulty reasoning and emotional appeals.” Magedah Shabo. “Techniques of Propaganda and Persuasion.”
  3. 3. Propaganda Herman and Chomsky (Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media) Ross' epistemic merit model (see Wikipedia)
  4. 4. Manufacturing Consent 1. Size, Ownership, and Profit Orientation: The dominant mass-media outlets are large companies operated for profit; and, therefore, must cater to the financial interests of the owners — usually corporations and controlling investors. The size of a media company is consequence of the investment capital required for the mass-communications technology required to reach a mass audience of viewers, listeners, and readers.
  5. 5. Manufacturing Consent 2. The Advertising License to Do Business: Since the majority of the revenue of major media outlets derives from advertising (not from sales or subscriptions), advertisers have acquired a "de facto licensing authority". Media outlets are not commercially viable without the support of advertisers. News media must therefore cater to the political prejudices and economic desires of their advertisers. This has weakened the working class press, for example, and also helps explain the attrition in the number of newspapers.
  6. 6. Manufacturing Consent 3. Sourcing Mass Media News: Herman and Chomsky argue that “the large bureaucracies of the powerful subsidize the mass media, and gain special access [to the news], by their contribution to reducing the media’s costs of acquiring [...] and producing, news. The large entities that provide this subsidy become 'routine' news sources and have privileged access to the gates. Non-routine sources must struggle for access, and may be ignored by the arbitrary decision of the gatekeepers.”
  7. 7. Manufacturing Consent 4. Flak and the Enforcers: "Flak" refers to negative responses to a media statement or program (e.g. letters, complaints, lawsuits, or legislative actions). Flak can be expensive to the media, either due to loss of advertising revenue, or due to the costs of legal defense or defense of the media outlet's public image. Flak can be organized by powerful, private influence groups (e.g. think tanks). The prospect of eliciting flak can be a deterrent to the reporting of certain kinds of facts or opinions.
  8. 8. Manufacturing Consent 5. Anti-Communism: This was included as a filter in the original 1988 edition of the book, but Chomsky argues that since the end of the Cold War (1945–91), anticommunism was replaced by the "War on Terror", as the major social control mechanism.
  9. 9. Epistemic merit model "That is... propaganda involve[s]... the one who is persuading (Sender) [who is] doing so intentionally, [the] target for such persuasion (Receiver) and [the] means of reaching that target (Message)."
  10. 10. Epistemic merit model 1. Propaganda involves the intention to persuade. 2. Propaganda is sent on behalf of a sociopolitical institution organization or cause. 3. The recipient of propaganda is a socially significant group of people. 4. Propaganda is epistemically defective.
  11. 11. Techniques and questions Excerpt From: Magedah Shabo. “Techniques of Propaganda and Persuasion.”
  12. 12. Symptoms persuasive function sizeable target audience representation of a specific group’s agenda use of faulty reasoning and/or emotional appeals
  13. 13. ASSERTION
  14. 14. ASSERTION In assertion, debatable ideas are stated as facts, with little or no explanation or justification.
  15. 15. BANDWAGON Five million members and growing! Thousands of satisfied customers can’t be wrong.
  16. 16. BANDWAGON The bandwagon technique takes advantage of the human desire to be a part of the majority group or the winning team.
  18. 18. CARD STACKING “Card stacking is “the sin of omission”—the trivialization or exclusion of conflicting viewpoints.”
  20. 20. GLITTERING GENERALITIES Without context or specific definitions, glittering generalities serve only to evoke emotions.
  21. 21. FALSE DILEMMA If you are not using White Bright Detergent, your clothes are not clean. If you support Israel, you cannot possibly be in favor of a Palestinian State. You can subscribe to Politics Magazine, or you can stay uninformed.
  22. 22. ETC.:) The Lesser of Two Evils Name-Calling Pinpointing the Enemy Plain Folk Testimonials Transfer
  23. 23. What next?
  24. 24. Other techniques List on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Propaganda_techniques
  25. 25. Other sources Jacques Ellul: Propaganda http://www.ratical.org/ratville/AoS/Propaganda.pdf Nicholas J. Cull David Culbert David Welch: PROPAGANDAAND MASS PERSUASION, A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present EDWARD L. BERNAYS: PROPAGANDA
  26. 26. Trolling for Trump
  27. 27. Fake news It's complicated. https://medium.com/1st-draft/fake-news-its- complicated-d0f773766c79#.im2e8rucf
  28. 28. Three elements The different types of content that are being created and shared The motivations of those who create this content The ways this content is being disseminated
  29. 29. Thank you… @josefslerka