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Ewrt 2 class 12 government and got

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Ewrt 2 class 12 government and got

  1. 1. EWRT 2 *
  2. 2. *AGENDA *Vocabulary Exam #4: 15 minutes *Discussion Lao Tzu/Machiavelli: Examples and preparation *Group Preparation for discussion of Philosophy and A Game of Thrones. *Class Discussion *Essay #2 writing tips *Group Preparation for Cicero *Homework
  3. 3. *You win or you die *
  4. 4. A strategy of using textual evidence *
  5. 5. *“He must, therefore, never raise his thought from this exercise of war, and in peacetime he must train himself more than in time of war; this can be done in two ways: one by action, the other by the mind” (38) says Machiavelli. “Do you recall your history Bran” “And that’s Torrhen Stark, the King Who Knelt. He was the last King in the North and the first Lord of Winterfell, after he yielded to Aegon the Conqueror. Oh, there, he’s Cregan Stark. He fought with Prince Aemon once, and the Dragonknight said he’d never faced a finer swordsman. (Bran VII) (Bran VII)
  6. 6. In teams, discuss your ideas about applying Lao-Tzu and Machiavelli to A Game of Thrones. You have about 10 minutes! Make sure you have textual support for your assertions! Eddard Stark Catelyn Stark Robb Stark Jon Snow Robert Baratheon Cersei Lannister Joffrey Baratheon Tyrion Lannister The Night’s Watch Khal Drogo Daenerys Targaryen Viserys Targaryen Petyr Baelish Varys Lord Stannis Syrio Forel
  7. 7. *The Starks
  8. 8. Machiavelli says in his how to manual, The Qualities of a Prince, “…every prince must desire to be considered merciful and not cruel; nevertheless, he must take care not to misuse the mercy.” (43). Ned doesn’t want to execute this man but it is the law and he must adhere to it. ‘“In the name of Robert of the House Baratheon, the First of his Name, King of the Andals and the Rhoynar and the First Men, Lord of the Seven Kingdoms and Protector of the Realm, by the word of Eddard of the House Stark, Lord of Winterfell and Warden of the North, I do sentence you to die.’” (Martin 14).
  9. 9. Machiavelli says that the prince must portray a positive image of himself to the public so he can avoid being despised and hated. The prince “must strive to make everyone recognize his greatness, spirit, dignity, and strength”(48). “You are an honest and honourable man, Lord Eddard. Ofttimes I forget that. I have met so few of them in my life”(634). We can also apply Lao-tzu’s philosophies to Eddard. “Peace is his highest value./ If the peace has been shattered,/ how can he be content?/ His enemies are not demons,/ but humans like himself”(25)
  10. 10. Lao-tzu says, “ his enemies are not demons but human beings like himself. He does not wish them personal harm.” “Your Grace, the girl is scarcely more than a child. You are no Tywin Lannister, to slaughter innocents […] the murder of children … it would be vile … unspeakable”. (Martin 430) Kill Danerys !
  11. 11. In Machiavelli’s “The Qualities of a prince, ” Machiavelli states that “a prince must desire to be merciful and not cruel; nevertheless, he must take care not to misuse this mercy” “Whoever Jon’s mother had been, Ned must have loved her fiercely, for nothing Catelyn said would persuade him to send the boy away. It was the one thing she could never forgive him. She had come to love her husband with all her heart, but she had never found it in her to love Jon.”(Martian 65-66) In this excerpt from the text Ned is showing his merciful side by taking in the bastard Jon, raising him with his own, feeding him, and housing him even though this wife, Caitlyn, despises it. However, Ned is still exercising his dominance and showing that he isn’t misusing his mercy by standing up to his wife and electing to keep the bastard Jon, rather than sending him off.
  12. 12. “‘Can a man still be brave if he is afraid?” (Martin 16). “There is no greater illusion than fear […] Whoever can see through all fear will always be safe” (Jacobus 26). Through Martin’s writing we only notice the fear in the man that is beheaded. Bran notices that there is also bravery in the man for accepting the punishment, therefore Bran saw past the illusion of fear that Lao Tzu mentioned in his writing.
  13. 13. A great nation is like a great man: When he makes a mistake, he realizes it. Having realized it, he admits it. Having admitted it, he corrects it. He considers those who point out his faults as his most benevolent teachers. He thinks of his enemy As the shadow that he himself casts. (Jacobus 29) “ Do you think that [your brother’s] war is more important than ours. And Jon could “only bite his lip.” […] “Gods save us boy, you’re not blind and you’re not stupid. When dead men come hunting in the night, do you think it matters who sits the Iron Throne” (Martin 759)? Through Mormont, we can see that he is what Lao-Tzu refers to as a “benevolent teacher,” and he is how Jon sees that his choice to flee was a mistake and that by making his brother’s war a higher priority than the one that was much closer to him, he also attributed a lack of importance for the Night’s Watch. From there he is able to “realize it” and later he admits that he is in the wrong to Mormont.
  14. 14. As Ned Stark once said, “The only thing His Grace enjoys more than hunting is making war on lords who defy him” (Martin 329). “And as far as actions are concerned, besides keeping his soldiers well disciplined and trained, he must always be out hunting, and must accustom his body to hardships in this manner; and he must also learn the nature of the terrain, and know how mountains slope, how valleys open, how plains lie, and understand the nature of rivers and swamps; and he should devote much attention to such activities” (Jacobus 38). Machiavelli insists that a prince should always have his mind fixed on warfare, and when in peacetime, he should always be out hunting. By doing so, the prince will be well versed in the geography of his land, and should an attack come, he will know where to place his troops for maximum strategic advantage.
  15. 15. Machiavelli states that, “Nevertheless, a prince must be cautious in believing and in acting, nor should he be afraid of his own shadow, […] too much trust may not render him imprudent nor too much distrust render him intolerable” (Jacobus 43). These qualities of a Prince can be connected to Robert Baratheon’s decision after he took Ser Barristan in custody at the Trident River. King Robert displayed his mercy by sparing Ser Barristan, who was his [enemy]. “I will not kill a man for loyalty, nor for fighting well” (Martin 352).
  16. 16. “ it is evident that when princes have given more thought to personal luxuries than to arms, they have lost their state.” (38) “Robert had always been a man of huge appetites, a man who knew how to take his pleasure. […] Yet Ned could not help but notice that those pleasures were taking a toll on the king.” (42).
  17. 17. “You know as well as I that the treasury has been empty for years. I shall have to borrow the money. No doubt the Lannisters will be accommodating. We owe Lord Tywin some three million dragons at present, what matter another hundred thousand?” (194). “And so, if a prince wants to maintain his reputation for generosity among men, it is necessary for him not to neglect any possible means of lavish display.” Perhaps if Robert Baratheon had followed this philosophy, he would have better control and order over the Seven Kingdoms.
  18. 18. Machiavelli’s philosophy of using the nature of the beast can be applied to Tywin Lannister in A Game of Thrones. “a prince must know how to make good use of the nature of the beast, he should choose among the beasts the fox and the lion; for the lion cannot defend itself from traps and the fox cannot protect itself from wolves” (46). “Tywin Lannister was as much fox as lion. If indeed he’d sent Ser Gregor to burn and pillage— and Ned did not doubt that he had—he’d taken care to see that he rode under cover of night, without banners, in the guise of a common brigand. Should Riverrun strike back, Cersei and her father would insist that it had been the Tullys who broke the kings peace, not the Lannisters” (391).
  19. 19. “And if he must take someone’s life, he should do so when there is proper justification and manifest cause” (Jacobus 44). Prince Joffrey continues to exhibit behaviors that would be unfitting for a prince. ‘My mother bids me let Lord Eddard take the black, and Lady Sansa has begged mercy for her father.’ He looked straight at Sansa then, and smiled, […] ‘But they have the soft hearts of women. So long as I am your king, treason shall never go unpunished .Ser Ilyn, bring me his head!’ (Martin 726).
  20. 20. *Tyrion Lannister “Well, my legs may be too small for my body, but my head is too large, although I prefer to think it is just large enough for my mind. I have a realistic grasp of my own strengths and weaknesses. My mind is my weapon” (Martin 118). Bronn on the other hand is a sellsword, he has no title to his name neither does he have honor but his ability with his sword allows him to take on foes stronger than he was. According to Catelyn, she “misliked the man. Courage he had, and strength, but there was no kindness in him, and little loyalty” (Martin 354). their companionship is “necessary [that one has to] be a fox in order to recognize traps and a lion in order to frighten the wolves”. (Machiavelli 230)
  21. 21. The mark of a moderate man is freedom from his own ideas. Tolerant like the sky, all-pervading like sunlight, firm like a mountain, supple like a tree in the wind, he has no destination in view and makes use of anything life happens to bring his way. Nothing is impossible for him. Because he has let go, he can care for the people’s welfare as a mother cares for her child. “I see the face of slaves. I free you. Take off your collars. Go if you wish, no one shall harm you. If you stay, it will be as brothers and sisters, husbands and wives”(Martin 800). We see this in Daenerys as she allows herself to extricate and disentangle herself from the wounds of her past, including that which holds her back—the ubiquitous presence of men.
  22. 22. “I want what I came for’, he told her. ‘I want the crown he promised me. He bought you, but he never paid for you. Tell him I want what I bargained for, or I’m taking you back. You and the eggs both. He can keep his bloody (baby). I’ll cut the bastard out and leave it for him” (Martin 417). Machiavelli states that a Prince’s only profession should be war and must not take on anything “as his profession but war, its intuitions, and its discipline; because that is the only profession which befits one who commands: and it is of such importance that not only does it maintain those who were born princes, but many times it enables men of private station to rise to that position” (Machiavelli 38). Viserys desires badly to be a man of war and I believe that him pulling his sword is his way of showing he is not afraid of war an it shows his eagerness to fight.
  23. 23. * *Do you agree with Machiavelli’s thesis that stability and power are the only qualities that matter in the evaluation of governments? If not, what else matters? *Can we have Lao-Tzu’s peace, even though there is ambition, materialism, war, and famine on earth? How is it possible?
  24. 24. *
  25. 25. *Write about literature in the present tense. *Write in third person (avoid “I” and “you”) *Be specific: Avoid “thing” and words with “thing” in them: something, anything, everything. For And Nor Remember, you need a comma and a coordinating conjunction to connect two complete sentences: Machiavelli holds that the skill of war making is what a prince must *necessarily* make his career on, for war making is the primary means by which he can advance his state. Use a comma after an introductory clause: As the Lord of Winterfell, he carries out the execution of the deserter himself rather than assigning the dreadful task to one of his subordinates. But Or Yet So Coordinating Conjunctions
  26. 26. Form new teams for this unit. Remember, 50% of your team must be new to you! THEN, DISCUSS THE DIVISION OF LABOR FOR CICERO Questions for Critical Reading (page 129) We will come back together to go over the homework before we leave!
  27. 27. *HOMEWORK • Prepare for Essay Exam #2, an in-class exam held at our next meeting • Read A World of Ideas: Marcus Tullius Cicero "The Defense of Injustice" (119-129) • Post #21 Questions for Critical Reading: (page 129) or QHQ Cicero)