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Elit 48 c class 6 2016 special

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Elit 48 c class 6 2016 special

  1. 1. + ELIT 48C Class # 6 Complement versus Compliment Great Sweater! It looks good with those jeans! Thanks! I just bought it!
  2. 2. +  Complement is a noun or verb that means something that completes or makes up a whole: “The red sweater is a perfect complement to the outfit.”  Compliment is a noun or verb that means an expression of praise or admiration: “I received compliments about my new red sweater.”  Easily Confused or Misused Words | Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0200807.html#ixzz2T7S5NSIg
  3. 3. + AGENDA  Finish Lesbian, Gay, and Queer Theory  Lecture:  African American Criticism  Discussion:  QHQs  The Great Gatsby  Author introduction:  Susan Glaspell and Trifles
  4. 4. +QHQs: Gay, Lesbian, Queer Criticism 1. Q: What is heterocentrism and how does it affect our view of literature and the world? 2. “A better way to define a lesbian, then, is to say that she is a woman whose sexual desire is directed toward women”(Tyson 324). Q: Does that mean that a woman who is attracted to women is lesbian? Why do we still feel the need to label ourselves or others? 3. Q: What is truly considered “queer” in the heteronormative bias in society and literature?
  5. 5. +QHQs: Gay, Lesbian, Queer Criticism 1. Q: In Lois Tyson’s chapter on “Lesbian, gay, and queer criticism” she mentions the fact that many lesbians and gay men find that oppression is one of the few experiences they have in common. So why are both often times grouped together if they do not share same personal experiences? 2. Can human sexuality be accurately defined? Should there be a need to define it, or does it transcend any construct created by the human mind?
  6. 6. 1. Q: In Lois Tyson’s discussion of LGBTQ+ theory, how is it possible for essentialist and constructionist arguments for and against homosexuality to occur? QHQs: Gay, Lesbian, Queer Criticism
  7. 7. + 2. The functions of “minoritizing” and “universalizing” views of homosexuality were developed by Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick in Epistemology of the Closet
  8. 8. In the fight against homophobia, pure essentialism begins with the assumption that queers will always be the minority and that heterosexuals will always be the vast majority. Essentialists promote queer rights through arguing that gay people "can't help" being queer and saying that giving queer people equal rights will not cause anyone else to become queer. Pure social constructionism holds that in a truly liberated society where same-sex desire was not stigmatized, everyone would feel and acknowledge feeling same-sex sexual desire, and exclusive heterosexuality would fade out of existence. In order to win queer rights, heterosexuals must be liberated to see their own queer potential.
  9. 9. + Toni Morrison: American novelist, American literary critic, editor, and professor. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. : American literary critic, educator, scholar, writer, editor, and public intellectual African American Criticism
  10. 10. +The following perspectives help identify African-American criticism African American criticism notes that black writing comes out of a sociological, political, ideological, and cultural situation marked by oppression and marginalization. “Black” reading then must negotiate the difficult boundaries between textual and cultural meanings.  Black criticism has substantial ties to post-colonial criticism, and to the issues in it of the representation of the 'other” and the reclamation of identity in the forms and language of the oppressor.
  11. 11. + African American criticism has an awareness that black experience has ties to African language, cultural practices, and attitudes, that it is formed through the experience of slavery and violence, that it has endured a long and troubled negotiation with white culture, so that black artistic production in white cultures is marked by white culture positively and negatively.
  12. 12.  African American criticism is a struggle over the relation of race, reading, and critical theory, similar in some respects to that of feminist theory:  Who “speaks for” blacks?  Can only blacks “read” black literature?  Can black literature be read with the tools of contemporary criticism, or does it demand a more basic, moral and ideological commitment?
  13. 13. African American criticism examines how white writing in racist countries reveals the nature of the oppression of blacks. Toni Morrison, for instance, argues that American culture is built on, and always includes, the presence of blacks, as slaves, as outsiders. Morrison likens the unwillingness of academics in a racist society to see the place of Africanism in literature and culture to the centuries of unwillingness to see feminine discourse, concerns, and identity. She posits whiteness as the “other” of blackness, a dialectical pair (each term both creates and excludes the other): no freedom without slavery, no white without black.
  14. 14.  African American criticism is also an attempt to come to terms with the whole issue of what “race” is.  Historically race has been seen as something essential. That race is inherent, a matter of 'blood', was and is firmly believed by Americans, is clear from the recent autobiography of an American, Gregory Howard Williams, now Dean of the Law School at Ohio State, Life on the Color Line, a man who looks white, and whose father passed as Italian in Virginia, where his family was not known. He was, in Virginia, accepted and treated as white, but he was treated as black (and hence was the victim of exclusion and other prejudicial behavior) when the family returned to their home town of Muncie, Indiana: there they knew that his grandmother was black; therefore, he was black.  When is white black?-- When you have some “black blood”? Or when people know or think you have black blood?
  15. 15.  As a subject matter, any analysis of a literary work written by an African American, regardless of the theoretical framework used, might be called African American criticism, even if no attention is paid to elements in the text that are specifically African American.  However, as a theoretical framework [. . .] African American criticism foregrounds race (racial identity, African American cultural traditions, psychology, politics, and so forth) as the object of analysis because race, in America, informs our individual and cultural psychology, and therefore our literature, in profound ways. As a theoretical framework, then, African American criticism can be used to analyze any literary text that speaks to African American issues, regardless of the race of its author, although the work of African American writers is the primary focus (Tyson 394).
  16. 16. + Important Terms  In The Souls of Black Folk, arguably W.E.B. DuBois’s most famous work, he introduces and addresses two concepts that describe the quintessential Black experience in America. The first is the concept of “the veil. ”  The veil concept primarily refers to three conditions of racial difference:  The literal darker skin of Blacks, which is a physical demarcation of difference from whiteness.  White people’s lack of clarity to see Blacks as “true” Americans.  Blacks’ lack of clarity to see themselves outside of what white America describes and prescribes for them.
  17. 17. + Important Terms  The second concept that Debois introduces is “double- consciousness.” This concept is inextricably intertwined with “the veil.” The veil dampens the view of both Blacks and Whites, yet Blacks traditionally have a better understanding of whites than the reverse because of the “two-ness” lived by Black Americans. Understanding being Black and what that has historically meant (or means) in America, Black people know they operate in two Americas— one that is White and one that is Black. This is the phenomena of “double-consciousness,” the awareness of the “two-ness” of being both American and African American and the largely unconscious and instinctive shifts between the these two identities.
  18. 18. + Some questions African American critics ask about literary texts 1. What can the work teach us about the specifics of African heritage, African American culture and experience, and/or African American history? 2. What are the racial politics (ideological agendas related to racial oppression or liberation) of specific African American works?  Does the work correct stereotypes of African Americans?  Does it correct historical misrepresentations of African Americans?  Does it celebrate African American culture, experience, and achievement?  Does it explore racial issues, including, among others, the economic, social, or psychological effects of racism?  Or, does it, as can be seen in the literary production of many white authors, does the work reinforce racist ideologies?
  19. 19. + More questions African American critics ask about literary texts 3. What are the poetics (literary devices and strategies) of specific African American works?  Does the work use black vernacular or standard white English?  Does the work draw on African myths or African American folktales or folk motifs?  Does the work provide imagery that resonates with African American women’s domestic space, African American cultural practices, history, or heritage?  What are the effects of these literary devices, and how do they relate to the theme, or meaning, of the work?
  20. 20. + 4. How does the work participate in the African American literary tradition? In short, what place does it occupy in African American literary history or in African American women’s literary history? 5. How does the work illustrate interest convergences, the social construction of race, white privilege, or any other concept from critical race theory? How can an understanding of these concepts deepen our interpretation of the work? 6. How is an Africanist presence—black characters, stories about black people, representations of black speech, images associated with Africa or with blackness—used in works by white writers to construct positive portrayals of white characters?
  21. 21. + In Groups  Discuss African American Criticism, An application of AA criticism to The Great Gatsby, and your QHQs
  22. 22. + Internalized and Institutionalized Racism 1. Q: How does Internalized Racism affect literary works from African American writers? How has [it] affected the way we learn and perceive information about another group of people than ourselves? “Internalized racism often results in intra- racial racism, which refers to discrimination within the black community against those with darker skin and more African features.”
  23. 23. + Internalized and Institutionalized Racism 1. Q. If it is possible to psychologically program black people or anyone to discriminate within their race simply because society portrays as one (white people) better than the other; then why can’t we psychologically program people to realize that racism is not okay, or sexism, or any type of discrimination if we really want to change the world for the better? 2. Q: What does Tyson mean when she says, “in short, if our attitudes toward race are constructed by society, then society can reconstruct them” (382)? And despite the success of black‐pride advocates, many people of color continue to suffer from it today. Internalized racism results from the psychological programming by which a racist society indoctrinates people of color to believe in white superiority.” (362)
  24. 24. + QHQ: African American Criticism  In Tyson’s chapter on “African America Criticism”, she makes note both of how people of color have tried to assimilate into white society, and how white society has taken the culture of people of color, specifically black people. Why is their such a crucial difference in both these acts, and why is appropriation of black culture, even in literature, not an act of cultural exchange or cultural appreciation?
  25. 25. + QHQ: African American Criticism 1. Q: Can white critical theorists effectively evaluate African American texts? Can European American critical theories be applied to African American literature, while still not undermining its unique politics, qualities, and meaning— its “Afrocentricity”? 2. Q: Can, or should, white authors write characters that experience racism? 3. Q: Tyson says, “…the literary style black writers choose cannot be separated from their political views on the writer’s role as the member of an oppressed group” (364). How is this true? Why are African American art and literature considered a political statement? 4. Q: How has encoding been a successful tactic in portraying the minds and works of African American writers, and how successful were they?
  26. 26. + QHQ: African American Criticism  Q: Lois Tyson states that,“[Richard] Wright was a naturalist: he believed that the harsh, inescapable realities of racist oppression should be represented in straightforward, stark language in order to convey as powerfully as possible the evils of racism and the depth of black suffering […] [and] [Ralph] Ellison, in contrast, was a modernist: he believed that the complexities, ambiguities, and uncertainties of human experience could best be represented by ambiguous, metaphorical language and a complex narrative with multiple layers of meaning” (387). Which of these two perspectives is the best way to write about the black experience in literature?
  27. 27. + Real World Applications 1. Q: Why do some people think that criminality is an African American trait? (Or Mexican trait) 2. Q: How is the black female experience characterized in literature? 3. Should the social construct of “race” be dispensed of entirely? 4. Q: What is the impact of so many minority’s voices and perspectives being silenced in literature? 5. Q: Should the voices of middle-class people of color who do not feel that they have been victims of racism be considered “voices of color”?
  28. 28. F. Scott Fitzgerald’s grave Courtesy of Lindsay King
  29. 29. + The Great Gatsby  Q: Certain literary theories lend themselves to certain works more effectively than others, but is it possible for a literary theory to be entirely incompatible with a work of literature? For example, if one were to make the argument that The Great Gatsby does not have any underlying themes of race, would it be appropriate to apply African American literary theory to the work?  Q: According to Tyson, one of the basic tenets of critical race theory is that racism stems from an “interest convergence,” which is an overlapping interest over “something needed or desired” between two groups; often, it manifests as “material determinism” or the struggle to “advance oneself in the material world.” Given that its characters are highly materialistic, can this concept be applied to The Great Gatsby?
  30. 30. + Author: Susan Glaspell On July 1, 1882, Susan Glaspell was born in Davenport, Iowa. She excelled in academics as a student, studying Latin and journalism. After graduation from high school, she worked as a newspaper reporter for the Davenport Morning Republican, then as the society editor for the Weekly Outlook. From 1897-1899 she attended Drake University and received a Ph.D. in Philosophy.
  31. 31. At the time of her death in 1948, she had written fifty short stories, nine novels, and fourteen plays; most of these works feature strong female protagonists and stories that focus on the experiences of women. Perhaps not surprisingly, her work faded from public interest during the conservative1950s, and practically disappeared from bookshelves and the stages of amateur theatres. Yet in the past few decades, her work is being reexamined and celebrated by a new group of critics and audiences.
  32. 32. + HOMEWORK  Read Trifles (1916) pp. 252-262  Post # 6: Choose one 1. In literature, a symbol represents something else, and is often used to communicate deeper levels of meaning. What is one important symbol in Trifles? How does Glaspell use it to propel the plot and convey deeper levels of meaning about her characters or themes? 2. Write a paragraph or two on how you might apply any one of the Critical theories we have discussed to Trifles. 3. How might you read Trifles in connection with one of the modernist manifestos? 4. QHQ Trifles