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Teaching Crowds

Presentation used during a seminar given at the University of Brighton for the Centre for Learning and Teaching, December 2012

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Teaching Crowds

  1. 1. How the crowdcan teach/howto teach thecrowd Jon Dron TEKRI Athabasca University
  2. 2. Formed 1970Distance-onlyIn the middle of nowhere -40ºC=-40ºFHighly distributed faculty
  3. 3. general plan• sharing what we know• context: online, open, massive, informal, formal,• a bit of theory• share concerns• plan futures
  4. 4. getting started• why are you here?• share experiences• share concerns
  5. 5. teaching crowds
  6. 6. MOOCs• cMOOCs - Wiley, CCK08, PLENK and beyond• xMOOCs - Coursera, Udacity, edX etc• kMOOCs - Khan Academy, How Stuff Works, Learni.st, etc
  7. 7. MOOCshttp://mfeldstein.com/four-barriers-that-moocs-must-overcome-to-become-sustainable-model/
  8. 8. cMOOCs• CCK08 - about 6000 ‘students’
  9. 9. cMOOC methods• participation• aggregation• relation• creation• sharing
  10. 10. xMOOCs• >100,000 ‘students’ self-paced -> paced
  11. 11. xMOOC methods• acquisition and replication• structure• self-paced (e.g. Udacity) or paced (e.g.Coursera, edX)• teacher control• assessment (for a price)
  12. 12. kMOOC methods• digestible chunks• ad hoc help• cognitivist methods• just in time
  13. 13. not so different...We built in the opportunity for students tointeract with each other in meaningful ways andhave one student help another through the hard bitsso they could work together to achieve a betteroutcome for everyone. There was a real communitybuilt up where students felt incredibly motivatedto help each other and answer each other’squestions to the point that in the Fall quarter of 2011,the median response time for a question posted onthe forum was 22 minutes. Because there was sucha broad worldwide community of students allworking together, even if someone was working at3:00 a.m., chances are that somewhere around theworld, there would be somebody else who wasawake and thinking about the same problem. Severance, C. (2012). Teaching the World: Daphne Koller and Coursera. Computer, 45(8), 8-9.
  14. 14. drop-out rates?PLENK MOOC (from Kop, 2011 - http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/882/1689) http://cogdogblog.com/2012/11/27/owning-massive/
  15. 15. accreditation?http://openbadges.org/en-US/
  16. 16. revenue?£
  17. 17. crowds that teach
  18. 18. My network has drastically changed the way I learn. I used to learn byreading as many scholarly sources as I could find about a particular topic.Then I would form an opinion and move to the next topic. Sometimes Iwould connect topics and sometimes I would not. Since becoming a partof the digital world, I learn much differently. I actually read posts fromexperts and other educators and ask them directly for assistance. This haschanged the way I work tremendously. Now I utilize livebinder and blogsmore frequently than scholarly journals and books. When I read about anew topic, I ask questions directly of the experts in the field and solicitscholarly recommendations. Often I purchase materials recommended byexperts rather than navigate the bookstore or library individually. I havenot visited the scholarly libraries in many years. The works housed in theLaw Library and Library of Congress can be found digitally. However, myscholarly interest is often superseded by the availability and diversity oftwitter. This is perhaps my favorite learning tool. I follow experts andeducational leaders to stay abreast of current research and trends. I havefound that following experts and conferences on twitter combined withweekly Diigo and DEN updates provides access more technology than Ican utilize in one school year. This connectivist approach to learninghas opened possibilities that were previously unknown. Marla Robles - Middle school science teacher http://echoconcerns.wordpress.com/2012/12/01/reflection-on-connectivism-my-mind-map-reflection/
  19. 19. typology of social forms• Dron & Anderson
  20. 20. Groups
  21. 21. Nets
  22. 22. Sets
  23. 23. collectives
  24. 24. Sustaining ties kMOOCs, SocialMaking ties interest sites,Ad hoc networks Wikipedia, GoogleKnowledge diffusion Search, Twitter,Social capitalSocial presence Pinterest, etc CooperationEmergence SharingShifting SerendipityContextual net set Interest -orientationcMOOCs, grou Sense-makingblogs, p CollectiveLinkedIn, intelligence Intentionalsocial discoverynetworks, Collaborationetc Structure xMOOCs, classes, Roles tutorial groups, Membership learning Intention and purpose Hierarchies management The classical ‘class’ model systems, etc
  25. 25. Sustaining ties kMOOCs, SocialMaking ties interest sites,Ad hoc networks Wikipedia, GoogleKnowledge diffusion Search, Twitter,Social capitalSocial presence Pinterest, etc CooperationEmergence SharingShifting SerendipityContextual net set Interest -orientationcMOOCs, Sense-makingblogs, group CollectiveLinkedIn, intelligence Intentionalsocial discoverynetworks, Collaborationetc Structure xMOOCs, classes, Roles tutorial groups, Membership Intention and purpose learning Hierarchies management The classical ‘class’ model systems, etc
  26. 26. Sustaining ties kMOOCs, SocialMaking ties interest sites,Ad hoc networks Wikipedia, GoogleKnowledge diffusion Search, Twitter,Social capitalSocial presence Pinterest, etc CooperationEmergence SharingShifting SerendipityContextual net set Interest -orientationcMOOCs, Sense-makingblogs, group CollectiveLinkedIn, intelligence Intentionalsocial discoverynetworks, Collaborationetc Structure xMOOCs, classes, Roles tutorial groups, Membership learning Intention and purpose Hierarchies management The classical ‘class’ model systems, etc
  27. 27. examples Wikipedia editors Subject area mailing lists alumni networks Social networks - Subject areas friends, work, Geographically community collocated people net setad-hoc learning networks group Universitiesclubs & societies departments Communities of practice companies nations Classes Tribes Tutorial groups Seminars Project teams
  28. 28. classes seminars etc communitiesCommunities group of practice of interest sharing, communication, collective Tribes et intelligence n s Topics e t Social networks Circles
  29. 29. usesSustaining ties collective CooperationMaking ties SharingAd hoc networks SerendipityKnowledge diffusion Interest -orientationSocial capital net set Sense-makingSocial presence Collective intelligence Intentional group discovery Courses Committees Research groups Study groups Centres and departments 15
  30. 30. Generations of distance learning pedagogies 1.Behaviourist/CognitiPrivate hard indiv- ve – Self Paced, idual Individual Study, 2.Social constructivist group – Groups, classes 3.Connectivist –Public Networks net soft 4.Holist - Sets and Collectives set Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2011). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. International Review of Research on Distance and Open Learning, 12(3), 80-97
  31. 31. choice <> control
  32. 32. ive r t a s e m p o o d o eC re f Pla ce e Tim Content Pace Ac ce ss iu m Med http://www.slideshare.net/moutta/cooperative-freedom-simple-approach
  33. 33. ive r t + a + e s p m o o o dC e Disc fr e Place lo sure De t l n eg te a n tio Co n Time Pace iu m M et ed ho d M Rela tions hip Tec hno logy 33
  34. 34. Control in social systems Collective control Individual Negotiated Teacher control control controlOwnership, collaboration, hierarchies, autonomy dialogue structure Cooperation, sharing
  35. 35. pacedgroup f2f Disc losu Place re De le tn ga te tio n Co nTime PaceM iu m et ho ed d Rela M tions logy hip hno Tec
  36. 36. pacedgrouponline Place Disc losu re De le g tn te at n io Co n Time PaceM iu m et ho ed d M Rela tions h i p ec hno logy T
  37. 37. network Disc losu Place re De le nt ga te n tio Co n Time Pace M iu m et ho ed d M Rela tions logy hip c hno Te
  38. 38. set Disc losu Pl ace re De le nt ga te tio n Co n Time Pace M iu m et ho ed d M Rela tions logy hip c hno Te
  39. 39. choice <> control
  40. 40. Collectiveoverviewcapture process display
  41. 41. Collective types e.g. ant nest tidying e.g. termites, ant trails, money markets Wikipedia editse.g. flocks, shoals, herds, direct stigmergic e.g. 2nd Life crowds mediated e.g., tag clouds, Google Search e.g.reputation systems, rating systems, collaborative filters
  42. 42. example
  43. 43. Self-paced• Any time, any place• No cohorts• No schedules• 6 months to finish from the start date
  44. 44. Production lines
  45. 45. Once upona time...text-book wraparound formal assignments, based on a book formative quizzesproblem-solving forum in-person proctored examinations
  46. 46. Problems• sociability vs control• inflexibility• cheating• teaching programming• motivation• authenticity
  47. 47. not well-loved
  48. 48. loneliness
  49. 49. inflexibility
  50. 50. cheats
  51. 51. programming
  52. 52. motivation Control Competence Connectedness(Ryan & Deci Self-determination Theory)
  53. 53. this had to change
  54. 54. Process present a solution• single artefact, always unique• incremental, iterative• OERs and brief intros• constructionist approach• plentiful practice• reflections• cooperation come up with an idea
  55. 55. Moodle + Elgg
  56. 56. assessment• portfolio assembly• reflective diaries• formative stop- points• self-test exercises• mapped outcomes
  57. 57. grades for outcomes• No assessed assignments• Grades for evidence each intended competence• any evidence will do - problem solving, bookmark sharing, hints shared, whatever
  58. 58. stopping cheating• Re ac ca rt o on ey es fac tb uild ing tiv la rte ing e n ta e increm orize co s py val -po int st op es ny ey ns ive m a ex pe at ing gc he m a kin trac man king iv e aut om y ey t a t at e es v e n s er ve r d to ols P re lo g s
  59. 59. ive r t a s e m p o o d o eC re f S p ac e C on t ent De leg ati e on Tim hip ns Pace Relatio Me tho um d e di Technology M 60
  60. 60. it works...“I find that this is a perfectway to teach a course onweb programming. Itmakes the course moreinteresting and engagingfor students.” but...
  61. 61. some problems usability scaffolding novelty tutor engagement scalability
  62. 62. concerns
  63. 63. futures
  64. 64. thank you http://jondron.orgjond@athabascau.cajond@athabascau.cajond@athabascau.ca

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