3. What is Psychology?
The term psychology comes from the
Greek roots psyche meaning soul or
mind and logos meaning word or
4. What is Psychology?
Psychology is the science of human behavior
and mental processes.
Behavior is anything we do
‐ overt actions and reactions
Mental processes are our internal
‐ thoughts, feelings, memories…
5. Why study Psychology?
Psychology helps us scientifically evaluate
common beliefs and misconceptions about
behavior and mental processes.
Can you identify which of the beliefs on the
following slide are true or false?
6. The best way to learn and
remember information is to
“cram,” or study it
intensively during one
This is the worst way to prepare for an
exam! Don’t confuse this for a quicker
method of study- students who cram often
perform more poorly than those who do
not study at all!
This disorder is very misunderstood
among the general public. People often
confuse this disorder with Multiple
Personality Disorder, now known as
Dissociative Identity Disorder
18. How did you do?
This quiz was a brief illustration of how
psychological information is often misunderstood.
Psychology is NOT limited to “common sense”
We will examine each of these questions in detail
through the course of this class
30. Psychology’s roots began in
philosophy, but the focus
changed to a scientific
This scientific focus remains today.
31. Where did Psychology come
The first psychological laboratory was not
created until 1879 by Wilhelm Wundt.
Wundt was responsible for creating the first
school of psychological thought called
‐ This school focused only on immediate conscious
experience and thought.
32. Problems with Structuralism
This group of Psychologists used a
technique called Introspection which
was a process of self-examination
where the person described and
analyzed thoughts as they occurred.
33. Think on your own…
What are some potential
problems with this type of
34. Structuralism…the first step
The focus of study was way too narrow
They studied people only like themselves-
very wealthy white males.
No valid research was produced
This school of thought was a great start, but
no longer exists.
35. The Next Evolution
Functionalism is the second perspective to
emerge, founded by William James.
They studied how and why the mind functions.
This perspective broadened the scope of
psychology and applied psychology to practical
This perspective still focused on consciousness but
began to examine overt behavior, not just mental
37. Psychological Perspectives
Psychologists have different ways of looking at
behavior…click on the links to learn more about
each area of psychology!
‐ Psychoanalytic perspective
‐ Behaviorist perspective
‐ Humanistic perspective
‐ Cognitive perspective
‐ Biopsychology perspective
‐ Social psychological perspective
‐ Evolutionary perspective
See p. 12
38. Who hasn’t heard of Freud?
This is one of the most well-known
psychological perspectives in history
developed by Sigmund Freud.
Freud believed that emotional problems are
due to anxiety from unresolved conflicts that
reside in unconscious
39. Psychoanalytic Theory
Freud was an early pioneer in treating
emotional disorders and was the first to
provide counseling and therapy to patients.
Free association and dream interpretation
were developed technique to explore the
40. Psychoanalytic Theory
Freud was one of the first to treat emotional
Freud’s theories were the first to suggest that
our childhood experiences impact our adult
‐ The first to provide therapy for patients.
‐ Developed dream interpretation and free
41. Think on your own…
Do childhood experiences
affect adult life?
What are some childhood experiences
that you feel have shaped who you are
now as an adult?
42. Behaviorism…the opposite of
Behaviorism was founded by John Watson in
direct opposition to Psychoanalytic Theory.
Behaviorism focused on behavior that can be
measured and observable. This returned the
scientific approach to psychology.
‐ We can describe, predict, and control that behavior.
44. Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychology believes that behaviors are
performed because of ideas and thoughts.
The cognitive perspective focuses on such
processes as perception, memory, and thinking
That’s what this area of psychology believes and
Cognitive psychology currently exerts a strong
influence in psychology.
45. Biopsychology Perspective
How biological factors affect mental processes
and how the brain effects behavior.
Behavior and biology interact in important ways,
and we will discuss the impact of this field when
examining psychopharmacology, development
47. Research and Professional
Areas in Psychology
Educational and School
48. Developmental: Looks at human development across the life span.
Developmental psychology once focused primarily on child development
but today devotes a great deal of research to adolescence, adulthood,
and old age.
Social: Focuses on interpersonal behavior and the role of social forces in
governing behavior. Typical topics include attitude formation, attitude
change, prejudice, conformity, attraction, aggression, intimate
relationships, and behavior in groups.
Experimental: Encompasses the traditional core of topics such as
sensation, perception, learning, conditioning, motivation and emotion.
Physiological: Examines the influence of genetic factors on behavior
and the role of the brain, nervous system, endocrine system, and bodily
chemicals in the regulation of behavior.
Cognitive: Focuses on “higher” mental processes such as memory,
reasoning, information processing, language, problem solving, decision
making, and creativity.
Personality: Interested in describing and understanding individuals’
consistency in behavior, which represents their personality. This area is
interested in factors that shape personality and with personality
49. Clinical: Concerned with evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of
individuals with psychological disorders, as well as treatment of individuals
with psychological disorders, as well as treatment of less severe
behavioral and emotional problems. Principal activities include
interviewing clients, psychological testing, and providing group and
Counseling: Overlaps with clinical psychology in that specialists in both
areas engage in similar activities – interviewing, testing, and providing
therapy. Counseling psychologists usually work with a somewhat different
clientele, providing assistance to people struggling with everyday
problems of moderate severity – they specialize in family, marital, or
Educational: Work to improve curriculum design, achievement testing,
teacher training, and other aspects of the educational process. School
psychologists usually work in elementary or secondary schools, where
they test and counsel children having difficulties in school and aid parents
and teachers in solving school-related problems.
I/O: Perform a wide variety of tasks in the world of business and industry.
These tasks include running human resources departments, working to
improve staff morale and attitudes, striving to increase job satisfaction and
productivity, examining organizational structures and procedures, and
making recommendations for improvements.
50. Think on your own..
Where do Psychologist’s Work?
Make a list of potential work places or
jobs for psychologists.
52. Applied Psychologists
The remaining 3/4ths work in hospitals, clinics,
police departments, research institutes,
government agencies, business and industry,
schools, nursing homes, counseling centers, and
54. What can you do with a degree in
Click on the links below to find out more.
‐ General Psychology
‐ Industrial/Organizational Psychology
‐ Educational Psychology
‐ Social Psychology
‐ School Psychology
‐ Clinical Psychology
‐ Developmental Psychology
‐ Counseling Psychology
55. Psychology Today
Until the 1960s, psychology was principally a
profession made up of white males, this is
Today, women earn 73% of bachelor’s
degrees in psychology, and 66% of new
Ethnic minorities make up 28% of the APA
Hispanic & African-Americans each receive
only about 5% of new Ph.D.’s
57. Next we will talk about why
psychology is a science, which
requires critical thinking. Use your
imagination and “think outside the
box” on this next puzzle.
58. A man dressed entirely in black
and wearing a black mask, is
standing in the middle of a
crossroad. All of the streetlights
at the intersection are broken. A
car speeds down the road,
heading straight for the man, yet
it turns in time and doesn't hit
59. Did You Get It?
The driver of the car avoided hitting the
man wearing only black because it was
These “Lateral Thinking” exercises are a
great example of how psychologists think
critically about psychological questions.