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AP Euro_CH 16.1

17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding; Absolutism in France and Spain

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AP Euro_CH 16.1

  1. 1. M A G I S T E R R I C A R D A P E U R O 1 7 T H C E N T U R Y C R I S I S A N D R E B U I L D I N G A N D A B S O L U T I S M I N F R A N C E A N D S P A I N CH 16: Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western Europe (1589-1715)
  2. 2. Questions to Consider  How absolute were the absolute monarchs?  To what extent did absolute and constitutional monarchs use different methods to achieve similar ends?  What are the conditions that promoted the rise of absolutism in France and constitutionalism in England?
  3. 3. C H A P T E R 1 6 : A B S O L U T I S M A N D C O N S T I T U T I O N A L I S M I N W E S T E R N E U R O P E ( 1 5 8 9 - 1 7 1 5 ) 17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding
  4. 4. Economic and Demographic Crisis  Vast majority of 17th century Europeans lived in rural settings  Bread was the primary element of diet  Rural societies lived on edge of subsistence  Poor weather conditions further stressed agriculture and industry  Peasants and urban poor suffered most from bad harvests and economic depression
  5. 5. 17th Century State Building Common Obstacles and Achievements  Both constitutional and absolutist monarchs attempted to:  Protect and expand frontiers  Raise new taxes  Consolidate state control  State building faced considerable obstacles  Privileged groups (nobility) resisted centralization of European monarchies  Most states succeeded, achieving new levels of central control  Larger, more powerful states required new sources of revenue
  6. 6. Warfare and the Growth of Army Size  Driving force behind 17th century expansion was warfare  Armies grew larger, more professional, and more expensive  War becomes a source of revenue
  7. 7. Popular Political Action  Popular revolts (populus) were common in England, France, Spain, Portugal, and Italy during 17th century  In France, so common it became accepted as a fact of life  Authorities were often unable to overcome popular revolts, did not have the means  By the end of the 17th century, states were better able to handle revolts and popular discontent
  8. 8. C H A P T E R 1 6 : A B S O L U T I S M A N D C O N S T I T U T I O N A L I S M I N W E S T E R N E U R O P E ( 1 5 8 9 - 1 7 1 5 ) Absolutism in France and Spain
  9. 9. Foundations of French Absolutism: Henry IV, Sully, and Richelieu  Henry IV lowered taxes on peasants  His chief minister, Sully, streamlined tax collection  As economy grew, tax revenue increased  In 1598, Henry IV issues Edict of Nantes  Henry is assassinated in 1610  Marie de Medici (queen) rules until Louis XIII comes of age  Appointed Cardinal Richelieu in 1624
  10. 10. Foundations of French Absolutism: Henry IV, Sully, and Richelieu  Cardinal Richelieu appointed to council of ministers in 1628 (Louis XIII r. 1610-1643)  Richelieu curbed power of the nobility  Reshuffled royal council  Leveled castles  Executed conspirators against the king  Divided France into 30 generalites, each overseen by one intendant
  11. 11. Foundations of French Absolutism: Henry IV, Sully, and Richelieu  Intendants were beholden to the king  Appointed from newer nobility of the robe (not older nobility of the sword)  Recruited soldiers  Supervised tax collection  Kept an eye on local nobility  Administered local law  Regulated economic activity
  12. 12. Foundations of French Absolutism: Henry IV, Sully, and Richelieu  In 1627, Louis XIII ended Protestant independence  Revoking the Edict of Nantes  During later 17th century urban revolts increase over high taxation  After deaths of Louis XIII and Richelieu, Mazarin provokes aristocratic rebellion known as Fronde (1648-1653)  The Fronde convince Louis XIV only alternative to anarchy is absolute monarchy
  13. 13. Louis XIV and Absolutism  Secures the collaboration of nobility in projects that increased his prestige and theirs  Royal court at Versailles becomes a tool for state policy  Overawes subjects and dignitaries  Becomes copied by other monarchs  French language and culture become prestigious and fashionable all over Europe
  14. 14. Louis XIV and Absolutism  Louis XIV used court ceremonies, entertainment, spies, and informers to reduce the power of nobility  In 1685 formally revokes Edict of Nantes  Views it as an affront to his power  French monarch never intended religious toleration to be permanent  Religious liberty not a popular policy  Had a negative impact on economy and foreign affairs  Staffs administration with members of nobility of the robe and upper middle class  Shows Louis XIV will not share power
  15. 15. Financial and Economic Management Under Louis XIV: Colbert  Financial problems weakened Louis XIV’s administration  Tax revenues fell short of needs (deficit)  Tax exemptions for nobility/elites placed burden on peasants  Chief financial minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, used subsidies for domestic industries, tariffs, and policies to attract foreign artisans  Makes France self-sufficient and boosts French exports (mercantilism)  Expands French navy, merchant marine, promotes colonization in North America
  16. 16. Louis XIV’s Wars  France was at war 33 of 54 years of his reign  Developed large and efficient military which answered to him directly  Grabbed new territory in the Low Countries and Lorraine before running out of steam in 1680s  High taxes and bad weather lead to mass starvation in areas of France (1688-1694)
  17. 17. Louis XIV’s Wars  King Charles II of Spain dies in 1700  Spanish throne passes to Louis XIV’s grandson  England, Holland, Austria, and Prussia unite against France to preserve European balance of power  Need to check French expansion in the Americas, Asia, and Africa  Knows as the War of the Spanish Succession  Ends in 1713 with Peace of Utrecht  Checks France, finishes Spain as a great power, expands English overseas empire
  18. 18. Decline of Absolutist Spain  Absolutism in Spain precedes France’s  During the 1500’s Castile develops characteristics of absolute monarchy  Gold and silver from Americas basis for Spanish power  By 1715, Spain was a 2nd rate power  Agricultural crisis  Population decline  Lack of a middle class, brought about by expulsion of Jews and Muslims  Lack of investment in productive enterprises
  19. 19. Colonial Administration  How was Spain able to rule a vast empire in the Americas?  New World territories divided into 4 viceroyalties  Charles III (r. 1759-1788) introduced system of intendants  Spanish policies based on mercantilism  Portuguese governed Brazil in a similar fashion