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Dark Patterns through
the lens of Accessibility
Presented at
A11yCampBay 2019
by @JoeDevon
What are
Dark
Patterns?
“A user interface
that has been
carefully crafted to
trick users into
doing things”
—DarkPatterns....
A little video example
I came across while researching Dark Patterns
Joe Devon’s
Background
Agenda:
1. Background of Dark Patterns research
2. Show examples
3. Hear YOUR experiences with each pattern
from #a11y per...
History of
Dark Patterns
Harry Brignull (@harrybr)
coined the term
Brignull started a website,
DarkPatterns.org dedicate...
Brignull’s 12
Dark Patterns
1. Bait and Switch
2. Confirmshaming
3. Disguised Ads
4. Forced Continuity
5. Friend Spam
6. H...
Something is missing
Anything bother you about this list?
The last Dark Pattern was personal
The categorization is lack...
Wikipedia entry is light
Onto Newspapers.com
Archive.org had the answer
Be a good Citizen, update Wikipedia
Good ole
Reddit
And finally
found some
academics
on it at UXP2
Time to be a good Citizen again, Wikidata
this time
Finally have a robust framework: Purdue
Purdue’s Strategy #1: Nagging
“Redirection of
expected
functionality that
persists beyond
one or more
interactions”
Map Service Doozy
You are nagged constantly to enable
location services
Map Service Doozy
Continued
NOW you can select “Don’t show
again”
Music Service Example
“Music service
requires you to opt
out of sharing
EVERY 6 HOURS”
Brignull’s
Confirm
Shaming
“The act of guilting
the user into
opting in…The
option to decline is
worded in such a
way as t...
Electronics
Co. shames
users into
opting in
Magazine
shames user
into
subscribing
Last thoughts on Strategy #1: Nagging?
Do you have an example of Purdue’s
Nagging Strategy you want to share?
Purdue Strategy #2: Obstruction
“Making a process
more difficult than it
needs to be, with the
intent of dissuading
certai...
Dropdown
Hijacking by
Survey
Company
Dropdown
Hijacking –
Where did
the
dropdown
go?
Brignull’s
Roach Motel
“The design makes
it very easy for you
to get into a
certain situation,
but then makes it
hard for ...
There is no
way to
unsubscribe
from this
Streaming
Sports channel
If you want to
close an
account w/
this postal
service
provider you
must call
Brignull’s
Forced
Continuity
“When your free trial
with a service comes
to an end and your
credit card silently
starts get...
Streaming
Service makes
it hard to
unsubscribe
after 30 day
trial
Brignull’s
Price
Comparison
Prevention
“The retailer makes
it hard for you to
compare the price
of an item with
another it...
Unclear what
features each
tier offers. Free
tier lets you
browse only.
Useless w/o
paid account
Last thoughts on Strategy #2: Obstruction?
Do you have an example of Purdue’s
Obstruction Strategy you want to share?
Purdue’s Strategy #3: Sneaking
“Attempting to hide,
disguise, or delay
the divulging of
information that is
relevant to th...
Brignull’s
Sneak Into
Basket
“You attempt to
purchase something,
but somewhere in
the purchasing
journey the site
sneaks a...
When you
purchase one
thing, the
fine print
auto signs
you up for
membership
Brignull’s Bait
& Switch
“The user sets out
to do one thing,
but a different,
undesirable thing
happens instead”
Operating
System tricks
users into
upgrading I
Operating
System tricks
users into
upgrading II
Operating
System tricks
users into
upgrading III
Brignull’s
Hidden Costs
“You get to the last
step of the
checkout process,
only to discover
some unexpected
charges have
a...
Travel site
advertises
rates 250%
lower than
total price!
Brignull’s
Misdirection
“The design
purposefully
focuses your
attention on one
thing in order to
distract your
attention f...
Total price
appears to be
327, the taxes
& service
charge are
obscured
Last thoughts on Strategy #3: Sneaking?
Do you have an example of Purdue’s
Sneaking Strategy you want to share?
Purdue’s Strategy #4: Interface Interference
“Manipulation of
the user interface
that privileges
certain actions
over othe...
Brignull’s
Trick
Questions
“You respond to a
question, which,
when glanced
upon quickly
appears to ask one
thing, but if r...
Double
negative to
trick you into
subscribing
Brignull’s
Disguised
Ads
“Adverts that are
disguised as other
kinds of content or
navigation, in
order to get you to
click...
Search
Engine
makes paid
ads look like
search results
Tiny X
Tricky X
Dropdown confusion
Change default search engine on software upgrade
Unlabeled unsubscribe
Newspaper Example spans 4 strategies!
Newspaper Example spans 4 categories!
Newspaper Example FAQ
Newspaper Example finally a price: $7/wk
Last thoughts on #4: Interface Interference?
Do you have an example of Purdue’s
Interface Interference Strategy you want t...
Purdue #5: Forced Action
“Requiring the user to perform a
certain action to access (or
continue to access) certain
functio...
Brignull’s
Friend Spam
“The product asks for
your email or social
media permissions
under the pretense it will
be used for...
Users
pressured to
invite friends
to access
certain
features
Brignull’s
Privacy
Zuckering
“You are tricked
into publicly
sharing more
information about
yourself than you
really intend...
Privacy Zuckering Example
Tricked into
sharing health
data
Example Continued
Tricked into
sharing health
data
Case Study:
Canadian
Bank
Case Study
continued:
Pages of
Forced Ads
Case Study
continued:
Opt-out not
styled like a
button
Last thoughts on Strategy #5: Forced Action?
Do you have an example of Purdue’s Forced
Action Strategy you want to share?
More Research needed
I suggest contacting the researchers and urging them
to include Accessibility as a separate category...
Thank you!
Any questions?
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Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 1 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 2 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 3 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 4 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 5 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 6 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 7 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 8 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 9 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 10 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 11 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 12 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 13 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 14 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 15 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 16 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 17 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 18 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 19 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 20 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 21 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 22 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 23 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 24 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 25 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 26 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 27 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 28 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 29 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 30 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 31 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 32 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 33 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 34 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 35 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 36 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 37 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 38 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 39 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 40 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 41 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 42 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 43 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 44 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 45 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 46 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 47 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 48 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 49 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 50 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 51 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 52 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 53 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 54 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 55 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 56 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 57 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 58 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 59 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 60 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 61 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 62 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 63 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 64 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 65 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 66 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 67 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 68 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 69 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 70 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 71 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 72 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 73 Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility Slide 74
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Exploring Dark Patterns with a conversation about how these patterns affect folks who use assistive technology

Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility

  1. 1. Dark Patterns through the lens of Accessibility Presented at A11yCampBay 2019 by @JoeDevon
  2. 2. What are Dark Patterns? “A user interface that has been carefully crafted to trick users into doing things” —DarkPatterns.org
  3. 3. A little video example I came across while researching Dark Patterns
  4. 4. Joe Devon’s Background
  5. 5. Agenda: 1. Background of Dark Patterns research 2. Show examples 3. Hear YOUR experiences with each pattern from #a11y perspective
  6. 6. History of Dark Patterns Harry Brignull (@harrybr) coined the term Brignull started a website, DarkPatterns.org dedicated to popularizing the Pattern Library Identified12 Dark Patterns denoted on the next slide
  7. 7. Brignull’s 12 Dark Patterns 1. Bait and Switch 2. Confirmshaming 3. Disguised Ads 4. Forced Continuity 5. Friend Spam 6. Hidden Costs 7. Misdirection 8. Price Comparison Prevention 9. Roach Motel 10.Sneak into Basket 11.Trick Questions 12.Privacy Zuckering
  8. 8. Something is missing Anything bother you about this list? The last Dark Pattern was personal The categorization is lacking robustness
  9. 9. Wikipedia entry is light
  10. 10. Onto Newspapers.com
  11. 11. Archive.org had the answer
  12. 12. Be a good Citizen, update Wikipedia
  13. 13. Good ole Reddit
  14. 14. And finally found some academics on it at UXP2
  15. 15. Time to be a good Citizen again, Wikidata this time
  16. 16. Finally have a robust framework: Purdue
  17. 17. Purdue’s Strategy #1: Nagging “Redirection of expected functionality that persists beyond one or more interactions”
  18. 18. Map Service Doozy You are nagged constantly to enable location services
  19. 19. Map Service Doozy Continued NOW you can select “Don’t show again”
  20. 20. Music Service Example “Music service requires you to opt out of sharing EVERY 6 HOURS”
  21. 21. Brignull’s Confirm Shaming “The act of guilting the user into opting in…The option to decline is worded in such a way as to shame the user into compliance”
  22. 22. Electronics Co. shames users into opting in
  23. 23. Magazine shames user into subscribing
  24. 24. Last thoughts on Strategy #1: Nagging? Do you have an example of Purdue’s Nagging Strategy you want to share?
  25. 25. Purdue Strategy #2: Obstruction “Making a process more difficult than it needs to be, with the intent of dissuading certain action(s)”
  26. 26. Dropdown Hijacking by Survey Company
  27. 27. Dropdown Hijacking – Where did the dropdown go?
  28. 28. Brignull’s Roach Motel “The design makes it very easy for you to get into a certain situation, but then makes it hard for you to get out of it (e.g. a subscription)”
  29. 29. There is no way to unsubscribe from this Streaming Sports channel
  30. 30. If you want to close an account w/ this postal service provider you must call
  31. 31. Brignull’s Forced Continuity “When your free trial with a service comes to an end and your credit card silently starts getting charged without any warning. You are then not given an easy way to cancel the automatic renewal”
  32. 32. Streaming Service makes it hard to unsubscribe after 30 day trial
  33. 33. Brignull’s Price Comparison Prevention “The retailer makes it hard for you to compare the price of an item with another item, so you cannot make an informed decision”
  34. 34. Unclear what features each tier offers. Free tier lets you browse only. Useless w/o paid account
  35. 35. Last thoughts on Strategy #2: Obstruction? Do you have an example of Purdue’s Obstruction Strategy you want to share?
  36. 36. Purdue’s Strategy #3: Sneaking “Attempting to hide, disguise, or delay the divulging of information that is relevant to the user”
  37. 37. Brignull’s Sneak Into Basket “You attempt to purchase something, but somewhere in the purchasing journey the site sneaks an additional item into your basket, often through the use of an opt-out radio button or checkbox on a prior page”
  38. 38. When you purchase one thing, the fine print auto signs you up for membership
  39. 39. Brignull’s Bait & Switch “The user sets out to do one thing, but a different, undesirable thing happens instead”
  40. 40. Operating System tricks users into upgrading I
  41. 41. Operating System tricks users into upgrading II
  42. 42. Operating System tricks users into upgrading III
  43. 43. Brignull’s Hidden Costs “You get to the last step of the checkout process, only to discover some unexpected charges have appeared, e.g. delivery charges, tax, etc”
  44. 44. Travel site advertises rates 250% lower than total price!
  45. 45. Brignull’s Misdirection “The design purposefully focuses your attention on one thing in order to distract your attention from another”
  46. 46. Total price appears to be 327, the taxes & service charge are obscured
  47. 47. Last thoughts on Strategy #3: Sneaking? Do you have an example of Purdue’s Sneaking Strategy you want to share?
  48. 48. Purdue’s Strategy #4: Interface Interference “Manipulation of the user interface that privileges certain actions over others”
  49. 49. Brignull’s Trick Questions “You respond to a question, which, when glanced upon quickly appears to ask one thing, but if read carefully, asks another thing entirely.”
  50. 50. Double negative to trick you into subscribing
  51. 51. Brignull’s Disguised Ads “Adverts that are disguised as other kinds of content or navigation, in order to get you to click on them”
  52. 52. Search Engine makes paid ads look like search results
  53. 53. Tiny X
  54. 54. Tricky X
  55. 55. Dropdown confusion
  56. 56. Change default search engine on software upgrade
  57. 57. Unlabeled unsubscribe
  58. 58. Newspaper Example spans 4 strategies!
  59. 59. Newspaper Example spans 4 categories!
  60. 60. Newspaper Example FAQ
  61. 61. Newspaper Example finally a price: $7/wk
  62. 62. Last thoughts on #4: Interface Interference? Do you have an example of Purdue’s Interface Interference Strategy you want to share?
  63. 63. Purdue #5: Forced Action “Requiring the user to perform a certain action to access (or continue to access) certain functionality”
  64. 64. Brignull’s Friend Spam “The product asks for your email or social media permissions under the pretense it will be used for a desirable outcome (e.g. finding friends), but then spams all your contacts in a message that claims to be from you”
  65. 65. Users pressured to invite friends to access certain features
  66. 66. Brignull’s Privacy Zuckering “You are tricked into publicly sharing more information about yourself than you really intended to. Named after Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg”
  67. 67. Privacy Zuckering Example Tricked into sharing health data
  68. 68. Example Continued Tricked into sharing health data
  69. 69. Case Study: Canadian Bank
  70. 70. Case Study continued: Pages of Forced Ads
  71. 71. Case Study continued: Opt-out not styled like a button
  72. 72. Last thoughts on Strategy #5: Forced Action? Do you have an example of Purdue’s Forced Action Strategy you want to share?
  73. 73. More Research needed I suggest contacting the researchers and urging them to include Accessibility as a separate category of research Children are another category deserving of attention, as they are more likely to be impacted by Dark Patterns Anyone have more to add on the Research Angle?
  74. 74. Thank you! Any questions?
  • JeremySeda1

    Jul. 2, 2020
  • webaxe

    Mar. 19, 2019

Exploring Dark Patterns with a conversation about how these patterns affect folks who use assistive technology

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