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Introduction to the Philosophy of the Human Person - Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

This is a powerpoint presentation that discusses about one of the core subjects in the k-12 curriculum of the Senior High School: Introduction to the Philosophy of the Human Person. On this presentation, it discusses about the definition and philosophical definition of inductive and deductive reasoning with philosophers who pioneered it.

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Introduction to the Philosophy of the Human Person - Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

  1. 1. INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE REASONING Introduction to the Philosophy of the Human Person
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Truth lies at the heart of any inquiry. It is a term to classify any data that has been verified as factual. • Logic – analysis and appraisal of given arguments
  3. 3. SIR FRANCIS BACON • English Philosopher • Served as Attorney-General of England • While still in college, he rejected the idea of Aristotelianism and Scholasticism • Pioneer of Empiricism (Inductive Reasoning)
  4. 4. RENE DESCARTES • French philosopher and mathematician • Known for the Cartesian Plane • Graduated with a Baccalaureat and Licence degree in Law at Université de Poitiers • Pioneer of Deductive Reasoning
  5. 5. RENE DESCARTES • Known for his saying in French: “Et remarquant que cette vérité, je pense, donc je suis ’’ Latin: ‘’Ac proinde haec cognitio, ego cogito, ergo sum’’ English: “As I observed as this truth, I think, therefore, I am”
  6. 6. DEFINITION OF REASONING • It is a capacity of man of consciously thinking about applying or justifying in a critically and logical way
  7. 7. DEFINITION OF PREMISE • It is a statement that an argument claims will induce or justify a conclusion.
  8. 8. INDUCTIVE REASONING • Also called as “Socratic Reasoning” because Greek philosophers Socrates, then Aristotle, popularized the usage of it • Making specific arguments from generalized or broad argument • General → Specific
  9. 9. DEDUCTIVE REASONING • Making generalized or broad conclusions from specific arguments or idea • Specific → General
  10. 10. EXAMPLE: INDUCTIVE REASONING: Aristotle is a Greek Greeks are polytheists Therefore, Aristotle is a polytheist
  11. 11. EXAMPLE: DEDUCTIVE REASONING: All birds have beaks An ostrich has a beak Therefore, an ostrich is a bird
  12. 12. MODUS TOLLENS • “Reasoning of Contrapositive Premises” • It is a deductive rule that are used in inference or predictions • The conclusion usually contradicts the first premise
  13. 13. EXAMPLE: MODUS TOLLENS: Usually, it is a sunny day if there is low cloud coverage Right now, there is a high cloud coverage Therefore, it is not a sunny day
  14. 14. ABDUCTIVE REASONING • Also called as “retroduction” • Pioneered by Charles Sanders Pierce, an American philosopher • It abduces (or take away) a logical assumption, explanation, inference, conclusion, hypothesis, or best guess from an observation or set of observations. • The conclusion may not always be true
  15. 15. EXAMPLE: ABDUCTIVE REASONING: All mammals don’t lay eggs Duck-billed Platypus lays eggs So, duck-billed platypus is not a mammal