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3.2.1 Models of Health

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3.2.1 Models of Health

  1. 1. 3.2.1 Models of health and health promotion including: •Biomedical model of health •Social model of health •The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion Key Skills: The ability to • analyse the different approaches to health and health promotion;
  2. 2. The language of health: some key words  Diagnosis: identification of a disease or illness through medical observation of signs and symptoms, the patient’s history and tests  Intervention: any action to improve health or cure illness including the use of medication, hospitalisation or surgery  Prevention: any action to reduce or eliminate the onset, causes, complications or recurrence of disease or illness
  3. 3. Assessment  Student must be able to:  Explain / outline / define the models of health  Identify the major components of each model  Suggest ways that each model could be used to address a particular health concern  Evaluate each model with regards to likely success in various situations  Identify aspects of the models of health in case studies  Advantages and disadvantages
  4. 4. What is a health model?  Models of health are ‘conceptual frameworks’ or ways of thinking about health  Three such models are:  The Biomedical Model of Health  The Social Model of Health  The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion
  5. 5. Definition – Biomedical Model of Health  Focuses on the physical or biological aspects of disease and illness. It is a medical model of care practised by doctors and/or health professional and is associated with the diagnosis, cure and treatment of disease. (VCAA HHD Study Design)
  6. 6. Biomedical Model of Health  Has been evolving for many years leading to improvements in medical science, technology, increase in cures and treatments ie: increase in vaccinations /immunizations  Emphasis on diagnosis and treating individuals separately from their lifestyle/living conditions – this model of health concentrates on the disease, illness, or disability and attempts to (cure) return the physical health of the person to a pre-illness state. The reasons for the illness are not at the centre of the biomedical model.  Tends to be the first thing people think of when they think of health care  Receives the majority of government healthcare funding (over 90%)
  7. 7. Biomedical Model of Health  Dominant for many years and played a large role in prolonging life expectancy  Bio- living or living organism  Medical- science of diagnosing-curing disease.  In the biomedical approach Dr’s and hospitals are the real focus of medicine or health. The expectation being that the Dr will be able to fix the condition and the patient will take on a passive role.  The 2 aspects of the biomedical approach are:  Diagnosis: identification of the disease or illness through Dr’s observations of symptoms or through diagnostic tests e.g. X rays, Scans, blood tests  Intervention: action taken to improve health e.g. via medical treatment, hospitalisation, prescriptions, surgery etc. ****medical intervention with a fix it approach
  8. 8. Examples of the Biomedical Model  X-rays Diagnosis – identification  Scans of a disease or illness through a doctor’s  Blood Test observation, or through the  Ultrasound use of specific diagnostic  Mammograms tests.  Pap smear tests Intervention/treatment –  Prescription Medicine refers to any action that is  Surgery taken to improve health  Hospitalisation
  9. 9. Biomedical Model of Health  The WHO defines Health as “A complete state of physical , social and mental wellbeing, and not merely the absence of disease of infirmity” (WHO 1946)  Does the Biomedical model of health address this definition? Explain
  10. 10. Advantages  It creates advances in technology and research  Without this model of health there would be little known about how to treat and diagnose illnesses  Many common problems can be effectively treated  Diseases that would otherwise develop and cause considerable illness or death can be stopped.  Extends life expectancy  Improves quality of life  Can be successful in returning someone back to good health
  11. 11. Disadvantages  Relies on professional health workers and technology and is therefore costly  Professionals with specialist knowledge needed are expensive to train  Technology, equipment and technological developments expensive  Doesn’t promote good health / narrow view of health  Doesn’t encourage people to live healthy lives as they are treated to fix problems as they arise. The focus is on the condition and not the determinants that caused it.  Not every condition can be treated  Cancer is an example – advances have been made, but treatment not always successful  Affordability – not always affordable  Not all countries can afford the medical technologies and resources that are part of the biomedical model of health - an important factor contributing to differences experienced in health status
  12. 12. Case Study- Stephen Stephen, aged eight, was born with a major kidney problem, which required surgery when he was eight months old. His right kidney became badly scarred and malformed as a result of several bad kidney infections which required hospitalisation. Throughout Stephens life his doctor has regularly monitored the function of Stephen’s kidneys through the use of urine tests. The consequences of Stephens kidney failure to cope is dangerously high blood pressure. Stephen makes regular visits to a renal specialist who uses an ultra sound to check on his kidney growth and occasionally Stephen requires nuclear testing with DSMA scan which involves an injection of radioactive substance into his blood so doctors can view his kidneys and bladder.
  13. 13. Answers  Reliance on hospitals, medical professions  X-rays, blood tests , kidney surgery, ultra sound, nuclear testing DSMA scan, urine tests
  14. 14. 2 marks
  15. 15. Practise Questions  TSSM Biomedical approach to health  Define the Biomedical model of health  Diagnosis, treatment & cure  Reliance on health professions ie doctors and medial specialists  ‘fix it’ model that focus on the biological/physical aspects of disease or illness
  16. 16. Social Model of Health  This approach attempts to address the broader influences on health (social, cultural, environmental and economic factors) rather than disease and injury.  It is a community approach to prevent diseases and illnesses.  Focus is on policies, education and health promotion. The Social Model of Health goes beyond the focus of lifestyles and behaviour and accepts the need for social change to provide prerequisites for health  It was developed in the late 1970’s 1980’s as some members of the community were not experiencing the same levels as health as others despite the understanding of the impact of lifestyle and behaviours on health.
  17. 17. Definition – Social Model of Health A conceptual framework within which improvements in health and wellbeing are achieved by directing effort towards addressing the social, economic and environmental determinants of health. The model is based on the understanding that in order for health gains to occur, social, economic and environmental determinants must be addressed. (VCAA HHD Study Design)
  18. 18. 5 Key Principles (A.R.E.A.S.)  Addresses the broader determinants of health  Reduce social inequities  Empower individuals and communities  Access to health care  Inter-Sectorial collaboration
  19. 19. 5 Key Principles (A.R.E.A.S.) Addresses the broader determinants of health (all aspects of health are addressed)  broader determinants such as gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic state, location and physical environment influence behavioural determinants and have a strong relationship with health and are becoming a focus of health promotion strategies. Reduce social inequities (addresses equity of the social determinants of health)  Aims to promote equity for all people and to achieve this the social determinants which lead to inequality such as gender, culture, socioeconomic status, location and the physical environment must be addressed. Empower individuals and communities (empowers with skills, knowledge & confidence to make positive decisions re: their health)  Empowering individuals and communities with health knowledge means they have the ability to make positive decisions about their health and participate in healthy behaviours.
  20. 20. Access to health care (accessible and appropriate health information)  Access to health care is a significant factor contributing to health status. This social model of health acts to enable all people to have access to health care. Social factors that can impact on access to health care include cultural and language barriers, economic and geographical factors and education level. Inter-Sectorial collaboration (c0-ordinated approach health and government departments)  By involving all organisations and stakeholders (people with a shared interest) who have an influence over the social and environmental determinants of health can all the social determinant be adequately addressed and affect health status positively.
  21. 21. Advantages – Social Model  Education for people, so don’t get the disease  Govt support/strategies e.g. QUIT, TAC, immunization  Less costly to prevent the disease before it happens  Encourages individuals to take responsibility and lead healthier lifestyles => improve quality of life  Community approach involving all levels of government, non-government organisations  Increase economic development of the country as the population is in good health and lead productive lives
  22. 22. Disadvantages – Social Model  Lack of education for the whole population, some people don’t get or understand the message  Population not motivated e.g. suntans, smoking, overweight.  Not believing it will happen to them  Changing lifestyles is VERY hard  Not all diseases can be prevented  Results of this method of health are not evident until after a long period of time and difficult to measure its effectiveness
  23. 23. Examples of the social model of health:  Go For Your Life Strategy – made up of different government and non-government stakeholders, targeted approach to education the whole community and encourages all people to adopt healthy dietary practises and exercise.  Sun Smart Schools Program – aims to reduce the exposure of children to harmful UV rays and educate them about the dangers of sun exposure.  Be a Man – Talk to your doctor about Prostate Cancer’ program – aims to break down cultural beliefs about health held by men and encourage them to visit a doctor to discuss their health.  Rural Retention Program (RRP) – federal government provide financial incentive for Doctors to work in rural/remote areas
  24. 24. 5 Key Principles (A.R.E.A.S.)  Addresses the broader determinants of health  Reduce social inequities  Empower individuals and communities  Access to health care  Inter-Sectorial collaboration
  25. 25. Using the social model of health Principle of the Addresses the Involves Acts to reduce Acts to enable Empowers social model broader intersectorial social access to individuals determinants collaboration inequities health care and Issue to be of health communities Addressed Mental health Ensure mental Get workplaces Focus on people Provide free Use men as the issues health to play a part. in indigenous access to promoters of education and Like the communities or health care programs advice is workplace those of low assessments to targeting men available in health checks. SES. those in low to educate men rural and SES groups, to identify remote areas. provide symptoms of information at depression football Indigenous to matches, pubs develop and etc. promote programs aimed at indigenous. Case study Your Example
  26. 26. Case Study – VicHealth’s Food For All Program (2011 exam q3) Section B 3ci) Identify two principles of the social model of health that are relevant to the Food for All program ( 2 marks) 3cii) Use examples from the Food for All program to demonstrate how these two principles are reflected in the VicHealth funded program (4 marks)
  27. 27. Practise Questions  VCAA exam 2010 Q3  TSSM questions – social model of health  Case study –  Access all areas: arts program breaks down barrier
  28. 28. VCAA prac exam 2010 q4 Address broad determinants of health; aim is to decrease social inequalities; Increase access to health care for all people Involves intersectorial collaboration: developed by Peer Support Program (the centre for Adolescent Health) funded by VicHealth, Victorian Department of Human Services, Beyondblue
  29. 29.  Address all determinants of health – PATS program consisted of a Peer leader who was responsible for the social aspects of the groups including organising activities and the socialisation of participants.  Reduce social inequality – PATS program was a funded program involving young people ) 12 – 18yrs) regardless of gender and SES. 5 programs were conducted across Victoria in various locations making it available to adolescents in various locations.  Empower individuals and the community – peer leadership training was provided to the peer leader, adolescents in the program where provided with knowledge and skills to cope with the challenges of a parent with mental illness. The PATS program focused on workers, organisations and the broader community creating awareness of issues affecting young people with a parent with a mental illness which enable community organisations to effectively develop resources to support the young people. Seminars and professional development sessions also provided individuals and communities with information to address factors affecting their health.  Accessibility to healthcare – PATS program was facilitated by a health professional in 5 different locations in Victoria providing young people in the programs with access to a service and information that was appropriated and based on their need. Peer leaders involved in the PATS program played a role in education and advocacy in the various locations the program was facilitated across Victoria.  Sectoral Collaboration – the PATS program was a result of integrated action between the Centre of Adolescent health, funded by VicHealth, the Victoria Department of Human Services and Beyondblue.
  30. 30. Answer:  Addresses the broader determinants of health – services provided in local metro, rural/ remote areas, all genders ethnicity and socioeconomic groups has access to  Reduce social inequities – medicare, PBS  Empower individuals and communities – community health centres, doctors/dietitians provide life skills education ie selection of low fat foods  Access to health care – bulk builing doctors, public hospitals  Inter-Sectorial collaboration – education in schools, government and non-government organisations to provide education on weight loss
  31. 31. Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion  Ottawa – Canada hosted the first international conference on health promotion in 1986  Charter – refers to the document that outlines the functions and principals of health promotion  In response to the Social model of health the WHO held its first International Conference on health promotion in 1986 in Ottawa, Canada.  Outcome of this conference was a document that provided organisations and key stakeholders guidelines to help incorporate health promotion into their strategies, policies and campaigns with the aim of taking action to achieve ‘health for all by the year 2000 and beyond’ through health promotion and reduce inequalities in health.  3 Principles of health promotion  8 Prerequisites (conditions or resources) for gains in health  5 Priority or action areas
  32. 32. Study Design - Definition An approach to health development by the World Health Organization which attempts to reduce inequalities in health. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion was developed from the social model of health and defines health promotion as ‘the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health’ (WHO 1998). The Ottawa Charter identifies three basic strategies for health promotion which are enabling, mediating, and advocacy. (VCAA HHD Study Design)
  33. 33. Health promotion  Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health.  Health promotion therefore focuses on prevention rather than cure and uses the causes of disease as the starting point rather than diseases themselves  Population focused
  34. 34. Three basic Principle of Health Promotion  Enable – Health promotion aims to enable all people to achieve their fullest health by closing the gaps in health inequalities by ensuring equal opportunities and resources for everyone. Reducing differences in health status by ensuring equal opportunities and resources to make healthy choices  Mediate – Professionals, social groups and health personnel have a major responsibility to mediate (negotiate) between differing interests in society to achieve health. Co-ordinated action between all interested parties ie government, NGO’s, media, health sectors,  Advocate – supporting and making public health recommendations for health, getting the message out
  35. 35. 8 Prerequisites for health These 8 conditions or resources  Peace are the basic prerequisites that  Shelter underpin any improvements in  Education health. – Without these improvements in health are  Safe and adequate food supply limited  Adequate income  A stable ecosystem- a balance between plants and animals in the environment which is important for many health resources such as food, water and air  Sustainable resources- the need to sustain the many resources needed for health (food, water, income - funding, building supplies, oil) for future generations to benefit  Social justice and equity- all people being valued and receiving fair treatment so all people share the benefits of society
  36. 36. 5 Priority or Action areas That should be taken into account when devising health promotion initiatives 1. Build healthy public policy 2. Create Supportive Environments: 3. Strengthen Community Action: 4. Develop Personal Skills: 5. Reorient Health Services: (Bad Cats Smell Dead Rats)
  37. 37. Build healthy public policy • Relates directly to the decisions made by the government and organisations in relation to laws, regulations and policies that affect/improve health. • Examples, increasing taxes on certain alcoholic drinks which makes participating in unhealthy behaviours more difficult thereby reducing exposure to determinants that can cause ill health. • Some policies and laws are designed to make the environment healthier for those who chose not to participate in unhealthy behaviours ie banning smoking in public places. • Some laws are designed to directly influence behaviour ie wearing seat belts, safety restraints for children. • Some law aim to deglamourise unhealthy behaviours – plain cigarette packaging
  38. 38. Create Supportive Environments • A supportive environment is one that promotes health and assists people in making healthy lifestyle choices. This priority recognises the impact that broader determinants have on health and aim to promote a healthy physical and social environment for the community to allow people to live healthy lives. • Examples – Quit line – a support service for people wanting to quit smoking, Providing shaded areas in schools – reduces exposure to UV rays, Sustainable energy production – ensures future generations have access to a healthy environment. Occupational Health and Safety Officers • Government childcare schemes, • Walking and bicycle tracks to encourage physical activity
  39. 39. Strengthen Community Action: • Focuses on building links between individuals and the community and the centres around the community working together to achieve a common goal. Skills need to be developed in the community in order for action to be taken to improve healthy. • Giving the community a sense of ownership of a health strategy increases the likelihood of its effectiveness. • Example: Governments immunisation strategy involves the media, doctors, schools, parents Neighbourhood Watch and Safety House Programs, Driver Reviver Stations
  40. 40. Develop Personal Skills • Education is the key aspect of this priority. It refers to gaining knowledge and life skills to make informed decisions that may indirectly effect their health. • Personal skills need to be developed to assist people to live healthy lives • Many parts of society have a role in educating – school, work, families, government, non-government organisations  Examples: Developing skills to read food labels and select healthy foods, develop financial and budgeting skills, practising safe sex, being sun smart, exercising as part of one’s life, healthy eating habits
  41. 41. Reorient Health Services • Refers to reorienting the health system so that it promotes health as opposed to only focussing on diagnosis and treating illness, as is the case with the biomedical model. • To reorient health services, the health system must encompass not only doctors and hospitals, but all members of the community including individuals, community groups, health professionals, health service institutions and governments. • This priority area suggest incorporating health promotion to play a more significant role thereby addressing all the determinants of health, not just disease. • Example – focusing on healthy eating rather than on surgery to reduce the impact of CVD, doctors prescribing activity before the development of damaging conditions such as type 2 diabetes, self-hep groups, police and emergency services (ie Fire Brigade) working with schools to support road education programs,
  42. 42.  The Ottawa Charter provides governments and health promotion organisations with an effective tool to use when planning effective strategies.  However it is not necessary to address all five priority areas and some effective programs may only focus on one or two priority areas.  Focusing on all five areas may spread resources too thinly, meaning the strategy may not achieve its goals.  Oxford handout
  43. 43. Arrive Alive Campaign (2008 – 2017) is the Victorian Government’s road safety strategy.  Through this strategy the Vic government has: built healthy public policy by :  introducing an additional requirement for registration of new cares – cars manufactured after 31.12.10 must be fitted with electronic stability control, cars manufactured after 31.12.2011 must be fitted with head protecting technology such as side curtain airbags.  Graduated Licensing system (GLS) for young drivers (1.7.08) to ensure young drivers get adequate supervision and experience as learners.
  44. 44. Arrive Alive Campaign  Created supportive environments: by funding a major infrastructure program to improve roads and roadside in Victoria aimed to reduce the most common types of crashes as well as a heightened enforcement effort.  Develops personal skills through a public awareness campaign focused on reducing driving under the influence of drugs.  Build healthy public policy: laws and legislation – 50km zones, 40 zones near schools, Graduated Licensing System
  45. 45. Using the Ottawa Charter Element of the Build public Create Strengthen Develop Reorient health Charter health policy supportive community personal skills services environments action Issue to be Addressed childhood obesity Develop a healthy Run a breakfast Develop a whole Teach students Invite a local Dr. in primary schools lunch policy. program and school approach about healthy or dietitian to talk Tax on junk food make the canteen to healthy eating eating so they can about the dangers a healthy food and include make healthy of unhealthy zone. healthy recipes in choices in food eating. the school technology and newsletter health classes the issue of Anti-bullying Provide safe Whole school Parenting School nurse / bullying in schools policy in schools places during approach to anti- courses, self- counsellor /youth recess and lunch bullying esteem and ‘no worker providing breaks blame’ classes health promotion for students education to students
  46. 46. Case Studies and exam questions Case Studies and exam questions Cancer is the correct disease Build Healthy Public Policy – Government puts in place policies re tobacco smoking – e.g. none in covered areas e.g. hotels, restaurants that limit where people are able to smoke, governments increase taxes on cigarettes to deter purchase and reduce risks
  47. 47. Answer:  Create supportive environments – provides support groups for indigenous diabetics, where families learn to cook together and share meals with other families dealing with diabetes. The scheme promotes group sharing and provides a non-threatening atmosphere where people can ask questions and receive answers.  Develop personal skills – the program provides education about managing diabetes. It improves cooking skills as well as understanding about diabetes. It also improves communication skills and raises the confidence of participants. Visual posters to educate understanding of diabetes and how to monitor blood glucose levels.
  48. 48. Activities  VCAA exam 2011  DVD

Notas do Editor

  • 1. These will be lower order type questions on the exam. 2. This should include advantages and disadvantages. 3. It is not enough to know, they must understand it!6. such as the principles of the social model or the priority areas of the Ottawa Charter)
  • The prostate cancer ads have male celebs promoting it. This may aim to empower men.
  • Address broad determinants of health; aim is to decrease social inequalities; Increase access to health care for all people Involves intersectorial collaboration: developed by Peer Support Program (the centre for Adolescent Health) funded by VicHealth, Victorian Department of Human Services, Beyondblue
  • Cancer is the correct diseaseBuild Healthy Public Policy – Government puts in place policies re tobacco smoking – e.g. none in covered areas e.g. hotels, restaurants that limit where people are able to smoke, governments increase taxes on cigarettes to deter purchase and reduce risks