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  1. 1. Dr. Jagannath K. Dange Dept. of P G Studies and Research in Education KUVEMPU UNIVERSITY SHANKARAGHATTA – 577451, INDIA E-Mail: jkdange@gmail.com
  2. 2. Session objectives  What is leadership?  Qualities of leadership  Functions of leadership  Types of Leadership  Factors Affecting leadership  How to Improve Leadership skills  Review your performance as a Leader
  3. 3.  Every one will get opportunity to lead in their life time at least once.  Either in home, group or in profession.
  4. 4. Defining a Leader… Think of a leader that you worked for or observed… What does this person do and what qualities does this person have that make you admire him or her as a leader?
  5. 5. Exercise  Think examples you have come across of strong and weak leadership  You can use examples from employment, academic studies or participation in sports clubs and societies (keep anonymous-if discussing)
  6. 6. Who are leaders?  Are leaders born? (OR)  Are leaders made?  Either way a leader is a person who guides others toward a common goal, showing the way by example.
  7. 7. What is Leadership?  Leadership is the ability of a superior to influence the behavior of his subordinates and persuade(convince) them to follow a particular course of action.
  8. 8.  LEADERSHIP “ It is a process of influencing people and providing an environment for them to achieve team or organizational goals.” “ It is the catalyst that transforms potential into reality.” “ Collective, networked, virtual force with powers flowing from a jointly created and shared vision.”
  9. 9. "Leadership is a function of knowing yourself, having a vision that is well communicated, building trust among colleagues, and taking effective action to realize your own leadership potential." Prof. Warren Bennis
  10. 10. How important is a leader?  In most cases, people will perform at about 60% of their potential with no leadership at all  Thus, an additional 40% can be realized if effective leadership is available
  11. 11. 40% 60% capability utilization Contribution due to leadership ability of manager Default contribution due to need for a job, peer pressure, etc.
  12. 12. Theories of Leadership
  13. 13. Theories of Leadership  Trait theories:  Is there a set of characteristics that determine a good leader?  Personality?  Dominance and personal presence?  Charisma?  Self confidence?  Achievement?  Ability to formulate a clear vision?
  14. 14. Theories of Leadership  Behavioural:  Imply that leaders can be trained – focus on the way of doing things  Structure based behavioural theories – focus on the leader instituting structures – task orientated  Relationship based behavioural theories – focus on the development and maintenance of relationships – process orientated
  15. 15. Theories of Leadership  Contingency Theories:  Leadership as being more flexible – different leadership styles used at different times depending on the circumstance.  Suggests leadership is not a fixed series of characteristics that can be transposed(alter, re- arrange) into different contexts
  16. 16. Theories of Leadership  May depend on:  Type of staff  History of the business  Culture of the business  Quality of the relationships  Nature of the changes needed  Accepted norms within the institution
  17. 17. Theories of Leadership  Transformational:  Widespread changes to a business or organisation  Requires:  Long term strategic planning  Clear objectives  Clear vision  Leading by example – walk the walk  Efficiency of systems and processes
  18. 18. Theories of Leadership  Invitational Leadership:  Improving the atmosphere and message sent out by the organisation  Focus on reducing negative messages sent out through the everyday actions of the business both externally and, crucially, internally  Review internal processes to reduce these  Build relationships and sense of belonging and identity with the organisation – that gets communicated to customers, etc.
  19. 19. Theories of Leadership  Transactional Theories: Based on the transaction of the product  Focus on the management of the organisation  Focus on procedures and efficiency  Focus on working to rules and contracts  Managing current issues and problems
  20. 20. Qualities of good leadership  A leader has got multidimensional traits in him which makes him appealing and effective in behavior.  The following are the requisites to be present in a good leader.
  21. 21. 1. Intelligence  Leader should have a high level of intelligence with sound educational and technical background.  What to do  How to do  When to do
  22. 22. 2. Emotional Stability  A leader should be emotionally stable. He should not lose temper at any stage.  Emotional Intelligence
  23. 23. 3. Understanding Human Behavior  A leader should posses a deep understanding about human behavior, emotions, needs etc. and S/he should be able to deal with people.
  24. 24. 4. Understanding the views of others  The leader should understand the views of others . If he does all the things in his own way he may lose the support of others.
  25. 25. 5. Motivating the Followers  It is not enough if the leader is self motivated. He should also know how to motivate his followers.
  26. 26. 6. Initiative and Creative Ability  The leader should take initiative because he has to take the lead to do a work and then only others will follow.  The leader should also have creative ability.
  27. 27. 7. Judging Ability  Leader should be able to judge anything. Then only the leader can anticipate or predict the response to the actions and decisions.
  28. 28. 8. Responsibly & Decision Making  A leader should lead from the front by taking the responsibilities and must be a decision maker.  Ex; Satish Dhavan ISRO chairman, satellite launch and Abdul kalam.
  29. 29. 9. Guidance  Leader should be a good guide to his subordinates. He should tell and demonstrate the ways of doing work.
  30. 30. 10. Personality  The leader should have an attractive and pleasing personality.  Sound in all the domains of personality
  31. 31. 11. Dignified  A leader should behave with his subordinates in a dignified manner.
  32. 32. 12. Honest  Leader should be honest, sincere, fair and reasonable in his dealings with his subordinates.
  33. 33. Responsibility Vs Accountability? What does having authority mean?
  34. 34.  Accountability the state of being accountable, liable, or answerable  Responsibility (for objects, tasks or people) can be delegated but accountability can not .  A good leader accepts ultimate responsibility:  will give credit to others when delegated responsibilities succeed  will accept blame when delegated responsibilities fail  Accountability can not operate fairly without the leader being given full authority for the responsibilities concerned  Authority is the power to influence or command thought, opinion or behaviour Accountability, Responsibility, and Authority
  35. 35. Functions of Leadership  Inspiration to Group Members  Securing co-operation  Creation of confidence  Providing conducive environment  Organizing and coordinating  Motivating  Controlling.
  37. 37.  Personal drive  Desire to lead  Self-confidence  Creativity and originality  Positive affectivity/influence/concern  Charisma  Flexibility and adoptiveness  Cognitive ability  Honesty and integrity  Empathy  Vision and foresight WHAT MAKES THE LEADER?
  38. 38. Types of Leadership Style
  39. 39. Types of Leadership Style 1. Autocratic: (Dictatorial)  Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else.  High degree of dependency on the leader.  Can create de-motivation and alienation(isolation, dissatisfaction) of staff.  May be valuable in some types of business/fields where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively.
  40. 40.  Lacks flexibility  Controlling and demanding  “carrot and stick” approach: If an organization has a carrot and stick approach or policy, they offer people things in order to persuade them to do something and punish them if they refuse to do it.  Focused solely on productivity
  41. 41. Types of Leadership Style 2. Democratic:  Encourages decision making from different perspectives – leadership may be emphasised throughout the organisation  Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are taken  Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to convince others that the decision is correct
  42. 42. Types of Leadership Style  Balances production and people issues  Builds a working team of employees  Team approach: involves subordinates  Organization is a vehicle for carrying out plans  May help motivation and involvement  Workers feel ownership of the firm and its ideas  Improves the sharing of ideas and experiences  Can delay decision making
  43. 43. Types of Leadership Style 3. Laissez-Faire: (Untroubled, and casual)  ‘Let it be’ – the leadership responsibilities are shared by all  Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important  Can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life  Can make coordination and decision making time- consuming and lacking in overall direction  Relies on good team work  Relies on good interpersonal relations
  44. 44.  Uninvolved - “leave them alone”  Sees main role as passer of information  Lets others make decisions  Basically abdicates(hand over) responsibility for team or unit
  45. 45. Types of Leadership Style 4. Paternalistic:  Leader acts as a ‘father figure’  Paternalistic leader makes decision but may consult  Believes in the need to support staff  Very people oriented; encouraging  Organizes around people  “country club” atmosphere: non-competitive
  46. 46. 5. Bureaucratic  Leader manages “by the book¨  Everything must be done according to procedure or policy  If it isn’t covered by the book, the leader refers to the next level above him or her  Police officer more than leader
  47. 47. When to use Bureaucratic  Performing routine tasks  Need for standards/procedures  Tasks that require handling cash
  48. 48. 6.Coercive (Forced)  Power from a person’s authority to punish  Most obvious types of power a leader has.  Good leaders use coercive power only as a last resort:  In today’s sophisticated and complex workplace, excessive use of coercive power unleashes unpredictable and destabilizing forces which can ultimately undermine the leader using it.
  49. 49. When to use Coercive  To meet very short term goals  When left with no other choice  In times of crisis
  50. 50. 7.Transactional  Motivate followers by appealing to their own self- interest  Motivate by the exchange process.  EX: business owners exchange status and wages for the work effort of the employee.  Focuses on the accomplishment of tasks & good worker relationships in exchange for desirable rewards.  Encourage leader to adapt their style and behavior to meet expectations of followers
  51. 51. When to use Transactional  Leader wants to be in control  When there are approaching deadlines that must be met  Relationship is short term
  52. 52. 8.Transformational  Charismatic and visionary  Inspire followers to transcend their self-interest for the organization  Appeal to followers' ideals and values  Inspire followers to think about problems in new or different ways  Common strategies used to influence followers include vision and framing
  53. 53. Transformational cont.  Instils feelings of confidence, admiration and commitment  Stimulates followers intellectually, arousing them to develop new ways to think about problems.  Uses contingent rewards to positively reinforce desirable performances  Flexible and innovative.
  54. 54.  When leaders want members to be an active part of the organization and have ownership to it  When leaders are building a sense of purpose  When the organization has a long term plan  When people need to be motivated When to use Transformational
  55. 55. Factors Affecting Style
  56. 56. Factors Affecting Style Leadership style may be dependent on various factors:  Risk - decision making and change initiatives based on degree of risk involved  Type of business/group/association/organization  How important change is – change for change’s sake?  Organisational culture – may be long embedded(fixed) and difficult to change  Nature of the task – needing cooperation? Direction? Structure?
  57. 57. How to improve your leadership skills  Reflect and identify the skills YOU need to lead effectively and create your action plan to develop them  Ask for feedback from work colleagues, line managers, tutors, your ‘followers’  Practise! Take on responsibility (work, volunteering, clubs & Societies) and reflect on your performance  Find a mentor – learn from positive leadership role- models  Attend further leadership and management training
  58. 58. Review your performance as a Leader Individual Exercise: 1. Assess yourself as a Leader • Conduct a SWOC analysis - Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Challenges 2. Develop an Action Plan to improve as a leader • list 2 actions you will undertake to address Weaknesses or capitalise on Opportunities identified • Apply SMART targets to your actions – Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-bound
  59. 59. The last test of a leader is, he leaves behind him in others the conviction and will, to carry on. ARE YOU THAT ?
  60. 60. Thank You Dr. Jagannath K. Dange Department of Education Kuvempu University Shankaraghatta Dist: Shimoga jkdange@gmail.com http://jkdange.blogspot.com