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Apex Testing and Best Practices

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Apex Testing and Best practices presented in Boston Salesforce world tour

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Apex Testing and Best Practices

  1. 1. Introduction to Apex Testing Salesforce World Tour Boston
  2. 2. Jitendra Zaa Force.com MVP @JitendraZaa http://JitendraZaa.com
  3. 3. • Why do we need unit test • Getting started with Apex test classes • Testing Visualforce Controller • Web services Testing • Testing Apex Callouts • Best Practices • Q&A Agenda
  4. 4. • Development of robust, error-free code • As Salesforce is multitenant platform, make sure none of governor limits are hitting • To deploy code on production, unit tests are required • Minimum 75% of test coverage is required • Code coverage = number of unique apex lines executed / total number of lines in trigger , classes • These excludes comments, test methods • Unit tests are critical part of Salesforce development as it ensures success • Provides automated regression testing framework to make sure bug free future development Why unit test
  5. 5. • Apex code that tests other Apex code • Annotate class with @isTest • Class methods (static) • Defined with testMethod keyword • Classes defined with @isTest annotation does not count against organization limit of 2MB of Apex code. How to write unit test
  6. 6. @isTest public class myClass { static testMethod void myTest() { // Add test method logic using System.assert(), System.assertEquals() // and System.assertNotEquals() here. } } Sample Code
  7. 7. • Used to test governor limits • To make sure all Asynchronous code executes when stoptest() method is called • When startTest() method is called, fresh governor limits are applied until stopTest() is executed • startTest() and stopTest() can be called only once in testMethod. Test.startTest() and Test.stopTest()
  8. 8. trigger OverwriteTestAccountDescriptions on Account (before insert) { for(Account a: Trigger.new){ if (a.Name.toLowerCase().contains('test')){ a.Description = 'This Account is probably left over from testing. It should probably be deleted.'; } } } Trigger to be tested Sample Code
  9. 9. static testMethod void verifyAccountDescriptionsWhereOverwritten(){ // Perform our data preparation. List<Account> accounts = new List<Account>{}; for(Integer i = 0; i < 200; i++){ Account a = new Account(Name = 'Test Account ' + i); accounts.add(a); } // Start the test, this changes governor limit context to // that of trigger rather than test. test.startTest(); Test method to test Trigger Sample Code
  10. 10. // Insert the Account records that cause the trigger to execute. insert accounts; // Stop the test, this changes limit context back to test from trigger. test.stopTest(); // Query the database for the newly inserted records. List<Account> insertedAccounts = [SELECT Name, Description FROM Account WHERE Id IN&nbsp;:accounts]; // Assert that the Description fields contains the proper value now. for(Account a&nbsp;: insertedAccounts){ System.assertEquals( 'This Account is probably left over from testing. It should probably be deleted.', a.Description); } } Sample Code (cont.)
  11. 11. • By default Apex code runs in system mode • Permission and record sharing are not taken into consideration • System.runAs() method helps to change test context to either existing or new user • System.runAs() can only be used in testMethods System.runAs()
  12. 12. public class TestRunAs { public static testMethod void testRunAs() { // This code runs as the system user Profile p = [select id from profile where name='Standard User']; User u = new User(alias = 'standt', email='standarduser@testorg.com', emailencodingkey='UTF-8', lastname='Testing', languagelocalekey='en_US', localesidkey='en_US', profileid = p.Id, timezonesidkey='America/Los_Angeles', username='standarduser@testorg.com'); System.runAs(u) { // The following code runs as user 'u' System.debug('Current User: ' + UserInfo.getUserName()); System.debug('Current Profile: ' + UserInfo.getProfileId()); } // Run some code that checks record sharing } } Sample Code
  13. 13. • Use TestVisible annotation to allow Test methods to access private or protected members of another class • These members can be methods , member variables or inner classes @TestVisible
  14. 14. public class TestVisibleExample { // Private member variable @TestVisible private static Integer recordNumber = 1; // Private method @TestVisible private static void updateRecord(String name) { // Do something } } Actual code to Test Sample Code
  15. 15. @isTest private class TestVisibleExampleTest { @isTest static void test1() { // Access private variable annotated with TestVisible Integer i = TestVisibleExample.recordNumber; System.assertEquals(1, i); // Access private method annotated with TestVisible TestVisibleExample.updateRecord('RecordName'); // Perform some verification } } Test Method Sample Code
  16. 16. • Like all Apex classes and Triggers, Visualforce controllers also requires Test methods • Test methods can automate user interaction by setting query parameter or navigating to different pages Test Visualforce Controller
  17. 17. public static testMethod void testMyController() { //Use the PageReference Apex class to instantiate a page PageReference pageRef = Page.success; //In this case, the Visualforce page named 'success' is the starting point of this test method. Test.setCurrentPage(pageRef); //Instantiate and construct the controller class. Thecontroller controller = new Thecontroller(); //Example of calling an Action method. Same as calling any other Apex method. String nextPage = controller.save().getUrl(); //Check that the save() method returns the proper URL. System.assertEquals('/apex/failure?error=noParam', nextPage); } Sample Code
  18. 18. • Generated code from WSDL is saved as Apex class and therefore needs to be tested • By default test methods does not support Web service call outs • Apex provides the built-in WebServiceMock interface and the Test.setMock method that you can use to receive fake responses in a test method. • Instruct the Apex runtime to generate a fake response whenever WebServiceCallout.invoke is called. Testing Web Services
  19. 19. @isTest global class WebServiceMockImpl implements WebServiceMock { global void doInvoke( Object stub, Object request, Map<String, Object> response, String endpoint, String soapAction, String requestName, String responseNS, String responseName, String responseType) { docSample.EchoStringResponse_element respElement = new docSample.EchoStringResponse_element(); respElement.EchoStringResult = 'Mock response'; response.put('response_x', respElement); } } Sample Code
  20. 20. public class WebSvcCallout { public static String callEchoString(String input) { docSample.DocSamplePort sample = new docSample.DocSamplePort(); sample.endpoint_x = 'http://api.salesforce.com/foo/bar'; // This invokes the EchoString method in the generated class String echo = sample.EchoString(input); return echo; } } Actual code that calls Web service Sample Code
  21. 21. @isTest private class WebSvcCalloutTest { @isTest static void testEchoString() { // This causes a fake response to be generated Test.setMock(WebServiceMock.class, new WebServiceMockImpl()); // Call the method that invokes a callout String output = WebSvcCallout.callEchoString('Hello World!'); // Verify that a fake result is returned System.assertEquals('Mock response', output); } } Test class to test Web service response Sample Code
  22. 22. • Apex has ability to call external Web services like Amazon, Facebook or any other Web service. • Salesforce does not has any control over response of external Web services. • Apex callouts can be tested either using HttpCalloutMock interface or using Static Resources. • HttpCalloutMock Is used to generate fake HttpResponse for testing purpose. Testing Apex Callouts
  23. 23. @isTest global class MockHttpResponseGenerator implements HttpCalloutMock { // Implement this interface method global HTTPResponse respond(HTTPRequest req) { // Create a fake response HttpResponse res = new HttpResponse(); res.setHeader('Content-Type', 'application/json'); res.setBody('{"foo":"bar"}'); res.setStatusCode(200); return res; } } Implementing HttpCalloutMock interface Sample Code
  24. 24. public class CalloutClass { public static HttpResponse getInfoFromExternalService() { HttpRequest req = new HttpRequest(); req.setEndpoint('http://api.salesforce.com/foo/bar'); req.setMethod('GET'); Http h = new Http(); HttpResponse res = h.send(req); return res; } } Actual code to be tested Sample Code
  25. 25. @isTest private class CalloutClassTest { @isTest static void testCallout() { // Set mock callout class Test.setMock(HttpCalloutMock.class, new MockHttpResponseGenerator()); // This causes a fake response to be sent // from the class that implements HttpCalloutMock. HttpResponse res = CalloutClass.getInfoFromExternalService(); // Verify response received contains fake values String contentType = res.getHeader('Content-Type'); System.assert(contentType == 'application/json'); String actualValue = res.getBody(); String expectedValue = '{"foo":"bar"}'; System.assertEquals(actualValue, expectedValue); System.assertEquals(200, res.getStatusCode()); } } Complete Test methods Sample Code
  26. 26. • Test methods take no arguments, commit no data to the database, and cannot send any emails. • Strive for 100% code coverage. Do not focus on the 75% requirement. • Write portable test methods and do not hardcode any Id or do not rely on some existing data. • If possible don’t use seeAllData=true annotation • Use System.assert methods to prove that code behaves properly. • In the case of conditional logic (including ternary operators), execute each branch of code logic. • Use the runAs method to test your application in different user contexts. • Exercise bulk trigger functionality—use at least 20 records in your tests. Best Practices
  27. 27. • Using static resource to mock Apex callout response • Apex Test methods Best practices Other resources
  28. 28. Go though Apex Testing module of Trailhead and earn your badge Trailhead
  29. 29. Thank you