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Biodiversityconcepts in biodiversity and factors influencing aquatic biodiversity

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Biodiversityconcepts in biodiversity and factors influencing aquatic biodiversity

  2. 2. Introduction The word biodiversity comes from a contraction of biological diversity. ► It refers to the degree of variation of species on a certain location. ► Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. ► Biomes are climatically and geographically defined as similar climatic conditions on the Earth, such as communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms , and are often referred to as ecosystems. ► Biodiversity a sum of all the different species of animals, plants, fungi, and microbial organisms living on Earth and the variety of habitats in which they live. ► jitenderanduat@gmail.com
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  4. 4. DEFINITIONS ► Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems. ► Biodiversity as the "totality of genes, species, and ecosystems of a region". ► In other words “variation of life at all levels of biological organization. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
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  6. 6. Biodiversity Concepts ► Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth. ► Biodiversity is generally described at three levels: genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity. ► All life forms that make up biodiversity, including humans, are ultimately connected to all other life forms, and to their physical environment. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  7. 7. ► No one living element of any ecosystem can survive independent of the others. ► Connections among living and non-living elements keep the environment functioning and healthy. ► Human impact on the environment, therefore, directly or indirectly affects the function of other living things. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
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  9. 9. TYPES OF BIODIVERSITY ►Species diversity ►Ecosystem diversity ►Genetic diversity jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  10. 10. Species diversity ► Species diversity is the effective number of different species that are represented in a collection of individuals. ► This refers to the number of equally-abundant species needed to obtain the same mean proportional species abundance ► Species diversity consists of two components, species richness and species evenness. ► Species richness is a simple count of species. ► species evenness quantifies how equal the abundances of the species jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  11. 11. Ecosystem diversity ► It refers to the diversity of a place at the level of ecosystems. ► which refers to variation in species rather than ecosystems. ► Ecosystem diversity can also refer to the variety of ecosystems present in a biosphere, the variety of species and ecological processes. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
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  13. 13. ►Some examples of ecosystems that are rich in diversity are Deserts Forests Large marine ecosystems Marine ecosystems Old growth forests Rainforests Tundra Coral Reefs jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  14. 14. Genetic diversity ► Genetic diversity refers to the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. ► It is distinguished from genetic variability, which describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to vary. ► Genetic diversity serves as a way for populations to adapt to changing environments. Those individuals are more likely to survive to produce offspring bearing that allele. ► The population will continue for more generations because of the success of these individuals. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  15. 15. BIODIVERSITY AND ITS LIMITS ► Physical environments, even healthy ones, can support just so many of any species, including people, indefinitely. ► The carrying capacity for any species changes as the numbers and actions of other life forms and environmental conditions. ► Species can cause changes in environmental conditions, and vice versa. ► Another way to express limits and carrying capacity is through the term ecological footprint. ► An ecological footprint is the amount of productive land and water required to maintain the current lifestyle of a particular individual. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  16. 16. BIODIVERSITY AND ITS VALUE ► Biodiversity has evolutionary, ecological, economic, social, cultural, and intrinsic values. ► Biologically diverse ecosystems offer a variety of natural products, including medical ingredients that enhance human health and standard of living. ► Biodiversity provides ecosystem services: water purification; clean air, fertile soil, climate regulation, flood control, as well as pest regulation and disease resistance. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  17. 17. ► Sustaining biodiversity has economic benefits: world ecosystem ► Biological diversity is key to long term ecosystem sustainability. ► Biodiversity is key in sustaining the natural beauty of National and Provincial Parks jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  18. 18. BIODIVERSITY IS IN TROUBLE ► There is growing scientific concern about the major, rapid decline in biodiversity around the world. ► The extinction of each additional species and the loss of variation within species brings the irreversible loss of unique genetic diversity. ► The scientific community has linked human activity to the accelerated rate of recent and current extinctions. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  19. 19. Biodiversity is declining ► Habitat loss ► Invasive species ► Pollution ► Population Growth ► Over-consumption (Unsustainable use) ► Climate change ► wetlands is seen as eroding the protection of our drinking water and leading to further species losses. ► climate change is significantly affecting some northern Ontario ► species. ► Increase of at risk species. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  20. 20. ► Human impacts on biodiversity have been accelerating as population growth and consumption rates have increased. ► industrial actions that may lead to loss of biodiversity. ► The same principle discussed above for industry applies also to agriculture. The consumer wants cheap fresh food. The farmer delivers. ► Loss of species may mean loss of important but as yet unknown resources for humans. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  21. 21. CLIMATE CHANGE AND BIODIVERSITY ► Loss of habitat due to climate change is the leading threat to global biodiversity ► Ecosystems fluctuate around a state of equilibrium. In the long run, however, ecosystems and their components always change when climate changes ► Climate change degrades biodiversity ► Stable, biodiverse environments are more capable of adapting to climatic shifts. ► Stable, biodiverse environments are more capable of mitigating the production of GHC’s and thus climate change. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  22. 22. ► Reduction in sources of climate change (excessive fossil fuel use, etc.) will help conserve biodiversity. ► Enhancement/conservation of biodiversity (forest conservation, reduced chemical pollution and other factors not directly related to climate change) will minimize impacts of climate change. ► Temperature increase makes certain environments uninhabitable to previously indigenous species. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  23. 23. Aquatic biodiversity ► It can be defined as the variety of life and the ecosystems that make up the freshwater, tidal, and marine regions of the world and their interactions. ► It encompasses freshwater ecosystems,. ► It also consists of marine ecosystems, ► Aquatic biodiversity includes all unique species, their habitats and interaction between them. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  24. 24. Importance of Aquatic Biodiversity ► Aquatic biodiversity has enormous economic and aesthetic value and supporting overall environmental health. ► Humans have long depended on aquatic resources for food, medicines, and materials as well as for recreational and commercial purposes such as fishing and tourism. ► Aquatic organisms also rely upon the great diversity of aquatic habitats and resources for food, materials, and breeding grounds jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  25. 25. ► Factors including overexploitation of species, pollution , urbanization and industralization. ► valuable aquatic resources are becoming increasingly susceptible to both natural and artificial environmental changes. ► Thus, conservation strategies to protect and conserve aquatic life are necessary to maintain the balance of nature and resources for future generations. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  26. 26. Threats to Aquatic Biodiversity ► Human activities are causing species to disappear at an alarming rate. ► Losses of this magnitude impact the entire ecosystem, depriving valuable resources used to provide food, medicines, and industrial materials to human beings. ► Runoff from agricultural and urban areas, the invasion of exotic species, and the creation of dams and water diversion have been identified as the greatest challenges to freshwater environments jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  27. 27. ► Overexploitation of aquatic organisms for various purposes is the greatest threat to marine environments . ► Urban development and resource-based industries, such as mining and forestry that destroy or reduce natural habitats . ► Air and water pollution, sedimentation and erosion, and climate change also pose threats to aquatic biodiversity. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  28. 28. References ► Hendrik S. and K. Martens (2005). Aquatic Biodiversity: v. 2: The Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems (Developments in Hydrobiology). Springer Publi. ► Kumar, U. and Asija, M. J. (2009). Biodiversity: Principle and Conservation. Agrobios (India) ► Ormond, Rupert F. G., John D. Gage, and Martin V. A. (Editors), 1997. Marine Biodiversity: Patterns and Processes ,Cambridge University Press, New York. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
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