O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a navegar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nosso Contrato do Usuário e nossa Política de Privacidade.
O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a utilizar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nossa Política de Privacidade e nosso Contrato do Usuário para obter mais detalhes.
Biodiversityconcepts in biodiversity and factors influencing aquatic biodiversity
BIODIVERSITY AND FACTORS
NAYANA.P and Jitendra Kumar
DEPT. OF FRM
COLLEGE OF FISHERIES
The word biodiversity comes from a contraction of
► It refers to the degree of variation of species on a certain
► Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within
a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet.
► Biomes are climatically and geographically defined as
similar climatic conditions on the Earth, such as
communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms , and
are often referred to as ecosystems.
► Biodiversity a sum of all the different species of animals,
plants, fungi, and microbial organisms living on Earth
and the variety of habitats in which they live.
► Biodiversity is the variability among living
organisms from all sources, including
terrestrial, marine and other aquatic
ecosystems and the ecological complexes of
which they are part; this includes diversity
within species, between species and of
► Biodiversity as the "totality of genes, species,
and ecosystems of a region".
► In other words “variation of life at all levels of
► Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth.
► Biodiversity is generally described at three
levels: genetic diversity, species diversity and
► All life forms that make up biodiversity,
including humans, are ultimately connected to
all other life forms, and to their physical
► No one living element of any ecosystem can
survive independent of the others.
► Connections among living and non-living
elements keep the environment functioning
► Human impact on the environment, therefore,
directly or indirectly affects the function of
other living things.
► Species diversity is the effective number of
different species that are represented in a
collection of individuals.
► This refers to the number of equally-abundant
species needed to obtain the same mean
proportional species abundance
► Species diversity consists of two components,
species richness and species evenness.
► Species richness is a simple count of species.
► species evenness quantifies how equal the
abundances of the species
► It refers to the diversity of a place at the level of
► which refers to variation in species rather than
► Ecosystem diversity can also refer to the variety of
ecosystems present in a biosphere, the variety of
species and ecological processes.
►Some examples of ecosystems that are
rich in diversity are
Large marine ecosystems
Old growth forests
► Genetic diversity refers to the total number of genetic
characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.
► It is distinguished from genetic variability, which
describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to
► Genetic diversity serves as a way for populations to
adapt to changing environments. Those individuals
are more likely to survive to produce offspring
bearing that allele.
► The population will continue for more generations
because of the success of these individuals.
BIODIVERSITY AND ITS
► Physical environments, even healthy ones, can
support just so many of any species, including
► The carrying capacity for any species changes as the
numbers and actions of other life forms and
► Species can cause changes in environmental
conditions, and vice versa.
► Another way to express limits and carrying capacity
is through the term ecological footprint.
► An ecological footprint is the amount of productive
land and water required to maintain the current
lifestyle of a particular individual.
BIODIVERSITY AND ITS
► Biodiversity has evolutionary, ecological, economic,
social, cultural, and intrinsic values.
► Biologically diverse ecosystems offer a variety of
natural products, including medical ingredients that
enhance human health and standard of living.
► Biodiversity provides ecosystem services: water
purification; clean air, fertile soil, climate regulation,
flood control, as well as pest regulation and disease
► Sustaining biodiversity has economic benefits:
► Biological diversity is key to long term
► Biodiversity is key in sustaining the natural
beauty of National and Provincial Parks
BIODIVERSITY IS IN
► There is growing scientific concern about the
major, rapid decline in biodiversity around the
► The extinction of each additional species and the
loss of variation within species brings the
irreversible loss of unique genetic diversity.
► The scientific community has linked human
activity to the accelerated rate of recent and
Biodiversity is declining
► Habitat loss
► Invasive species
► Population Growth
► Over-consumption (Unsustainable use)
► Climate change
► wetlands is seen as eroding the protection of our
drinking water and leading to further species losses.
► climate change is significantly affecting some
► Increase of at risk species.
► Human impacts on biodiversity have been
accelerating as population growth and
consumption rates have increased.
► industrial actions that may lead to loss of
► The same principle discussed above for
industry applies also to agriculture. The
consumer wants cheap fresh food. The farmer
► Loss of species may mean loss of important
but as yet unknown resources for humans.
CLIMATE CHANGE AND
► Loss of habitat due to climate change is the leading
threat to global biodiversity
► Ecosystems fluctuate around a state of equilibrium.
In the long run, however, ecosystems and their
components always change when climate changes
► Climate change degrades biodiversity
► Stable, biodiverse environments are more capable of
adapting to climatic shifts.
► Stable, biodiverse environments are more capable of
mitigating the production of GHC’s and thus climate
► Reduction in sources of climate change
(excessive fossil fuel use, etc.) will help
► Enhancement/conservation of biodiversity
(forest conservation, reduced chemical
pollution and other factors not directly related
to climate change) will minimize impacts of
► Temperature increase makes certain
environments uninhabitable to previously
► It can be defined as the variety of life and the
ecosystems that make up the freshwater, tidal,
and marine regions of the world and their
► It encompasses freshwater ecosystems,.
► It also consists of marine ecosystems,
► Aquatic biodiversity includes all unique
species, their habitats and interaction between
Importance of Aquatic
► Aquatic biodiversity has enormous economic
and aesthetic value and supporting overall
► Humans have long depended on aquatic
resources for food, medicines, and materials as
well as for recreational and commercial
purposes such as fishing and tourism.
► Aquatic organisms also rely upon the great
diversity of aquatic habitats and resources for
food, materials, and breeding grounds
► Factors including overexploitation of species,
pollution , urbanization and industralization.
► valuable aquatic resources are becoming
increasingly susceptible to both natural and
artificial environmental changes.
► Thus, conservation strategies to protect and
conserve aquatic life are necessary to maintain
the balance of nature and resources for future
Threats to Aquatic Biodiversity
► Human activities are causing species to disappear at an
► Losses of this magnitude impact the entire ecosystem,
depriving valuable resources used to provide food,
medicines, and industrial materials to human beings.
► Runoff from agricultural and urban areas, the invasion
of exotic species, and the creation of dams and water
diversion have been identified as the greatest challenges
to freshwater environments
► Overexploitation of aquatic organisms for
various purposes is the greatest threat to
marine environments .
► Urban development and resource-based
industries, such as mining and forestry that
destroy or reduce natural habitats .
► Air and water pollution, sedimentation and
erosion, and climate change also pose threats
to aquatic biodiversity.
► Hendrik S. and K. Martens (2005). Aquatic
Biodiversity: v. 2: The Diversity of Aquatic
Ecosystems (Developments in
Hydrobiology). Springer Publi.
► Kumar, U. and Asija, M. J. (2009). Biodiversity:
Principle and Conservation. Agrobios (India)
► Ormond, Rupert F. G., John D. Gage, and Martin
V. A. (Editors), 1997. Marine Biodiversity: Patterns
and Processes ,Cambridge University Press, New