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# Key signatures (lesson 6)

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This walks through the basic rules of determining the key signature of a specific piece.

This walks through the basic rules of determining the key signature of a specific piece.

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### Key signatures (lesson 6)

1. 1. Key Signatures (Simplified)
2. 2. Scales ● If you read through Understanding Scales then you know that our Western two scales Major and Minor are built off the Harmonic Sequence
3. 3. Letter Names ● Because of the original 7 degrees of the scale we assign the first notes of that scale letter names ● A, B, C, D, E, F, G ● The half steps in between are designated with a # (sharp) for the note above or a (flat) for the note below♭
4. 4. 12 Keys ● This also means that some keys can have two names (the key of G# is the same as A )♭ ● To simplify things, we will focus on the 12 possible keys (not their enharmonic equivalents) ● A B C D E F G A B D E♭ ♭ ♭ ♭F# (or G )♭
5. 5. Memorize these Two Keys ● C Major (no sharps or flats) ● F Major (one flat B )♭
6. 6. Two Tricks ● All other key signatures can be determined by two simple rules ● Rule for Sharps: It's the note above the last sharp of the key signature. ● Rule for Flats: It's the second to last flat ● This is assuming the piece is Major, we'll worry about Minor later.
7. 7. Using the Rules ● The last sharp in the key signature is the second line from the top – in Treble Clef that is a D ● Therefore the key signature is the note above D – E Major
8. 8. Using the Rules ● The second to last flat is on the second space from the bottom – in the Treble Clef that is an A ● Therefore the key signature is A♭
9. 9. All Keys ● No Sharps or Flats – You memorized this ● C Major ● Relative Minor: A minor
10. 10. All Keys ● One Sharp – F# ● G Major ● Relative Minor: E minor
11. 11. All Keys ● Two Sharps – Last is C# ● D Major ● Relative Minor: B minor
12. 12. All Keys ● Three Sharps – Last is G# ● A Major ● Relative Minor: F# minor
13. 13. All Keys ● Four Sharps – Last is D# ● E Major ● Relative Minor: C# minor
14. 14. All Keys ● Five Sharps – Last is A# ● B Major ● Relative Minor: G# minor
15. 15. All Keys ● 6 Sharps – Last is E# ● F# Major ● 6 Flats – Second to last ● G Major♭ ● Relative Minor: D# minor or E minor♭
16. 16. All Keys ● Five Flats – Second to last ● D Major♭ ● Relative Minor: B minor♭
17. 17. All Keys ● Four Flats – Second to last ● A Major♭ ● Relative Minor: F minor
18. 18. All Keys ● Three Flats – Second to last ● E Major♭ ● Relative Minor: C minor
19. 19. All Keys ● One Flats – You memorized ● F Major ● Relative Minor: D minor
20. 20. Bonus Slide ● Here's what happens if we diagram these keys out – it's called the Circle of Fifths