CARBOHYDRATE 1-5 %
FAT 5-25 %
PROTEIN 15-25 % Fat
WATER 60-70 %
7. Composition of meat
1. Water : 60-70%, lean uncooked muscle
contains about 75% water, much of the
water is held by the proteins I a gel-type
2.Protein : 15-25%, lean uncooked muscle
contains about 20% water, contains amino
acid which is important for body.
8. Composition of meat
3. Fat : 5-25%, different species and
different parts, different extent in
composition. The more brittle, hard fats
of beef and mutton contain higher
percentages of saturated fatty acids.
Softer fats contain more unsaturated fatty
9. Types of FAT - Juiciness
3.1 Marbling : fat cells are
muscles, and finally there
distribution to produce
the marbling of muscle
3.2 Depot: fat cells are
muscles, under the skin,
in the abdominal cavity
and around the important
parts of animals’ bodies.
10. Composition of meat
4. Carbohydrate: 1-5%, liver contains
carbohydrate as glycogen.
Carbohydrate plays a role in
browning during frying or grilling.
• Vitamins: B1,B2,B3 (Niacin), B6 and
• Minerals: Iron, Zinc and Phosphorous.
16. THE COLOUR OF MEAT
• The color of fresh meat
is considered one of the
factors related to fresh
• To many consumers, it
can be a troubling thing,
to go to the self-serve
retail meat case and see
one steak that is a
bright, cherry-red color
(packaged on a tray and
wrapped in film) and
right beside it is a
dull, purple appearing
steak (packaged in
17. CONNECTIVE TISSUE
• It forms the walls of the long muscle cells and
binds them into bundles.
• It surrounds the muscle as a membrane and
also appears as the tendons and ligaments the
attach the muscles to the bone
• It contains two types of protein :
Collagen and Elastin.
18. Meat are highest in connective tissue if
• They come from muscle that are more
exercise. (Leg have more CT than Back)
• They come from older animals. Veal is more
tender than meat from old bull or cow.
22. Tenderizing Meat
• Moist-heat cooking M. • Removing the elastin
(stewing, boiling, and • Breaking up the fiber
braising) as in
• Enzymes (Aging) – Cubing
• Poteinase: papain from – Grinding
papaya, Bromelin from – Slicing
23. RIGOR MORTIS
• Physiology is similar to muscle contractions in
• Carcass muscles do not relax
• Onset usually takes 6-12 hrs for beef and
• 30 mins-3 hrs for pork
• As enzymes and microorganisms begin to
break down the muscle tissue, rigor mortis is
25. AGING MEAT
• Carcasses undergo a period of aging to allow
enzymes and microorganism to begin the
process of breaking down the tissue
• Improves tenderness and flavor
• Adds to the expense of processing meat
Green Meat VS Aged Meat
26. AGING MEAT
• Carcasses or meat are aged by holding them
at refrigeration temperatures for extended
periods of time after slaughter and initial chill.
• Aging (or conditioning as it is called in many
countries) improves the tenderness and flavor
• There are two methods for aging meat:
• wet aging and dry aging.
27. Dry aging
• Dry aging is much more expensive and takes longer than
• Meat which is dry aged is hung in a very clean,
temperature and humidity controlled cooler for a period
of two to four weeks.
• During this time, enzymes within the meat break down
the muscle and connective tissue making it tender.
• Moisture is lost from the outer parts of the carcass
causing an inedible crust to form which must be trimmed
off and discarded.
• The carefully controlled environment, the time involved,
and the loss of outer portions of the carcass make dry
aging a costly process.
28. Wet aging
• Wet aging occurs when meat and its own juices are
vacuum packed in plastic and boxed for distribution.
• Because the plastic packaging does not allow loss of
moisture, the meat may absorb more moisture which
• s in an increase in juiciness and tenderness. Both
methods of aging work well and can create a better
• The difference is that dry aging gives a more distinctive
flavor while wet aging is much less costly and allows for a
quicker entry to the market and therefore a much longer
29. AGING ALTERNATIVES
• Electric stimulation of muscles
• Current of 600 volts after slaughter and
before the hide is removed.
• Stimulation speeds natural processes that
occur after death.
• Depletion of energy stores from the body.
• Improves tenderness, color , texture and
• Makes hide removal easier.
35. Upper half
• Chuck — one of the most common sources for
• Rib — short ribs, rib eye steak.
• Short loin — from which porterhouse steaks are cut.
• Sirloin — less tender than short loin, but more flavorful.
– Tenderloin — the most tender, from which filet mignon is
– Top sirloin
• Round — lean cut, moderately tough. Lack of fat and
marbling does not allow round steak to tenderize quickly.
36. Lower half
• Brisket — often associated with barbecue beef brisket.
• Shank — used primarily for stews and soups; it is not
usually served any other way due to it being the toughest
of the cuts.
• Plate — produces types of steak such as the skirt steak
[fajitas] and hanger steak. It is typically a cheap, tough,
and fatty meat.
• Flank — Long and flat, the flank steak's best known
application is London broil. One of the most affordable
steaks on the market, it is substantially tougher than the
loin and rib steaks, therefore many flank recipes use
marinades or moist cooking methods such as braising.
Cooking Beef (Doness)
Cooked: Temperature Description
Very rare 115 – 125oF (46 – 52 oC) Blood-red meat, soft, very juicy
Rare 125 – 130o F (52 – 54o C) Red center, gray surface, soft, juicy
Pink throughout, gray-brown
Medium rare 130 – 140o F (54 – 60o C)
surface, often remains juicy
Pink center, becomes gray-brown
Medium 140 – 150o F (60 – 66o C)
Medium well 150 – 160o F (66 – 71o C) Thin line of pink, firm texture.
Gray-brown throughout, tough
Well done >160o F (>71o C)
52. Composition and Structure
• Fish has very little connective
tissue. This is one of the most
important differences between
fish and meat
1. Fish cooks very quickly, even at
2. Fish is naturally tender
3. Moist-heat cooking methods are
used not to create tenderness but
to preserve moistness and
4. Cooked fish must be handled
very carefully or it will fall apart
55. Cooking FAT and LEAN fish
1. Lean Fish are those that
are low in fat
Eg. Flounder, Sole, Cod,
Red snapper, Sea Bass
2. Fat Fish are those that
are high in fat
Eg. Salmon, Tuna, Trout,
56. Cooking Lean Fish
• Because lean fish has almost no fat, it can
easily become dry, especially if overcooked.
• It often served with sauces to enhance
moistness and give richness.
1. Moist-heat Method: Poaching is best method to
2. Dry-heat Method: Bake or Broil, should basted
with butter or oil
3. Dry-heat with fat Methods: may fried or sauteed
57. Cooking Fat Fish
• the fat in these fish enables them to
tolerate more heat without becoming dry
1. Moist-heat Method: Fat Fish like lean Fish can
cooked by moist. Poached is most popular
2. Dry-heat Method: Bake or Broil, The dry-heat
helps eliminate excessive oiliness
3. Dry-heat with fat Methods: Should avoid the
excessive greasiness. Drain the fish well before