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Automobile basics

Gives basic idea of automobile.

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Automobile basics

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-1 Prepared by Martin Restoule Algonquin College AutomotiveAutomotive Systems andSystems and PreventativePreventative MaintenanceMaintenance 44
  2. 2. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-2 ObjectivesObjectives • Explain the major events that have influenced the development of the automobile during the past 35 years. • Explain the difference between unitized and body-over-frame vehicles. • Describe the manufacturing process used in a modern automobile assembly plant. continued…
  3. 3. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-3 ObjectivesObjectives • List the basic systems that make up an automobile and name their major components and functions. • Explain the importance of preventative maintenance. • List at least six examples of services included in a preventative maintenance program.
  4. 4. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-4 Types of Vehicle ConstructionTypes of Vehicle Construction Body-Over-Frame • The body and all major parts are bolted to the frame. • The frame must be strong enough to maintain correct body and driveline alignment. • Design is used on many pickups and SUVs. • Due to weight concerns (average vehicle weight 2040 kg), most modern cars use unibody construction. continued…
  5. 5. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-5 Types of Vehicle ConstructionTypes of Vehicle Construction continued… • Body-Over-Frame Construction – A typical truck frame with sub- frame components.
  6. 6. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-6 Types of Vehicle ConstructionTypes of Vehicle Construction Unitized body (Unibody) • A unibody has no separate frame. • It is a stressed hull structure where each body part provides structural support and strength to the entire vehicle. • Tends to be more tightly structured because the major parts are all welded together. • Is designed to transmit impact energy throughout the vehicle. continued…
  7. 7. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-7 Types of Vehicle ConstructionTypes of Vehicle Construction • A Typical Unibody Design. – Typical one piece body and frame assembly with bolt-on components.
  8. 8. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-8 Body ShapesBody Shapes • Sedan – A vehicle with front and back seats for four to six persons – Can be either two or four door continued…
  9. 9. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-9 Body ShapesBody Shapes • Convertible – Offers the same seating as a sedan with the ability to remove or retract the roof. continued…
  10. 10. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-10 Body ShapesBody Shapes • Sports Car – Two passenger convertibles are typically called sports cars. – These vehicles usually offer improved horsepower and handling. continued…
  11. 11. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-11 Body ShapesBody Shapes • Liftback or hatchback – Features a rear luggage compartment that is an extension of the passenger area. – An upwards opening hatch- type door allows access to the luggage compartment. continued…
  12. 12. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-12 Body ShapesBody Shapes • Station wagon – A station wagon has a roof that extends straight back allowing for a spacious interior luggage compartment. – Can be a two or four door model with seating for up to nine passengers. continued…
  13. 13. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-13 Body ShapesBody Shapes • Pickup – Offers a separate passenger cab for up to five passengers (2 or 4 door and extended cab). – Has an open cargo box. – Available in two and four wheel drive models. continued…
  14. 14. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-14 Body ShapesBody Shapes • Van – The van body design has a tall roof and an enclosed large cargo or passenger area. – Can seat from 2 to 12 passengers. – Available in mini and full- size models. continued…
  15. 15. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-15 Body ShapesBody Shapes • Sport utility vehicle – An SUV can have a range of body styles. – These are multipurpose on and off road vehicles. – Usually four- wheel-drive. – The number of passengers will depend on size and model. continued…
  16. 16. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-16 Body ShapesBody Shapes • Crossover Vehicles – A new trend in vehicles that are a cross between a station wagon and an SUV. – These are usually smaller and more fuel efficient than a regular SUV. – These may be two, four or all- wheel- drive
  17. 17. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-17 Basic Engine ComponentsBasic Engine Components • Cylinder block – The cylinder block is a large iron or aluminum casting the houses or holds the cylinders and most of the major mechanical engine parts. – The block also contains passageways for coolant and lubricant. continued…
  18. 18. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-18 Basic Engine ComponentsBasic Engine Components • Cylinder head – The cylinder head mounts on the top of the cylinder block and forms the top to the cylinders. – The head contains the combustion chamber, valves and ports to allow the entry and exit of the air/fuel mixture. continued…
  19. 19. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-19 Basic Engine ComponentsBasic Engine Components • Pistons, rods, and crankshaft – The piston receives force from the burning of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder. – This force pushes the piston and connecting rod downward which rotates the crankshaft generating engine power. continued…
  20. 20. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-20 Basic Engine ComponentsBasic Engine Components • Valve train – A series of components used to open and close the intake and exhaust valves including; the camshaft, valves, followers/lifters, rocker arms and push rods. continued…
  21. 21. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-21 Basic Engine ComponentsBasic Engine Components • Intake and exhaust manifolds – Manifolds are ductwork assemblies. – The intake manifold delivers the air/fuel mixture to the cylinders while the exhaust manifold carries exhaust gases from the cylinders.
  22. 22. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-22 Engine SystemsEngine Systems • Lubrication system – The lubrication system provides constant lubrication to the moving parts of the engine. – Engine oil is sent by the oil pump through an oil filter to the many engine components. continued…
  23. 23. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-23 Engine SystemsEngine Systems • Cooling system – A water pump is used to circulate coolant through the system. – The coolant is pushed through water jackets in the block and head. – Heat is removed from the coolant at the radiator. continued…
  24. 24. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-24 Engine SystemsEngine Systems • Fuel and air system – The fuel and air system supplies the correct amount of fuel mixed with the correct amount of air to the cylinders. – The system also: stores fuel, cleans outside air, delivers fuel to the engine, atomizes fuel and adjusts the fuel/air ratios during operation. continued…
  25. 25. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-25 Engine SystemsEngine Systems • Emission control system – Systems have been developed and added to engines to reduce the pollutants they emit. – Some of these systems are: positive crankcase ventilation, evaporative emission control system, exhaust gas recirculation system (EGR), catalytic converter and air injection system. continued…
  26. 26. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-26 Engine SystemsEngine Systems • Exhaust system – The exhaust system is designed to carry toxic exhaust fumes away from the passenger compartment, to quiet the exhaust pulses and burn or catalyze pollutants. continued…
  27. 27. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-27 Engine SystemsEngine Systems • Ignition system – The ignition system must generate a spark to ignite the air/fuel mixture at the correct time. – The coil transforms battery voltage into a spike of 30 000 to 100 000 volts to ignite the mixture. – Ignition must occur before the piston completes its compression stroke. continued…
  28. 28. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-28 Engine SystemsEngine Systems • Starting and charging system – The purpose of the starting system is to rotate or crank the engine to allow the ignition system to fire and start the engine. – The charging system is designed to recharge and maintain the battery’s state of charge. continued…
  29. 29. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-29 Engine SystemsEngine Systems • Electronic control system – This system is comprised of many electronic and electromechanical parts. – The system monitors engine operation and makes adjustments to make it run efficiently.
  30. 30. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-30 Drivetrain ComponentsDrivetrain Components • Clutch – Used with manual transmissions and transaxles. – Mechanically connects the engine flywheel to the transmissions input shaft. continued…
  31. 31. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-31 Drivetrain ComponentsDrivetrain Components • Transmission – The driver manually selects the gear in a manual or standard transmission. – An automatic transmission does not require a clutch and automatically shifts forward gears. – Transmissions allow for several gear ratios for maximum engine performance. continued…
  32. 32. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-32 Drivetrain ComponentsDrivetrain Components • Driveline – Connects the output shaft of the transmission to the rear axle of a rear wheel drive vehicle and both front and rear axles of a four-wheel- drive vehicle. – A hollow drive shaft with universal joints is commonly used to connect the transmission to the drive axle. continued…
  33. 33. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-33 Drivetrain ComponentsDrivetrain Components • Final Drive Assembly – Changes the direction of driveline rotation and provides the final gear ratio. – Contains a differential assembly to allow each drive wheel to rotate at different speeds during cornering. continued…
  34. 34. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-34 Drivetrain ComponentsDrivetrain Components • Drive axles – Transmit power to the wheels. – In rear wheel drive axles, solid axle shafts are used. – Front wheel drive vehicles use axles with constant velocity joints at each end to allow the axle to drive through angles. continued…
  35. 35. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-35 Drivetrain ComponentsDrivetrain Components • Transaxle – Combines the transmission and final drive assembly in one unit. – Transaxles are used in front wheel vehicles and are available in both standard and automatic models.
  36. 36. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-36 Running Gear ComponentsRunning Gear Components • Suspension system – Supports the body, frame, engine, and drivetrain. – The suspension system includes springs, shock absorbers, MacPherson struts, torsion bars, anti- sway bars and links, radius and strut rods and links. continued…
  37. 37. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-37 Running Gear ComponentsRunning Gear Components • Steering system – Allows the driver to control the direction of the vehicle. – The steering system includes the steering wheel, steering gear, steering shaft, and linkage. – Rack and pinion steering gears are commonly used in passenger cars. continued…
  38. 38. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-38 Running Gear ComponentsRunning Gear Components • Brakes – Allow the vehicle to slow down and stop. – Brake assemblies located at each wheel use friction to slow and stop the vehicle. – Two types of brakes are used disc brakes and drum brakes. – Many vehicles use a combination of both types. continued…
  39. 39. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-39 Running Gear ComponentsRunning Gear Components • Wheels and tires – Provide vehicle contact to the road. – Tires are made of different types of rubber along with other materials for strength. – Tire tread designs vary depending on their application. – Wheels are made of metal and vary in size and design.
  40. 40. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-40 VIN CharactersVIN Characters • First – Country of origin • Second – Manufacturer • Third – Vehicle type or manufacturing division • Fourth through eighth – Vehicle features • Ninth – Check digit • Tenth – Model year • Eleventh – Manufacturing plant • Twelfth through seventeenth – Production sequence
  41. 41. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-41 Typical PreventativeTypical Preventative Maintenance ChecksMaintenance Checks • Engine oil – Changing the engine oil and filter is the most recognized preventative maintenance item. – It is critical that the engine oil be changed on a regular basis. – Always use the correct oil rating and viscosity. continued…
  42. 42. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-42 Typical PreventativeTypical Preventative Maintenance ChecksMaintenance Checks • Cooling system – Check the coolant level in the recovery tank and add coolant if the level is low. – A mixture of antifreeze and water should be added. – Inspect all components for signs of leakage and/or damage and replace any cracked or swollen hoses. continued…
  43. 43. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-43 Typical PreventativeTypical Preventative Maintenance ChecksMaintenance Checks • Drive belts – Check the condition and tension of all drive belts on the engine. – Carefully inspect them for cracks, oil contamination, glazing, and tears and splits. – Replace all belts that are damaged in any way. continued…
  44. 44. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-44 Typical PreventativeTypical Preventative Maintenance ChecksMaintenance Checks • Battery – Visually inspect the battery for damage and corrosion. – Corrosion can be cleaned off with a mixture of baking soda and water. – The battery should be removed and cleaned when heavily corroded. continued…
  45. 45. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-45 Typical PreventativeTypical Preventative Maintenance ChecksMaintenance Checks • Transmission fluid – Automatic transmission fluid is a special fluid that is dyed red to prevent confusion. – The fluid level is generally checked with the vehicle running and in park or neutral. – Manual transaxles, transmissions and drive axles use specific lubricants. continued…
  46. 46. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-46 Typical PreventativeTypical Preventative Maintenance ChecksMaintenance Checks • Power steering fluid – The power steering fluid level is checked with the engine off. – A dipstick is normally part of the filler cap. – The fluid level should be checked when warm. – Use only the recommended fluid. continued…
  47. 47. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-47 Typical PreventativeTypical Preventative Maintenance ChecksMaintenance Checks • Brake fluid – The brake fluid level and condition should be checked at every oil change interval. – Brake fluid should be flushed every two years because it tends to absorb moisture – Ensure the diaphragm under the cap is not damaged. continued…
  48. 48. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-48 Typical PreventativeTypical Preventative Maintenance ChecksMaintenance Checks • Windshield washer fluid – Visually check the windshield washer fluid level and add fluid as necessary. – Do not add straight water or summer grade fluid in spring or fall as these can freeze damaging the tank and pump and clog the washer hoses and nozzles. continued…
  49. 49. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-49 Typical PreventativeTypical Preventative Maintenance ChecksMaintenance Checks • Wiper blades – Wiper blades should be replaced when they become dull, torn or brittle. – Failure to replace wiper blades before they fail can result in windshield damage. – When changing the blades also inspect the wiper arms and springs. continued…
  50. 50. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-50 Typical PreventativeTypical Preventative Maintenance ChecksMaintenance Checks • Tires – Tires should be checked for damage (nails, cuts, bulges and weather checks) and wear (At least 1.6 mm of tread depth). – Tire inflation pressure should be checked when refueling. – Follow the inflation specifications on the driver’s doorjamb decal.
  51. 51. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-51 SummarySummary • Dramatic changes to the automobile have occurred over the last 40 years. • Unibodies offer better occupant protection than body-on-frame designs. • Many systems on today’s vehicles are controlled by computers.
  52. 52. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-52 SummarySummary • All automobile engines used today are classified as internal combustion. • The cooling system maintains proper engine temperatures. • The lubrications system distributes motor oil throughout the engine.
  53. 53. Chapter 4 Copyright © 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 4-53 SummarySummary • The fuel system is responsible for fuel storage and delivery. • The electrical system of an automobile includes the ignition, starting, charging, and lighting systems.

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