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soil conservation

soil conservation and its methods,also soil conservation policies by javeria

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soil conservation

  2. 2. Content  Soil conservation  Methods for soil conservation cover crop plant tree TERRACE FARMING No till farming leaves Contour plowing Crop rotation Shelterbelt Salinity management Soil organisms Intercropping soil up topsoil Conservation Policies  Conclusion
  3. 3. SOIL CONSERVATION • Soil conservation is a set of management strategies for prevention of soil being eroded from the Earth’s surface or becoming chemically altered by overuse, acidification, Stalinization, soil erosion or other chemical soil contamination to retain the fertility of soil.
  4. 4.  Why is soil conservation important? • Provide nutrients • Recycle/filter water • Stores water • Soil is the basis of life on Earth • Plants get nutrients from soil and provide glucose & oxygen.
  5. 5. Cover crops • Cover crops are “close-growing crops that provide soil protection, seeding protection, and soil improvement between periods of normal crop production • Use of mixed cover crops, including grasses and legumes, increases the biomass return to the soil, enhances activity of soil organisms, and improves soil productivity
  6. 6. Advantages 1. protecting soil against erosion, 2. improving soil properties, 3. enhancing soil fertility, 4. suppressing weeds, 5. fixing N, 6. increasing soil organic matter content, 7. increasing crop yields, 8. recycling nutrients, 9. preventing leaching of nutrients, and 10. improving water quality
  7. 7. Plant Trees
  8. 8. Plant trees • We all know that the roots of trees firmly hold on to the soil. As trees grow tall, they also keep rooting deeper into the soil. As the roots of the trees spread deep into the layers of soil, they contribute to the prevention of soil erosion. • Soil that is under a vegetative cover has hardly any chance of getting eroded as the vegetative cover acts as a wind barrier as well.
  10. 10. TERRACE FARMING Terraces: Terracing is one of the very good methods of soil conservation. • In terrace farming make or form (sloping land) into a number of level flat areas resembling a series of steps. • Explanation: decreasing the slope by making it resemble “steps” which are commonly found on the side of a mountain or hill • Types of crops: rice, cotton, sugar cane, wheat, potatoes • Popular in Eastern Asia
  11. 11. Advantages: • reduces erosion • Contour farming effectively reduces rate of erosion in soils with slopes of up to 10% • Holds rainwater which allows for the cultivation of water intensive crops as mentioned before. • Farmers use this technique because it allows for the cultivation of water intensive crops in these areas because it helps trap and hold rainwater
  12. 12. No-Till Farming
  13. 13. No-Till Farming • No till farming leaves old material(stalks, cobs, leaves, etc.) behind when planting new crops. The old plants hold soil in place until new plants grow. • When soil is prepared for farming by ploughing it, the process is known as tiling. No-till farming is a way of growing crops without disturbing it through tillage. The process of tilling is beneficial in mixing fertilizers in the soil, shaping it into rows and preparing a surface for sowing. • Most prevalent in America (Eastern)
  14. 14. Benefits of No-Till Farming • control soil erosion • maintain crop productivity • increasing soil organic matter • Reduces wind erosion • Decreases soil evaporation. • Sustains crop production. • Promotes microbial processes (e.g., earthworm population and activity) • Improves soil physical conditions.
  15. 15. Contour plowing
  16. 16. Contour plowing • This practice of farming across the slopes takes into account the slope gradient and the elevation of soil across the slope. • It is the method of tilling sloped land in order to conserve rainwater, and with the help of furrows, crop rows, and wheel tracks across the slopes. • This method helps in slowing the water runoff and prevents the soil from being washed away along the slope. • Crops: corn, beans, or wheat • Most prevalent in the United States (Great Plains Region)
  17. 17. Advantages • it reduces erosion & run off • Helps preserve top soil and the minerals/fertilizers used for growing the crops • Farmers use it because it protects crops from violent storms or heavy rains and preserves top soil
  18. 18. Crop Rotation
  19. 19. Crop Rotation • Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons. • Continuous cultivation of the same crop also leads to an imbalance in the fertility demands of the soil. To prevent these adverse effects from taking place, crop rotation is practiced. • It is a method of growing a series of dissimilar crops in an area sequentially. • Planting three or more different crops before returning to the original crop constitutes long-term rotations
  20. 20. Advantages 1.reduce soil erosion, 2. improve soil properties, 3. increase organic matter content, 4. improve soil fertility, 5. increase crop yields, 6. reduce build-up of pests, 7. increase net profits, 8. improve wildlife habitat, 9. reduce use of chemicals, and 10. reduce water pollution.
  21. 21. Intercropping • Intercropping is a multiple cropping system where two or more crops are grown simultaneously on the same field • Intercropping takes into account all beneficial interactions between and among crops while creating possible negative interactions caused by the neighborly effects. • For example, plant species such as garlic and onion repel certain insects and protect adjacent vegetables (e.g., tomato, lettuce, carrot) from pest attacks provided that the competition for light and water is negligible. • Intercropping with legumes or deep-rooted plant species absorbs nutrients from deeper soil horizons and reduces N deficiencies among neighboring and succeeding non-legume crops.
  22. 22. Advantages • Reduces erosion and vulnerability. • Increases plant biodiversity to help disguise plants from insect species. • Improves the overall health of crops and decreases chance of disease. • it minimizes pest problems and improves soil fertility
  23. 23. Salinity management
  24. 24. Salinity management • The salinity of soil that is caused by the excessive accumulation of salts, has a negative effect on the metabolism of the crops in soil. • Salinity of soil is detrimental to the vegetative life in the soil. The death of vegetation is bound to cause soil erosion. • Hence, salinity management is one of the indirect ways to conserve soil. • In this method Flushing soil & leaching salt away
  25. 25. Windbreak (shelterbelt)
  26. 26. windbreak • A windbreak (shelterbelt) is a plantation usually made up of one or more rows of trees or shrubs planted in such a manner as to provide shelter from the wind and to protect soil from erosion. • They are commonly planted around the edges of fields on farms. • If designed properly, windbreaks around a home can reduce the cost of heating and cooling and save energy.
  27. 27. Soil organisms
  28. 28. Soil organisms • Organisms like earthworms and others benefiting the soil should be promoted. • Earthworms, through aeration of soil, enhance the availability of macronutrients in soil. They also enhance the porosity of soil. • The helpful organisms of soil promote its fertility and form an element in the conservation of soil.
  29. 29. Soil pH
  30. 30. Soil pH • The contamination of soil by addition of acidic or basic pollutants and acid rains has an adverse effect on the pH of soil. • Soil pH is one of the determinants of the availability of nutrients in soil. • The uptake of nutrients in plants is also governed to a certain extent, by the soil pH. • The maintenance of the most suitable value of pH, is thus, essential for the conservation of soil.
  31. 31. Soil Conservation Policies • In response to the Dust Bowl of the 1930’s, the US government increased support for soil conservation and best practices for agriculture. • Soil Conservation Service (SCS) – Established in 1935 to work with farmers to develop conservation plans for their farms. • Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) – SCS was renamed the NRCS in 1994 – and water quality protection was added to its responsibilities. • Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) – Part of the 1985 Farm Bill, it pays farmers to stop cultivating lands that erode easily and plant them instead with trees and deep-rooted grasses.
  32. 32. Conclusion • Well-designed cropping systems enhance soil fertility, reduce soil erosion,and improve soil properties • Management of cropping systems involves management of tillage, crop residues, nutrients, pests, and erosion control practices. • Cropping systems include fallow systems, monoculture, strip cropping, multiple cropping, contour strip cropping, crop rotations, cover crops, mixed and relay cropping, and organic farming. • Appropriate choice of cropping systems is a strategy to minimize environmental pollution.
  33. 33. Refrence • Principles of Soil Conservation and Management Author: Humberto Blanco, Rattan Lal • Soil Conservation with Farming: Terracing, Contour plowing, No-till agriculture ,By • Shanaya Reyes • www.slideshare.com • www.slideplayer.com • www.slideserve.com