2. Health education is a profession of educating people about health.
Areas within this profession encompass environmental health,
physical health, social health, mental health, emotional health,
intellectual health, and spiritual health
3. Purpose of Health Education
1. A means of propagating health promotion and disease prevention
Health education describes the interrelationship of the learner’s mental,
emotional, social, and physical health. It serves to analyze how
environment and personal health interrelate in ways that enhances health,
thereby reducing client risks.
2. May be used to modify or continue health behaviors if necessary
It determines strategies for health maintenance and risk reduction,
identifies short and long term consequences of various behaviors, and
demonstrates strategies for improving and maintaining personal, family and
4. 3. Provides health information and services
It demonstrates the ability to evaluate resources from home, school, and the
community that provide health information. It also used to assess the cost
and accessibility of health care services and analyze situations requiring
professional health services.
4. Emphasize on good health habits and practices which is an integral aspect of
culture and technology
Health education evaluates the influence of culture on the health behaviors
and care services which people get from healthcare providers. It evaluates
the effect media, technology and other factors on personal, family, and
community health. Health education analyzes information necessary in
reaching out to people in the community to facilitate understanding and
compliance with what is being taught geared towards self-reliant behavior.
5. 5. A means to communicate vital information to the public
Health education helps the family, peers, and others to communicate their
needs, wants, and feelings effectively to enable them to resolve health
conflicts and problems. This is done to communicate care, consideration and
respect for themselves and others.it also helps analyze possible causes of
conflict and in the formulation of strategies for solutions without harming
oneself or others.
6. It is also a form of advocacy
A means to work cooperatively with people in advocating health to individuals,
families, schools, and communities. It is the ability of the nurse to convey health
messages and use effective communication techniques to particular group of
people, influences these clients iin making positive health choices, and make use
of strategies to overcome barriers when discussing about information, ideas,
feelings, and opinions on health issues.
6. Dimensions of the Health Education Process
Health education is a complex process that requires electric knowledge, skills,
and values on the part of the educator. This needs a conceptual framework
which envisions the totality of the learning process and all its dimensions.
Heidgerken (1971) described the four (4) dimensions of the educative process,
Substantive or curricular dimension
Procedural or methodological dimension
Environmental or social dimensions and
Human relations or interactional dimensions
7. 1. Substantive or curricular dimensions
Subject matter is usually listed in the course curriculum which includes all
basic elements and learning activities for a particular planned purpose and
directed by a faculty member for a specific group of students
Provides opportunities for nursing students to acquire essential KSA to prepare them in actual nursing
8. 2. Procedural or methodological dimension
Consist of strategies or methods which motivates students to learn.
These are learner activities in teaching concepts ranging from those
planned by the teacher to those self-initiated by the students in their
quest for knowledge.
9. 3. Environmental or Social Dimensions
Refers to physical and social factors in the teaching-learning situation. It also
refers to extrinsic factors that capture the interest of the learner. In turn, it
makes students adapt to varying changes in order to see the difference
between what is ideal from what is real.
Physical factors refer to the actual setting where learning takes place, including
a. The classroom, equipped with audio-visual materials
b. Laboratory settings, such as skills laboratory, RLE lab commensurate
with the numbers of students.
c. Home-based and modern or traditional hospital set-ups, and
d. Community health agencies
10. 4. Human Relations Dimension
The human relations dimension takes into account the relationships of the
nurse with individuals involved in nursing care practice which influence the
effectiveness of the teaching and learning process. It includes the following:
a. The learners who are the recipients of knowledge
b. The teacher as the source of knowledge
c. Administrator, who are resource allocator
d. Group of learners, the holistic use of knowledge in a discipline
e. Patient, the end-users of the nurse’s teaching and learning experience
f. Nursing service personnel knowledge of and training support for
g. Allied health personnel and their group interaction.
12. 1. Behavioral science
The behavioral sciences which incorporate psychology, sociology and
cultural anthropology, are concerned with how people behave and why
they behave in a particular way. They define the primary determinants of
behavior as follows:
a. Psychological – predispositions such as attitudes, knowledge,
beliefs, skills, and experiences;
b. Environmental reinforcement: family, friends, authority figures,
and associates; and
c. Socio-cultural context: sustained societal norms such as attitudes
13. 2. Public health
Health promotion is a common function in public health agencies. Health
education relies on public health and health statistics for epidemiologic
information. Determinants of health problems include the environment,
medical care, personal lifestyle which are often discovered in the public
14. 3. Education
Education refers to the study and practice of teaching and learning which
plays a vital role in the development of health education. Learning theory,
educational psychology, human development, pedagogy, andragogy,
curriculum development, measurement, and testing are all rooted in the
15. Importance of health education
Health education is a system of teaching and learning process. It facilitates
common understanding among people in a social structure to modify
behaviors, make decisions and change social conditions in ways that are
health enhancing. Among its many aims are the following:
1. Enhance knowledge awareness
Provides guidance and instruction of all that will help individuals or groups
of individuals maintain a high level of wellness.
16. 2. Promotes health, safety, and security of the people.
Promotes personal hygiene, environmental sanitation, and maintenance of
hazard-free environment for one to avoid illnesses, accidents and reduce
morbidity and mortality rate.
3. Develop and improve community resources
Help individuals gain knowledge, understanding, habits, attitudes, and
ideals that will help them live as healthful individuals and members of the
17. 4. Increase productivity and strength of character.
Help develop productive individuals who can adjust successfully and live
happily with social group in which they belong. Health education further
enhance coping patterns that minimizes the effects of stress on individuals
5. Disease prevention
Promotes individual and public health awareness on prevention of disease
and for the state to be the home of healthy and productive citizens.
18. 6. Minimize cost
Health education enables the government to attain health objectives at
least cost. Knowledge and awareness of the people regarding health
promotion and disease prevention minimize health are cost.
7. Self-reliant behavior
Health education provides information and services necessary in fostering
independent behaviors or attitudes conducive to health
19. The Change Process
“nothing is permanent but change” –Heraclitus (500 BC)
Change is inevitable in all aspects of human life, hence there is continuing need
to reevaluate and improve the educational process in order to meet the
evolving needs of learners. School administrators and educators should
familiarize with current trends, issues, and practices related to both nursing and
20. 1. Perceive the need for change
Teacher and students must be able to assess their own need for change.
Progress requires modification, improvement or replacement of obsolete
knowledge through re-education and training. Change is a necessary
ingredient to modify or improve teaching and learning to attain progress.
21. 2. Initiate group interaction
The teacher must initiate and motivate her students to think critically of
nursing situations which will help them build a framework for problem-
solving process, which calls for the following responses:
a) Identify external and internal forces for changes;
b) State the problem;
c) Identify constraints;
d) List change strategies or possible approaches to problem-
e) Select the best change strategy;
f) Formulate the plan for implementation; and
g) Develop or select tools for evaluating change.
22. 3. Implement change one step at a time
Change must be done gradually one at a time in order to have an orderly
and systematic process of change and to safeguard undesirable adverse
effects of change. Abrupt change can create further resistance or fear of
23. 4. Evaluate the overall results of the change process and make further
This helps student identify strengths and weaknesses so as to provide
remedial measures and allow the gradual process of change to occur with
less problems or difficulty on the part of the teacher and the learners.
24. Managing change
Considering how far-reaching the effects of change can be, it is important to
identify a particular management strategy for change
1. Empirical-rational strategy
This is strategy which assumes that learners are rational beings with mental
faculties and behave according to their personal beliefs, interests and
25. 2. Normative or re-educative strategy
This strategy assumes that learners always act consistently with their
commitment to socio-cultural norms of behavior and are therefore willing
to change for purposes of acceptance and recognition.
26. 1. Power-coercive strategy
This is a strategy which makes learners comply with instructions given by the
teacher as an authoritative figure in order to bring about change, it is more
traditional in style as it often demotivates students and could make teaching
and learning processes offensive.
27. Factors affecting change
Change is a part of learning desired by both the teacher and the learner.
However, constraints and difficulties are often encountered as the learners
undergoes the process of change. Following are barriers to change.
Culture determines the beliefs and values important to the learner that
may delineate the potential development for change. Some cultures
compete with change, other welcome change while some resist change.
Thus, the socio-cultural background and the learner’s personal
characteristics influence the process of change.
28. 2. Demographics
This pertains to the learner’s age, gender, heredity, and environmental
which may determine innate qualities and potentials as well as
tendencies and level of response to learning stimuli.
29. 3. Socioeconomic conditions and environmental circumstances
This may involve the learner’s adaptability, flexibility, and capabilities in
creating change that may influence the quality and quantity of response to
the change process. The learner’s position in the community, social
interactions and economic status greatly affects much of the learner’s
response to change.
30. 4. State of wellness and development
The learner’s state of well-being and development relates to his physical,
emotional, intellectual and spiritual health. This affects the instinctive
qualities of the learner’s response to a stimuli and capability of coping
with stress related situations.
31. Change and its effect on the Filipino health value system based on a
list of change barriers, the Philippines is a classic example of how
large scale change can influence the state of the health care system.
Following are some medical health remedies used by Filipinos.
1. Home remedies
One remedy is the use of oils or ointments, which serve as “cure-
alls” for relaxing, heating, and comforting the muscles or
providing relief for dizziness, colds, headaches, and sore throats,
32. 2. Traditional healing techniques
The use of herbal medical leaves such as “lagundi”, “banaba”, “pitu-pito”
and other sources like the bark of trees and stem of plants in the treatment
of various diseases and disorders in the absence of western medical
intervention or medical equipment.
33. 3. Supernatural healing or the use of faith healers
Supernatural healing is a holistic and uniform approach to healing which
incorporates belief in the concurrent physical, emotional, and spiritual state
of the patient.
34. 4. Regulated drugs or medicines
These are research based drugs commonly referred to as regulated
“prescription drugs”. They require prescription from doctors due to
expected adverse effects. These are commonly produced and
manufactured by pharmaceutical companies.
36. The Education Process
The education process is a systematic, sequential, logical, scientific based,
planned course of action consisting of teaching and learning. It is a cycle that
involves a teacher and a learner. A teaching-learning process occurs before
the lesson begins and continues after the last lesson ends. This includes the
3. Implementation and application of the teaching plan
37. 1. Assessment
Assessment is a process which provides the nurse educator with
information regarding the students’ knowledge and skills needed to
efficiently and effectively transfer knowledge and skills to the learners.
38. 2. Planning
Planning is a carefully organized written presentation of what the learner
needs to learn and how the nurse educator is going to initiate the teaching
It indicates teaching timeline and specific sets of learner activities.
39. 3. Implementation and application of the teaching plan
Implementation is the point where the theoretical and practical aspects of
the teaching-learning process meet as the teacher applies the plan
This includes procedures or techniques and strategies that the teacher will
use to best implement the plan.
40. 4. Evaluation
Evaluation is the measurement of the teaching-learning performance of
both the teacher and the learner.
Evaluation must be constructive and objective with the purpose of creating
effective change in the behavior of both the teacher and the learner in
terms of input, process and output.
42. 1. Lecturing
Lecture is the most traditional method associated with teaching in which the
teacher simply conveys the knowledge to the students in a one-way channel of
It is use to integrate and synthesize a large body of knowledge from
several fields or sources and used to clarify difficult concepts.
43. Advantage of the Lecture Method
Having a specific period of time, it allows uniformity of knowledge to be
learned for all
students in a class;
It is economical and cost effective since only one is entrusted to deliver
It helps develop students’ listening abilities
44. Disadvantage of the Lecture Method
Few teachers are good lecturers who can deliver topics according to
students’ level of understanding;
By nature, the lecture method lends itself to the teaching of facts with little
emphasis placed on problem-solving, decision making, analytical thinking,
and transfer of learning;
Not conductive to meeting students’ individual learning needs since it is
limited only to a single approach of delivering the topic;
Allows limited attention span of the learner.
45. 2. Discussion
Discussion retains some of the features of lecturing when the
teacher still imparts the lesson to the students through interaction.
This time she gives them opportunity to share their insights or
understanding of the topic. It may be formal or informal. It allows
greater student teacher interaction and or student to student
Discussion presupposed that the learners have already been
introduced to a body of information on which they can base their
discussion. Its purpose is to give learners an opportunity to apply
principles, concepts, and theories, as well as clarify information
46. Advantage of Discussion Method:
Helps students learn the process of group problem-solving
Supports students ways to develop and evaluate their beliefs and positions
Can foster attitude change trough understanding and allow student
freedom to assert their opinions or views hence, application of new
knowledge takes place;
Many students like and prefer this to other method
47. Disadvantage of the Discussion Method
Students use more time to think and interact;
Effective only in small groups due to time constraints
May not be an efficient way of communicating information because sharing
takes time to settle specific topics for discussion;
Useful only if the participants come prepared with the needed background
48. 3. Question and Answer Techniques
The teacher initiates the learning process by asking students about
their insights and ideas regarding the subject matter. In this method,
the teacher ask students what they understand of the subject matter
to determine what they have already learned and what they need to
Questioning is integral to teaching that is often taken for
granted. Its use places learners in an active role. It can be used to
assess students’ competencies and baseline knowledge to find out
what a group already knows about the subject in order to view its
49. There are 7 types of questions, as follows:
Factual questions. It demand simple recall or retrieval of information.
Example: *What is fetal monitoring?”
Probing Question. These are used when a teacher wants a learner to further
explain an answer, or dig deeper into the subject matter.
Example: Reasons why fetal monitoring is done during labor
Multiple Choice Questions. These can be oral or written. They usually test
recall and can be used to begin a discussion.
Example: “What are the most to least indicator of fetal distress
requiring close monitoring?”
50. Open-ended questions. These encompass all questions that require learners to construct an
Example: “When should fetal monitoring be used?”
• Discussion-simulating questions. These are questions which can help the discussion move along
for a clearer or better view of the subject matter.
example: what would be the effect of fetal monitoring to both the mother and the fetus?
• Questions that guide problem-solving. The teacher needs to phrase and sequence questions
carefully in order to guide learners in problem-solving thinking process.
• Example: what other options do we have to assess fetal status aside from fetal monitoring?
Rhetorical questions. It is sometimes appropriate to ask questions for which one expect no
answers at the time. Such questions can be used to stimulate thinking in the class and may
guide learners asking their own questions while studying a topic.
• Example: in what way will fetal monitoring promote safe labor and/or predict
complications of labor?
51. 4. Use of Audiovisual Aids
Using audiovisuals is a traditional method that can reinforce teaching
and learning. It is used as supplement to a lecture, as a prelude to
discussion, or a part of questioning strategy.
Types of traditional audiovisuals include:
Handouts or printed materials used to help communicate facts, figures and
Chalkboards or whiteboards are universally used in education and allow
spontaneity in classroom discussion
52. Overhead transparency is a sheet of acetate placed on overhead
projector that enlarges and projects the image onto a screen
Powerpoint slides are used to show words, concepts for discussion,
picture or project diagrams and charts.
Videotapes are used to find meaning in case scenarios, biographic,
clinical procedures, or situations which the students need to reflect on
to determine their relevance and implication.
Promotion: activity that supports or provides active encouragement for the furtherance of a cause, venture, or aim.
Advocacy: public support for or recommendation of a particular cause or policy.)
Dimensions: an aspect or feature of a situation
best embodied by the phrase with “what is taught and what is learned”.)
a particular part or feature of something
Psychology: the scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behavior in a given context.
the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting humanhealth through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals
This way teachers may be able to provide effective ways that will equip learners with vital knowledge and skills in facing the challenges of life.
This can be done through identification and discussions with a specific group of people and areas that need change.
Sociocultural norms are rules that a group or society uses to determine what is appropriate and inappropriate in behavior, expression, and values.
It is a self-made process and the extent of learning depends on the learners’ prospective goals or behavior change.
a limitation or restriction
often Chinese in origin, These include simple touch, light massage or efflurage, salt gargle, increased water intake, and ventilated rooms, among others.
Faith healing uses techniques which include blessing of the body with holy water, prayers and devotions, laying hands on the patient’s body, and anointing with oil, flagellation, or isolation.
They can be bought by a patient from the counter w/o Rx from the physician.
Assessment also refers to the gathering of data about the learner’s or group of learners demographic profile, skills, and abilities needed in identifying the most appropriate teaching strategy.
Planning also includes culturally-relevant skills for the learner, the goals of learning, type of teaching-learning setting such as: classroom, laboratory, clinical, or ward setting.
Lecturing can be an efficient means of introducing learners to new topics.
In a discussion approach, a topic is announced in advance and the class is asked to take part in the discussion by reading a certain material or watching a videotape among other activities
Questioning can increase motivation of learners as it brings about eagerness to learn answers to questions asked. It can be used to guide learners; through process and direct them to a certain area of interest.
When used appropriately, audiovisuals can greatly enhance teaching and add to students’ interest and facilitates understanding of the subject matter in the classroom.