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2. Properties of Organic Chemistry
3. comparison of Compounds
4. Sources of Organic Compounds
5. Types of Organic Compounds
6.Types of Organic Formula
8. Structural Formulas of Carbon
10 Classification of Organic Compounds
Is the chemistry of the compounds
Chemistry of compounds that
contains the element of carbon.
Organic compounds were those
obtained from plant or animal
sources, that is from material
produced by living organisms.
Organic chemistry is the area of chemistry that
involves the study of carbon and its compounds
(Oparin, 1923) In theory organic chemistry may
have its beginnings with the big bang when the
components of ammonia, nitrogen, carbon dioxide
and methane combined to form amino acids, an
experiment that has been verified in the laboratory
In the 16th century organic compounds were
isolated from nature in the pure state (Scheele,
1769) and analytical methods were developed for
determination of elemental composition
Frederich Wöhler (1828) discovered that urea, a
natural component in urine, could be synthesized
in the laboratory by heating ammonium cyanate.
By the middle of the nineteenth century many
advances had been made into the discovery,
analysis and synthesis of many new organic
compounds. Understanding about the structures
of organic chemistry began with a theory of
bonding called valence theory (Kekule, Couper,
Organic chemistry is a field of immense
importance to technology.
Organic chemistry is fundamental to biology and
Living organisms are made up of organic
compounds; the molecules of “molecular biology”
are organic molecules.
Biology, on molecular level is Organic
We are now living in the Age of Carbon.
Every day the newspapers bring to our attention
compounds of carbon.
Wars are fought over petroleum.
Twin catastrophes threaten us both arising from the
accumulation in the atmosphere of compounds of
1990 the journal Science selected as the molecules of
the year of diamond, one of the allotropic form of
THE CHEmISTry Of...
Organic compound could be made by living cell
or organs.(present in living organism).
The word “organic” is still used today by some
people to mean “coming from living organisms”
The commonly used term “organic food” means
that the food was grown without the use of
synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.
An “organic vitamin” means to these people that
the vitamin was isolated from a natural source and
not synthesized by a chemist.
It is impossible to argue that pure “natural”
vitamin c, for example, is healthier than pure
“synthetic” vitamin c, since the two sub- stances
are identical in all respects.
In science today, the study of compounds from
living organisms is called natural products
Properties of Organic Compounds
Organic compounds, in general, differ greatly from
inorganic compounds in seven respects:
usually less soluble
Organic compounds, in
general, have lower
melting and boiling
Several organic compounds may exist
for a given formula. This is known as
Reactions of organic compounds are usually
molecular rather than ionic. As a result, they
are often quite slow.
Organic are form covalent leakage
The molecular weights of organic compounds
may be very high, often well over 1000.
Most organic compounds can serve as a source
of food for bacteria.
Comparison of organic and inOrganic Compounds
Organic are form covalent leakage while
inorganic are joined with electrovalent or ionic
Organic burn readily, some spontaneously to
give CO2 ,H2O and in some cases other produces
inorganic incombustible compounds
Organic are less soluble in water, but more
soluble in organic liquids like alcohol, ether,
chloroform and benzene.
Organic are less stable towards heat.
Organic are less reactive than in organic.
Sources of Organic Compounds
Organic compounds are derived from three sources:
Nature: fibers, vegetable oils, animal oils and fats,
alkaloids, cellulose, starch, sugars, and so on.
Synthesis: A wide variety of compounds and
materials prepared by manufacturing processes.
Fermentation: Alcohols, acetone, glycerol,
antibiotics, acids, and the like are derived by the
action of microorganisms upon organic matter.
The wastes produced in the processing of
natural organic materials and from the synthetic
organic and fermentation industries constitute a
major part of the industrial and hazardous
waste problems that environmental engineers
and scientists are called upon to solve.
PETROLEUM AND COAL
Both of these are organic.
Two large reservoirs of organic materials.
Products of the decay of plants and animals.
We recognize these as the fossil fuels – non
Petroleum are being consumed at an alarming
rate to meet our constantly increasing demands
Less than 10% of it used goes into making
chemicals and most of it simply burned to supply
Types of Organic Compounds
Natural Organic Compound – refer to those
produced by plants and animals. Many of these
compounds are still extracted from natural sources
because they would be far too expensive to
Synthetic Organic Compounds – are
produced in the laboratories.
These chemicals that do not occur naturally.
Is one of the most interesting elements,
because its compound are present in all
The number of compounds that contain
carbon is many times greater than the
number of compounds that do not contain
Carbon atoms can attached themselves to
one another to an extent not possible for
atoms of any other element.
Carbon atoms can form
chains thousands of atoms
long, or rings of all sizes;
the chains and rings can
have branches and cross-links.
To the carbon atoms of these chains
and rings there are attached other
atoms, chiefly hydrogen, but also
fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine,
oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus
and many others.
Each different arrangement of atoms
corresponds to a different compound,
and each compound has its own
characteristic set of chemical
How is it possible to have so many
compounds of carbon?
There are two reasons.
In the first place, carbon normally has
four covalent bonds (four electrons to
Most important reason is concerned
with the ability of carbon atoms to
link together by covalent bonding in
a wide variety of ways like chains and
ring s molecules
What are the other elements considered
as organic compounds?
C, H, O, N, S, P and halogens and
sometimes the metals are elements
considered as organic compounds.
Number of organic compounds are
more than 1 million.
10 to 20 times the number of inorganic
Structural formulas of carbon
Continuous open chain
chain with branches
in a ring
in chains or rings containing other
In inorganic chemistry, a molecular
formula is specific for one
In organic chemistry, most
molecular formulas do not represent
any particular compound.
For example, the molecular formula
C3H6O3 represents at least four separate
Compounds having the same molecular
formula are known as isomers.
The term structural formulas is applied
to molecular representations as drawn
for the four compounds.
may be written as;
CLASSIFICATIONS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Organic compounds are often
classified according to the type (s)
of functional groups present.
Certain Organic compounds contain
only two elements, Hydrogen and Carbon
They are known as Hydrocarbons.
Hydrocarbons are divided into two
- Aliphatic hydrocarbon
- Aromatic hydrocarbon
Aliphatic hydrocarbons are divided into
Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and their cyclic
Aliphatic compounds are those in which
the characteristic groups are linked to a
straight or branched carbon chain.
these groups linked to
a particular type of
ring that contains