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ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 
Is the chemistry of the compounds 
of carbon. 
Chemistry of compounds that 
contains the element of c...
HISTORY 
Organic chemistry is the area of chemistry that 
involves the study of carbon and its compounds 
(Oparin, 1923)...
In the 16th century organic compounds were 
isolated from nature in the pure state (Scheele, 
1769) and analytical method...
By the middle of the nineteenth century many 
advances had been made into the discovery, 
analysis and synthesis of many ...
Organic chemistry is a field of immense 
importance to technology. 
Organic chemistry is fundamental to biology and 
med...
We are now living in the Age of Carbon. 
Every day the newspapers bring to our attention 
compounds of carbon. 
Wars are...
THE CHEmISTry Of... 
Natural Products 
Organic compound could be made by living cell 
or organs.(present in living organi...
 An “organic vitamin” means to these people that 
the vitamin was isolated from a natural source and 
not synthesized by ...
Properties of Organic Compounds 
Organic compounds, in general, differ greatly from 
inorganic compounds in seven respects...
Organic compounds 
are usually 
combustible. 
Organic compounds, in 
general, have lower 
melting and boiling 
points.
Several organic compounds may exist 
for a given formula. This is known as 
isomerism
Reactions of organic compounds are usually 
molecular rather than ionic. As a result, they 
are often quite slow. 
Organ...
The molecular weights of organic compounds 
may be very high, often well over 1000. 
Most organic compounds can serve as...
Comparison of organic and inOrganic Compounds 
Organic are form covalent leakage while 
inorganic are joined with electro...
Organic are less soluble in water, but more 
soluble in organic liquids like alcohol, ether, 
chloroform and benzene. 
O...
Sources of Organic Compounds 
Organic compounds are derived from three sources: 
Nature: fibers, vegetable oils, animal o...
Synthesis: A wide variety of compounds and 
materials prepared by manufacturing processes.
Fermentation: Alcohols, acetone, glycerol, 
antibiotics, acids, and the like are derived by the 
action of microorganisms...
The wastes produced in the processing of 
natural organic materials and from the synthetic 
organic and fermentation indus...
PETROLEUM AND COAL 
Both of these are organic. 
Two large reservoirs of organic materials. 
Products of the decay of pl...
Types of Organic Compounds 
Natural Organic Compound – refer to those 
produced by plants and animals. Many of these 
comp...
Synthetic Organic Compounds – are 
produced in the laboratories. 
These chemicals that do not occur naturally.
Types of organic formula
CARBON 
Is one of the most interesting elements, 
because its compound are present in all 
living things. 
The number of...
Carbon atoms can form 
chains thousands of atoms 
long, or rings of all sizes; 
the chains and rings can 
have branches an...
To the carbon atoms of these chains 
and rings there are attached other 
atoms, chiefly hydrogen, but also 
fluorine, chl...
How is it possible to have so many 
compounds of carbon? 
There are two reasons. 
In the first place, carbon normally has...
Most important reason is concerned 
with the ability of carbon atoms to 
link together by covalent bonding in 
a wide var...
What are the other elements considered 
as organic compounds? 
C, H, O, N, S, P and halogens and 
sometimes the metals ar...
Structural formulas of carbon 
Continuous open chain 
chain with branches
 in a ring 
in chains or rings containing other 
elements
isomerism 
In inorganic chemistry, a molecular 
formula is specific for one 
compound. 
In organic chemistry, most 
mole...
For example, the molecular formula 
C3H6O3 represents at least four separate 
compounds: 
Compounds having the same molecu...
The term structural formulas is applied 
to molecular representations as drawn 
for the four compounds. 
may be written a...
CLASSIFICATIONS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 
Organic compounds are often 
classified according to the type (s) 
of functional gr...
HYDROCARBONS 
 Certain Organic compounds contain 
only two elements, Hydrogen and Carbon 
They are known as Hydrocarbons...
 Aliphatic hydrocarbons are divided into 
families 
Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and their cyclic 
analogous (cycloaliphatic...
Aliphatic compounds are those in which 
the characteristic groups are linked to a 
straight or branched carbon chain. 
A...
Intro to Organic chemistry
Intro to Organic chemistry
Intro to Organic chemistry
Intro to Organic chemistry
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Intro to Organic chemistry

Organic Chemistry
1. History
2. Properties of Organic Chemistry
3. comparison of Compounds
4. Sources of Organic Compounds
5. Types of Organic Compounds
6.Types of Organic Formula
7. Carbon
8. Structural Formulas of Carbon
9. Isomerism
10 Classification of Organic Compounds
11. HydroCarbons

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Intro to Organic chemistry

  1. 1. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
  2. 2. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Is the chemistry of the compounds of carbon. Chemistry of compounds that contains the element of carbon. Organic compounds were those obtained from plant or animal sources, that is from material produced by living organisms.
  3. 3. HISTORY Organic chemistry is the area of chemistry that involves the study of carbon and its compounds (Oparin, 1923) In theory organic chemistry may have its beginnings with the big bang when the components of ammonia, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and methane combined to form amino acids, an experiment that has been verified in the laboratory (Miller, 1950)
  4. 4. In the 16th century organic compounds were isolated from nature in the pure state (Scheele, 1769) and analytical methods were developed for determination of elemental composition (Lavoisier, 1784). Frederich Wöhler (1828) discovered that urea, a natural component in urine, could be synthesized in the laboratory by heating ammonium cyanate.
  5. 5. By the middle of the nineteenth century many advances had been made into the discovery, analysis and synthesis of many new organic compounds. Understanding about the structures of organic chemistry began with a theory of bonding called valence theory (Kekule, Couper, 1858).
  6. 6. Organic chemistry is a field of immense importance to technology. Organic chemistry is fundamental to biology and medicine. Living organisms are made up of organic compounds; the molecules of “molecular biology” are organic molecules. Biology, on molecular level is Organic Chemistry.
  7. 7. We are now living in the Age of Carbon. Every day the newspapers bring to our attention compounds of carbon. Wars are fought over petroleum. Twin catastrophes threaten us both arising from the accumulation in the atmosphere of compounds of carbon. 1990 the journal Science selected as the molecules of the year of diamond, one of the allotropic form of carbon.
  8. 8. THE CHEmISTry Of... Natural Products Organic compound could be made by living cell or organs.(present in living organism). The word “organic” is still used today by some people to mean “coming from living organisms” The commonly used term “organic food” means that the food was grown without the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.
  9. 9.  An “organic vitamin” means to these people that the vitamin was isolated from a natural source and not synthesized by a chemist. It is impossible to argue that pure “natural” vitamin c, for example, is healthier than pure “synthetic” vitamin c, since the two sub- stances are identical in all respects.  In science today, the study of compounds from living organisms is called natural products chemistry.
  10. 10. Properties of Organic Compounds Organic compounds, in general, differ greatly from inorganic compounds in seven respects:  Organic compounds are usually less soluble in water.
  11. 11. Organic compounds are usually combustible. Organic compounds, in general, have lower melting and boiling points.
  12. 12. Several organic compounds may exist for a given formula. This is known as isomerism
  13. 13. Reactions of organic compounds are usually molecular rather than ionic. As a result, they are often quite slow. Organic are form covalent leakage
  14. 14. The molecular weights of organic compounds may be very high, often well over 1000. Most organic compounds can serve as a source of food for bacteria.
  15. 15. Comparison of organic and inOrganic Compounds Organic are form covalent leakage while inorganic are joined with electrovalent or ionic compounds. Organic burn readily, some spontaneously to give CO2 ,H2O and in some cases other produces inorganic incombustible compounds
  16. 16. Organic are less soluble in water, but more soluble in organic liquids like alcohol, ether, chloroform and benzene. Organic are less stable towards heat. Organic are less reactive than in organic.
  17. 17. Sources of Organic Compounds Organic compounds are derived from three sources: Nature: fibers, vegetable oils, animal oils and fats, alkaloids, cellulose, starch, sugars, and so on.
  18. 18. Synthesis: A wide variety of compounds and materials prepared by manufacturing processes.
  19. 19. Fermentation: Alcohols, acetone, glycerol, antibiotics, acids, and the like are derived by the action of microorganisms upon organic matter.
  20. 20. The wastes produced in the processing of natural organic materials and from the synthetic organic and fermentation industries constitute a major part of the industrial and hazardous waste problems that environmental engineers and scientists are called upon to solve.
  21. 21. PETROLEUM AND COAL Both of these are organic. Two large reservoirs of organic materials. Products of the decay of plants and animals. We recognize these as the fossil fuels – non renewable. Petroleum are being consumed at an alarming rate to meet our constantly increasing demands for power. Less than 10% of it used goes into making chemicals and most of it simply burned to supply
  22. 22. Types of Organic Compounds Natural Organic Compound – refer to those produced by plants and animals. Many of these compounds are still extracted from natural sources because they would be far too expensive to produced artificially.
  23. 23. Synthetic Organic Compounds – are produced in the laboratories. These chemicals that do not occur naturally.
  24. 24. Types of organic formula
  25. 25. CARBON Is one of the most interesting elements, because its compound are present in all living things. The number of compounds that contain carbon is many times greater than the number of compounds that do not contain carbon. Carbon atoms can attached themselves to one another to an extent not possible for atoms of any other element.
  26. 26. Carbon atoms can form chains thousands of atoms long, or rings of all sizes; the chains and rings can have branches and cross-links.
  27. 27. To the carbon atoms of these chains and rings there are attached other atoms, chiefly hydrogen, but also fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and many others. Each different arrangement of atoms corresponds to a different compound, and each compound has its own characteristic set of chemical
  28. 28. How is it possible to have so many compounds of carbon? There are two reasons. In the first place, carbon normally has four covalent bonds (four electrons to share).
  29. 29. Most important reason is concerned with the ability of carbon atoms to link together by covalent bonding in a wide variety of ways like chains and ring s molecules
  30. 30. What are the other elements considered as organic compounds? C, H, O, N, S, P and halogens and sometimes the metals are elements considered as organic compounds. Number of organic compounds are more than 1 million. 10 to 20 times the number of inorganic compounds.
  31. 31. Structural formulas of carbon Continuous open chain chain with branches
  32. 32.  in a ring in chains or rings containing other elements
  33. 33. isomerism In inorganic chemistry, a molecular formula is specific for one compound. In organic chemistry, most molecular formulas do not represent any particular compound.
  34. 34. For example, the molecular formula C3H6O3 represents at least four separate compounds: Compounds having the same molecular formula are known as isomers.
  35. 35. The term structural formulas is applied to molecular representations as drawn for the four compounds. may be written as;
  36. 36. CLASSIFICATIONS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Organic compounds are often classified according to the type (s) of functional groups present.
  37. 37. HYDROCARBONS  Certain Organic compounds contain only two elements, Hydrogen and Carbon They are known as Hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are divided into two classes. - Aliphatic hydrocarbon - Aromatic hydrocarbon
  38. 38.  Aliphatic hydrocarbons are divided into families Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and their cyclic analogous (cycloaliphatic)
  39. 39. Aliphatic compounds are those in which the characteristic groups are linked to a straight or branched carbon chain. Aromatic compounds have these groups linked to a particular type of six-member carbon ring that contains three alternating double bonds.

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