Coral Reef Essay

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Essay about Coral Reefs: At Risk coral reef Essay Essay On Coral Reef Coral Reefs Essay examples Coral Reefs Essay Coral Reef Research Paper Descriptive Writing On A Coral Reef Essay about The Ecosystem of the Coral Reef Informative Essay On Coral Reefs Coral Reef Climate Change Essay Coral Reef Essay Coral Reefs Essay Red Coral Reef Essay Speech On Coral Reefs The Coral Reefs Essay Coral Reef Research Paper Coral Reefs and How We Can Save Them Essay Coral Reefs And Coral Reef Coral Reef Essay Essay about Coral Reefs

Essay about Coral Reefs: At Risk
Coral reefs are diverse ecosystems that emanate great beauty while providing a home to many
marine inhabitants. Coral reefs, being a marine ecosystem, are extremely important for the overall
health of the surrounding environment. They provide food and shelter to a large bio–diverse
population. Coral reefs are among the world's oldest, most diverse, and most productive ecosystems
(Miller and Hackett 129). Coral reefs are found in shallow coastal regions of warm tropical and
subtropical oceans. Coral reefs are formed by massive colonies of tiny animals called polyps. The
polyps build reefs by secreting a protective crust of calcium carbonate around their bodies. When the
polyps die their empty crusts remain as a platform for more reef...show more content...
A number of forces threaten the survival of coral reefs and the organisms that depended on them.
Coral reefs worldwide are in serious decline because of coral disease and bleaching primarily brought
on by underlining human induced disturbances.
A healthy coral reef requires moderate water temperatures, clear and clean water, and an intricate
series of interacting organisms, plants, and animals. Coral reefs are delicate structures and anything
that disrupts the dynamics of its environment can be detrimental. Global warming refers to the rising
average temperature of the earth's atmospheric and oceanic temperatures. Since the beginning of the
Industrial Revolution, the influence of human activities has been deeply intertwined with global
warming. Global warming has an immense potential to alter ecosystem functioning and consequently
alter the functioning of the plants, the animals and the other life forms that live within the
ecosystem. On a global scale, atmospheric emis–sions of greenhouse gases are causing ocean
temperatures to increase, pH levels to decrease (resulting in ocean acidification), and sea levels to
rise, according to the U.S. Global Change Research Program. Most coral reefs can not tolerate an
increase in temperature and a lower pH. Coral polyps use calcium from sea–water to create their
hard skeletons in a process called calcifica–tion. Experimental studies indicate that increases in
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coral reef Essay
CORAL REEFS
Almost every one of us have heard and most of you have seen the Coral reefs but did you know
what actually these are:
As a mariner its important to know about the marine life, that was one reason I have chosen this
topic for my today's short presentation.
GM, my scheme of presentation will be as flashed:
DEFINATION OF CORAL REEF
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CORAL AND CORAL POLYP
WHERE WE CAN FIND CORAL
CONSTRUCTION OF CORAL REEFS
CONDITIONS FOR GROWTH OF CORAL REEFS
TYPES OF CORAL REEFS
THREAT TO CROAL REEFS
WHAT SHOULD A MARINER DO IN CORAL RICH AREAS
FUTURE OF CORAL REEFS
CONCLUSION
What is a coral reef?
Coral reefs are huge structures made of limestone that is deposited by living things. There are
thousands of species that...show more content...
Soft corals are found in both tropical seas and in cool, dark regions.
What is a coral polyp?
A coral polyp is a spineless animal. Coral polyps can be the size of a pinhead while others are
larger, sometimes a foot in diameter. One coral branch or mound is covered by thousands of these
animals. They are invertebrates (spineless animals) and are cousins of anemones and jellyfish.
When thousands of these animals are grouped together, they are referred to as coral colonies. Each
coral "tree" or "mound" is one colony of coral polyps. A polyp has a
sac–like body and an opening or mouth encircled by stinging tentacles called cnidae. The polyp uses
calcium carbonate from seawater to build itself a hard, cup–shaped skeleton. This limestone skeleton
protects the soft, delicate body of the polyp. Coral polyps are usually nocturnal, meaning that they
stay inside their skeletons during the day. At night, polyps extend their tentacles out to feed.
Where do corals live?
Coral reefs are found in over 100 countries. Most reefs are located between the tropics of Cancer
and Capricorn, in places such as the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Caribbean, the Red Sea
and the Arabian Gulf. Corals are also found farther from the equator in places where warm currents
flow out of the tropics, such as Florida and southern Japan. Worldwide, coral reefs cover an
estimated 284,300 square kilometers (110,000 square miles).
How old are
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Essay On Coral Reef
Wading through the water with my own school of flying fish felt good. Safe and sound while
filling up on plankton. That was, until I spotted something shiny. Swimming away from my group,
I made my way to the light reflecting source, only to find that it was a metal something. Maybe
debri from a ship, I don't know. When I turned back in the direction of my group, they were gone! I
started to panick and began swimming in that direction franticly. How could I lose my group? I
thought. I started to slow down only to spot a colorful coral reef. I've never actually stopped by one
so I don't really know what it's like. Me being my curious self, decided to go for it. As I was
swimming toward the reef, I saw a tuna fish. Struck with fear, I started
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Coral Reefs Essay examples
Coral Reefs
Coral reefs are one of the oldest types of living systems on earth, and certainly one of the most
spectacular (Goreau, 1987). They are massive underwater structures formed by the limestone
skeletons of tiny invertebrate animals. Reefs house a greater diversity of body forms, chemistry, and
animal phyla (thirty–two compared to the eight that inhabit the most biodiversity ecosystems on
land). Phyla comprise the second largest category of living things, after kingdoms.
Coral animals begin life as free–floating larvae, but settle on the sea floor in sedentary colonies. The
term "coral" applies both to these animals and to their skeletons, particularly the skeletons of
stone–like corals (Discover 1997)....show more content...
In Florida, patch reefs can be as close as one hundred meters to the shore. Ancient limestone reefs
have occupied the Florida peninsula intermittently over the past 150 million years (Discover,
1997). Florida's present coral reefs came into existence 5,000 to 7,000 years ago, when sea levels
rose following the Wisconsin Ice Age. The reefs in the Florida Keys are part of the third largest
barrier reef system (360 square kilometers from Miami to the Dry Tortugas).
Coral reefs are continuously being both built up and decomposed, so different parts of a reef are in
varying stages of succession (Richmond, 1993). Coral reefs are very fragile, because reef–building
organisms cannot thrive if the surrounding water changes significantly. Coral reefs require very
specific conditions in order to grow: a solid structure for the base; warm and consistent water
temperatures (averaging between 20 and 30 degrees Celsius); stable salinity; moderate wave
action; and clear water that is low in nutrients and plankton. The water on a healthy coral reef is
clear because there are very few nutrients, so plankton that would cloud the water are few. In
general corals grow slowly, but they are extremely efficient at living and reproducing in these
conditions (American Zoologist, pg 524–536).
Reefs matter in many ways:
Links to other coastal ecosystems: such as
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Coral Reefs Essay
Coral Reefs
Coral reefs are arguably the world's most beautiful habitats. Coral reefs have been called the
rainforests of the oceans, because of the rich diversity of life they support. Scientists have not yet
finished counting the thousands of different species of plants and animals that use or live in the coral
reef. There are three types of coral reefs: fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls. Fringing reefs are
located close to shore, separated from land by only shallow water. Barrier reefs lie farther offshore,
separated from land by lagoons more than ten meters deep. Atolls, on the other hand, are formed far
offshore and they make a ring–shaped reef that close a circular lagoon. Coral reefs are the largest
biological...show more content...
This in turns effects the entire ecosystem of the ocean. Pollution by humans have directly or
indirectly caused the death of 5%–10% of the world's living reefs, according to marine biologist
Clive Wilkinson of the Australian Institute of Marine Science. This estimate didn't take in global
warming and ozone depletion as a factor. The pollution is caused by fisheries, oil spills, deforestation,
tourists, and even reckless divers. The problems which are getting even bigger is the problem of
deforestation and reckless divers.
In the watershed of Bacuit Bay in the Philippines, deforestation increased erosion into the bay by
more that 200 times.(Futurists, 1995) One of the biggest threats to coral reefs are tourists. Last year
alone over 1.2 million tourists visited the Great Barrier Reef.
(Star–Bulletin, 1995) The tourists are not only fisherman and devoted divers they are also
scientists who wanted to see the enormous reef. Every year the numbers of visitors increase by
10%. It has brought many resorts to the area who also want to get into fun and making a little
money in the $1 billion business. Even the hotels and the motels pollute the reefs by their drainage
and sewage pipes. This is causing a huge problem in coastal tourism which is the world's fastest
growing industry, worth over $7 billion annually in the Caribbean.(Star–Bulletin, 1995) Marine
Scientists are really worried of how much longer the reef can survive with all these visitors to the
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Coral Reef Research Paper
Massive Pacific–Wide Survey Links Human Presence with Coral Reef Destruction: Even Tiny
Human Presence Can Cause 78% Drop in Aquatic Life
A large–scale survey of coral reefs at nearly 2,000 sites across some 38 different inhabited and
uninhabited Pacific islands has confirmed that even a tiny human presence on an island can cause a
massive drop–up to 78%–in the amount of reef fish just offshore. The study, published online in the
journal PLOS ONE, is the first to provide a clear estimate of human influence on aquatic life across
such a large swath of ocean–from Hawaii in the Central Pacific to Guam in the Western Pacific.
Interestingly, the study showed that although the negative influence increases with the number of
humans nearby (within a ~124–mile radius), this effect tends to plateau...show more content...
and U.S.–affiliated islands, including 25 uninhabited islands. It took over 2,000 underwater hours
for divers to physically visit each coral reef site, take a census of fish populations, and measure the
coverage and height of coral. The researchers then combined these data with a range of
satellite–derived measurements of ocean conditions (water temperature, plankton levels, and wave
activity) and compared that with official U.S. government census data on nearby human populations.
The aim here was to come up with an estimate of what constitutes the "natural" amount of aquatic
life that should exist if humans were not present–this number can vary widely depending solely on
natural (non–human) conditions and has eluded previous studies thus far.
By comparing the actual amount of sea life from the census with the predicted natural amount and
plotting that against human populations, the researchers were able to put a clear number on the
influence of humans on the sustainability of our coral reefs. And this number is very
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Descriptive Writing On A Coral Reef
February was deep into Summer and the water was bright blue, the beautiful colour of the sky. The
animals' moods could not be down today. The fish in the Ocean were playing tag, the dolphins were
dancing and the turtles were singing in the reef. The centre of the reef, which was beautiful, vibrant
and teeming with life. Two towering magnificentcoral is see able from kilometres around. The
knowledgeable turtle even said he saw the corals from the other end of the reef while teaching his
hatchlings what type of food is good to eat.
These corals were major to the animals, if not significant to the reef as well. They were home to
numerous of species, regardless of the possibility that those species didn't have any acquaintance
with it. The fish sleeping in the anemone, the Dolphins resting on the shallows of the reef, turtles hid
under the multitudes of the submerged rocks, seahorses and crabs slept in the sea grass, and the
manta ray sleep under the sand to seek frequent shelter in the sand. It was a gorgeous view,
everything was so serene, calm, and placid. Mother Nature herself loved this Reef, for the Moon
watched over them to keep them safe and warm. Nothing terrible could ever show up at this reef.
The sun came up; another day has begun. The deepest shades of night were replaced with bright
magnificent colours, the reef became a busy neighbourhood. the turtles swam out of nest, the woken
hatchlings laughed with joy. The fish scuttled out of the anemone womb meanwhile
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Essay about The Ecosystem of the Coral Reef
The Ecosystem of the Coral Reef
Coral reefs are among the most diverse and productive communities on Earth. They are found in the
warm, clear, shallow waters of tropical oceans worldwide. Reefs have functions ranging from
providing food and shelter to fish and invertebrates, to protecting the shore from erosion.
Although many corals resemble plants, they are actually members of the animal phylum Cnidaria.
Most corals are colonial, which means that each coral is made up of many individual polyps
connected by living tissue (the coenosarc). Each polyp has a cup–like shape with a ring of tentacles
around a central opening (pharynx) that functions as both mouth and anus. The tentacles are tipped
with stinging cells called...show more content...
The more famous coral forms huge deposits that take on the shape of small, underwater mountains
of calcium carbonate. Corals are benthic organisms in the fact that they are stationary for the most
part, and do not swim or drift in the ocean. All coral feed on plankton. Soft coral are filter feeders,
filtering out plankton as the current passes through the porous structure of the coral. Hard coral have
tiny "critters" located inside a limestone shell that rely on plankton that float by as their food source.
Since they are very sensitive, coral require a very specific environment in order to survive. They are
found generally in warm, shallow areas of the tropical oceans. Although they are best developed in
temperatures from about twenty–three to twenty–five degrees Celsius, coral reefs can be found in
temperatures as low as eighteen degrees Celsius. Corals are restricted to seawater with a salinity
ranging from thirty to forty parts per thousand. They also require a concentrated amount of calcium
carbonate to assist in the process of forming their skeleton. The shape, size and structure of the
coral are directly related to their location in the ocean, and depth. Coral located near the surface
tend to be flexible in order to flex and sway with the wave action and tidal currents. The water
currents and wind can also play an important role in the
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Informative Essay On Coral Reefs
In the news reporters often talk about the effects of global warming as if they are anywhere from
five to one–hundred years off in the future. Those dangers like unpredictable and catastrophic
weather patterns may not pose a major threat to human populations yet. However, for the inhabitants
of earth's coral reefs, the planet's constant warming immediately endangers thousands of species.
While coral reefs occupy only a small fraction of the ocean's floor, they account for roughly one
fourth of the world's marine life. Coral itself, which in large part comprises coral reefs is made up
of thousands of tiny polyps that cling together and secrete a hard outer coating binding the individual
polyps together (Jaap, 212–213). Generally coral make up the vast majority of all reefs, but soft
bodied organisms like anemones litter the sea bed as well. Coral reefs' seemingly eternal balance
with man is now in jeopardy, as small things like clownfish infertility and massive coral population
loss begin to snowball, eventually leading to human casualties. These vibrant structures made up of
millions of years of development do not face potential threats from global warming. The existing
threats are imminent.
As mentioned, sea anemones accompany coral on the bottom of the earth's enormous seas. While
this may be true, anatomically they are greatly different from hard bodied corals. They cling to
rocks on the seabed using the bottom of their bodies, Their pedal disc, which functions a lot
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Coral Reef Climate Change Essay
The article talks about how climate change has affected coral reefs over the past several years. Kim
Cobb who is a marine scientist at the Georgia Institute of Technology said that climate change has
damaged the coral, the entire reef is covered with red–brown fuzz and algae had grown over the dead
coral during his last dive in the deep waters of Kiritimati Island. According to the article, Scientists
believe that the damages of coral reefs are caused by the mass bleaching of coral reefs around the
world, heat stress from multiple severe weather events like El Nino and climate change. As a result,
more than a third of Earth's coral reefs are threatened and many may not recover.
Elevated sea temperatures caused by climate change and extra–bright sunlight can result in coral
bleaching. As the water gets warmer, corals will expel thealgae known as zooxanthellae that lives in
their tissues causing the coral to turn completely white. When temperatures drop, the corals can
recover, but they might be vulnerable to disease and when...show more content...
They protect against coastal flooding, wave damage, storm surges, wave damage, and also they
provide homes for lots of fish.. Coral reefs are dying because of the increase in ocean acidification
that is caused by the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. Coral reefs may stop growing if the CO2
concentration levels are high which is expected over the coming decades according to the article.
Coral reefs are also vital for people and business. In the article it was reported that more than 30
million small–scale fisherman and women depend on coral reefs for their livelihoods, specifically
in Indonesia where fish supported by the reefs provide the primary source of protein.
It is crucial that we take actions to protect coral reefs from the damaging effects of climate change.
By reducing the temperature increase we may be able to help save the coral reefs left for the future
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Coral Reef Essay
The coral reef is a vital part of our ocean. Coral also is a big part of life for people who live near
coastal regions. We need to identify the causes of coral degradation, and find ways to repair and
keep the reef healthy. Coral reefs are one of the most biodiverse and productive ecosystems on
earth and are essential to the plant. Coral reefs only account for less than 1% of the oceans tidal
area, but are still home to 25% of all marine creatures like crustaceans, reptiles, seaweeds, bacteria
fungi, and over 4,000 species of fish (cite). Although the reef is very important to the natural order
of the planet, it is also an economic powerhouse with yearly global value of 375 billion dollars and it
feeds over 500 million people around the...show more content...
There are over 500 plus species of marine algae that reside in hawaii's coastal waters, producing a
lot of oxygen for hawaii. These algae live on or in coral. Corals are creatures which utilize their
rock like structures to host symbiotic algae. Which is how the coral gains its vivid appearance.
The algae also so provide crucial oxygen and remove waste from the coral itself. When waters start
to warm around coral or is dirty or polluted the reef ejects that must have symbiotic algae. All that is
left is a vacant white bleached remnant of what was once vibrant live coral. A healthy reef can
contribute to economies by generating revenue through tourism. A healthycoral reef system can be
very enjoyable to snorkel and adventure through. Beaches would not be possible without coral
reefs. Surf Breaks could also not exist without a healthy reef to make the water shallow enough for
waves to break. Even sandbar waves would not be possible without reef because sand is just smaller
crushed up reef. All these things bring in revenue through tourism without coral reefs there would be
none of that.
Reef is very important to the world but is especially important to the hawaiian islands. Without
reef in hawaii we would have no fish and more than 25% of fish are endemic to hawaii or even to
their individual islands. This means they can not be found anywhere else in the world. Due to our
coral reefs hawaii is one of the top tourists
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Coral Reefs Essay
Coral reefs are very diverse ecosystems. They are "the rainforest of the sea". Coral reefs can be very
big or very small. The Great Barrier Reef (Australia) is 1,600 miles long and 40 miles wide. They
are very important for our ocean, they provide food and home for many of the fish in the ocean. For
some fish, coral reefs are the only viable food source or shelter they have. Coral reefs are very
important.
Coral reefs are made by individual coral that join together to form a coral colony. Each coral is .06
to .5 inches in size. There is a tissue that joins the coral together, called coenosarc.
For coral reefs to live they need certain thing. Coral reefs need water that is warm, shallow, and in
tropical climates. They have to have enough...show more content...
Reefs can live decades to centuries. This is only when there is little to no damage done to the
reefs. There are different kinds of things that can damage the reefs. One of these things is when the
weather changes, from cold to hot or hot to cold, it changes the sea level and temperature of it.
When sea level and temperature changes it damages the coral reefs. Another thing that can harm the
coral reefs are seaweed. Seaweed is a threat to corals because they grow much faster, than the
seaweed starts to take over the coral reef. When there is too much nutrients in the sea, the seaweed
grows much faster than usual and it take over the reef much faster. Seaweed have a chemical that
damages the coral, and kills them also.
The most significant threat to coral reefs is human interaction. People use coral reefs for a lot of
things. They provide us with jobs, coral reefs bring in 30 billion dollars a year, the most they have
ever brought in was 170 billion dollars in a year. Even though they help us so much we harm them in
many different ways. Humans overfish, we pollute the ocean, and we change the ocean chemistry.
These things kill the coral.
Coral reefs also play a big part in other sea animals lives.Coral reefs make up about 1% of the ocean
floor, that may seem small but, that about the size of France! One third of all marine animals live
in a coral reef for some of their life. For
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Red Coral Reef Essay
The Red Sea Coral Reef is full of many different plants and animals that would have died without the
protection of the coral reefs.
The Red Sea coral reef in all its glory.
How Coral Reefs Form Coral reefs form when coral larvae attach to rocks under the water or other
hard surfaces. Coral usually starts to form on the edge of islands or continents. As the coral reefs
grow the reefs evolve into one of three coral reef structures: fringing, barrier, or atoll.
Temperature
Coral that is still building cannot live in water temperatures below 670 F. Many thrive in water
temperatures between 700 and 850F. Recent research has predicted that, if current Global Warming
continues a very important type of coral in the Red Sea coral
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Speech On Coral Reefs
Coral Reefs play such a vital role in the oceans. They provide a great source of food for large
marine animals, shelter for many fish and invertebrates, and adds biodiversity to the oceans. Without
this habitat there would be a large extinction of many species of fish, which effects larger marine
animals who find their food in coral reefs. It's important we do our best to better our corals and
replenish the habitat. When the coral reefs are injured and dying it effects a very large food chain.
One of the key sources to coral reefs survival is zooplankton, their food source, which feeds off
phytoplankton. A major concern right now will be that when the oceans start to warm up
drastically it will depress the growth of plankton and because of us, this process has already begun.
Zooplankton is also a major source of food for species such as sponges and many small fish that call
corals their home, and because of ocean acidification the quantity of zooplankton is beginning to
fall. This results in the slow process of corals dying and the loss of many fish that live there and
feed there. Many corals have already or are very close to being declared dead, which has
consequences for the whole food chain. Many fish, such as the pufferfish and parrotfish, feed on
corals, which then get fed on by the larger marine life. But when they lose a major food source they
can either find another or the species begins to dwindle, and often we don't hear of such a large
adaptation, most often we
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The Coral Reefs Essay
The Coral Reefs
Can we save "Tropical Rain Forests of the Ocean"?
Anyone who's ever scuba dived at a coral reef and seen the perfect handprint of dead coral can
appreciate how fragile and delicate this ecosystem is.
Coral reefs are not just rock, like some people believe, but are an animal.
Corals are a type of animal called a polyp, the simplest of predators that eat meat in the form of
drifting zooplankton...all corals have boarders, zillions of microscopic, one–celled plants called
zooxanthellae that live inside the polyps and transform sunlight into oxygen, keeping the corals
alive. As you will see, the corals need these algae in order to live, but too much is deadly.
Coral reefs...show more content...
When a coral is bleached, it means that all the zooxanthella are expelled, exposing the corals
limestone skeleton. A coral can live for a time bleached, but if not revived, the coral will die.
Soil runoff is caused by many activities. Logging, mining, farming, dredging, and other coastal
activities are some of the main culprits. The loose sediment these activities create wash over the
coral reefs, blocking out the sunlight, reducing the zooxanthellae photosynthesis and therefore the
quantity of energy available to the coral polyps. If the sediment settles on the reef, the polyps have
to work together in waves to attempt to uncover themselves and produce extra quantities of mucus
to try to wash off the particles. This stresses the coral, weakening it and having less energy to
reproduce. If the stress is not relived, the corals will bleach and perhaps die.
Logging is one of the worst causes of sediment runoff, and the clearing of mangroves only exerbates
the problem. Mangroves usually grow along the coastline and trap the soils that normally wash into
the water. When these mangroves are cleared, they can no longer provide this essential function.
Dredging is as harmful as sediment runoff. Resorts will dredge a
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Coral Reef Research Paper
Coral reefs are one of nature's most diverse ecosystems. The variability in organisms and plant life is
what drives many scientists to understand how can something so unique occur. However, with
humans continuing to grow and needing more space, nature is depleting rapidly. Not only with
nature, but the coral reefs as well are being affected by humans. Many factors are contributing to
the damaging of coral reefs. "Rapid increases in the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by
driving global warming and ocean acidification, may be the final insult to these ecosystems"
(Guldberg et al. 2007). The need for resources are growing as time progresses and thus the Earth is
not able to compete with the demands of human life. Trees are constantly...show more content...
Multilocus Adaptation Associated with Heat Resistance in Reef–Building Corals. Current Biology,
24(24), 2952–2956.
Bellwood DR, Hughes TP, Folke C, Nyström M, (June 2004). Confronting thecoral reef crisis,
Nature, 429(1), 827–833
Lesser MP, (27 Mar. 2007) Coral Reef Bleaching and Global Climate Change: Can Corals Survive
the next Century, National Academy of Sciences
Hoegh–Guldberg O, Mumby PJ, Hooten AJ, Steneck RS, Greenfield P, Gomez E, Hatziolos ME (14
December 2007). Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification. Science, New
Series, 318(5857), 1737–1742
Hughes TP, Graham N.AJ, Jackson J.BC, Mumby PJ, Steneck RS, Rising to the challenge of
sustaining coral reef resilience, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25(11), 633–642
Hughes TP, Bellwood DR, Folke C, Steneck RS, Wilson J, New paradigms for supporting the
resilience of marine ecosystems, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20(7),
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Coral Reefs and How We Can Save Them Essay
INTRODUCTION
Coral reefs are underwater arrangements made from calcium–carbonated substances, which are
released by corals. Coral reefs are gatherings of small and large organisms, which are found in
marine waters that contain scarce nutrients. Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, which in
turn consist of polyps that cluster in groups. The polyps belong to group of animals' known as
Phylum Cnidaria, which in turn secrete hard carbonate exoskeletons, which support and protect
their bodies. Reefs grow best in warm, shallow, clear, sunny and agitated waters ("NOAA and
CoRIS"). Shallow water corals that live in warm water often have another source of food, the
zooxanthellae. These specific single–celled algae practice a process...show more content...
This phenomenon that is very interesting to researchers due to the fact it happens only on a
particular night every year (The Ocean Portal Team). Moreover, once the larva is released and
roaming on its own it needs to constantly find light in order to survive. They remain swimming
towards to surface where they live for few days to even weeks, by this time if the larvae is not eaten
by roaming predators the larvae then makes its descent to the ocean floor where it must find a hard
surface to attach themselves. Furthermore, the attached planula now metamorphasizes into a coral
polyp begins to divide itself through as sexual budding and making genetic copies of itself and
eventually a coral colony is formed. Once, completely formed the cycle will then repeat itself.
However, corals can also only go through asexual reproduction yielding in solitary polyps or vast
colonies that are identical to each other. They go through budding or fragmentation, a cause of this
as result of natural disturbances such as a storm or through being struck by fishermen.
Coral reefs are sometimes called "rainforests of the sea" due to the fact that they are a habitat that
holds such a diverse amount of aquatic organisms. Furthermore, coral reefs occupy less than 0.1%
of the world's ocean surface; however, they do provide 25% of all marine species.
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Coral Reefs And Coral Reef
Coral reefs in Belize have declined in abundance over the past decade. The reefs have experienced
massive losses due to many local and global stressors such as bleaching, disease, sewage,
overfishing, climate change, and tourism damage. After Hurricane Iris in 2001, the coral reef in
Belize was left for the dead due to no growth. Direct impacts such as hurricanes are associated with
the loss of architectural complexity of coral habitats. The loss of this coral reef complication drives
the decline in diversity and species richness. The widespread mortality of corals also increases the
chance of net reef erosion. These impacts are expected to amplify calcium carbonate dissolution with
negative consequences for the entire reef framework...show more content...
Restoration projects strategically planned and mapped nursery sites and out–plant sites. This is the
mostly widely used method for ecological recovery of coral reefs which is also called coral
gardening. Coral gardening framework has expanded to planting ten thousand rehabilitated corals on
degraded coral reefs in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic. This method is based on two factors: the
collection of coral fragments within nurseries and the out–planting of nursery grown corals onto
ruined reefs (Lirman, 2016). First, engineers took a few factors into consideration – what corals
exist, and where, in proximity to the restoration sites. Next, donor corals must be mapped and
scoped to the location of the nursery and out–plant sites in the process. Past restoration projects in
the Caribbean and Western Atlantic are quite different from coral gardening. They depended on
the transplantation of corals from a donor site to a damaged site (Lirman, 2016).Coral gardening
techniques are a little different because this technique uses a small amount of corals within ex situ
or in situ nurseries prior to outplanting onto degraded reefs. The key to coral gardening is to
maximize coral productivity and survivorship. While corals are in the nursery, they can provide an
expanding source of corals for ecological restoration. If there's a high productivity at the nursery,
they will no longer need to use more corals
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Coral Reef Essay
Coral reefs are found in shallow tropical waters and are most commonly present along island and
continental shores. Economically, these reefs present a major source of income and resources for
their local communities. Without them, crucial elements of tourism, fishing, coastal protection, and
even pharmaceutical discovery would be missing. According to the US Department of State, tourism
is the fastest growing coral reef–associated sector of the economy as approximately 100 million
tourists visit the Caribbean alone generating an estimated $1 billion in a mere seven–year span of
time (Hoegh–Guldberg, 1999). These numbers are only expected to grow. Similarly, fisheries
associated with coral reefs employ millions of fishers and produce...show more content...
The relationship between corals and their symbiotic dinoflagellates is the main factor in the
evolutionary success of reef–building corals. The endosymbiotic algae are the source of numerous
benefits for the corals and are the main contributor to the long–term survival of coral reefs over time
(Muller–Parker et al. 2015). This symbiotic relationship occurs because the algae live within the
tissues of the coral and, through photosynthesis, provide a reliable source of nutrients to their hosts.
These activities provide the coral with a fixed source of carbon compounds for energy, enhance the
calcification process, and help maintain healthy nutrient homeostasis. In return, the host coral
provides a protective environment for the algae to live within and a reliable supply of carbon
dioxide that can be used in its photosynthetic processes. This mutualistic relationship allows the
normally slow growing corals to compete with the other faster growing species because of the
efficient trading of resources between the symbiotic organisms. It drastically improves productivity
as it allows the corals to feed by day through photosynthesis but still rely on predation to feed at
night when photosynthetic processes are no longer available (Buchheim, 2013). Compared to other
benthic species, corals have an immense competitive edge as they can thrive in seawater where
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Essay about Coral Reefs
Coral reefs have been undergoing global degradation due to increasing natural and anthropogenic
impacts for at least the last half–century. The intensity and frequency of stressors, including global
climate change, have rapidly increased in number over recent years (Hughes & Connell 1999;
Hoegh–Guldberg et al. 2007; Pandolfi et al. 2011). Frequent disturbances such as hurricanes
/cyclones, predation outbreaks, diseases and mass bleaching events eat–away at the percent of living
coral cover and without recovery, the available space is colonized by sponges, soft corals, and
macroalgae. These alternative organisms are often competitive dominants in less than ideal
conditions (NorstrГ¶m et al. 2009). The transition is termed a phase–shift from...show more content...
1993; Lirman 2001; Box & Mumby 2007), increased localized sedimentation (Nugues & Roberts
2003), interfering with the settlement of coral larvae through space preemption and/or biofilm
production (Birrell et al. 2005; Birrell et al. 2008; Box & Mumby 2007; Vermeij et al. 2009), and
allelopathy or chemically mediated competition (deNys et al. 1991, Morrow et al. 2011).
Macroalgae can cause physical stress (Quan–Young & Espinoza–Avalos 2006) decreased
photosynthetic abilities (Titlyanov et al. 2007), reduced fecundity (Foster et al. 2008), and harbor
potential coral pathogens (Nugues et al. 2004). The ability of macroalgae to competitively damage
stony corals also depends on the species of macroalgae (Maypa & Raymundo 2004; Birrell et al.
2008), and other compounding factors such as irradiance, sedimentation, dissolved nutrients, and
level of herbivory on the reef.
Over the past several decades the incidence of coral disease has increased, with striking correlation
to increasing macroalgal cover (Goreau et al. 1998; Harvell et al. 1999; Harvell 2004; Weil &
Smith 2006). The enhanced need for disease research coupled with the massive advancements in
molecular techniques made the study of coral–associated microbes more efficient and less cost
prohibitive. Thus, we have recently recognized the significant role microorganisms play in the
physiology of both healthy and diseased corals. The term holobiont was coined to describe the
dynamic relationship
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Coral Reef Essay

  • 1. Essay about Coral Reefs: At Risk Coral reefs are diverse ecosystems that emanate great beauty while providing a home to many marine inhabitants. Coral reefs, being a marine ecosystem, are extremely important for the overall health of the surrounding environment. They provide food and shelter to a large bio–diverse population. Coral reefs are among the world's oldest, most diverse, and most productive ecosystems (Miller and Hackett 129). Coral reefs are found in shallow coastal regions of warm tropical and subtropical oceans. Coral reefs are formed by massive colonies of tiny animals called polyps. The polyps build reefs by secreting a protective crust of calcium carbonate around their bodies. When the polyps die their empty crusts remain as a platform for more reef...show more content... A number of forces threaten the survival of coral reefs and the organisms that depended on them. Coral reefs worldwide are in serious decline because of coral disease and bleaching primarily brought on by underlining human induced disturbances. A healthy coral reef requires moderate water temperatures, clear and clean water, and an intricate series of interacting organisms, plants, and animals. Coral reefs are delicate structures and anything that disrupts the dynamics of its environment can be detrimental. Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of the earth's atmospheric and oceanic temperatures. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the influence of human activities has been deeply intertwined with global warming. Global warming has an immense potential to alter ecosystem functioning and consequently alter the functioning of the plants, the animals and the other life forms that live within the ecosystem. On a global scale, atmospheric emis–sions of greenhouse gases are causing ocean temperatures to increase, pH levels to decrease (resulting in ocean acidification), and sea levels to rise, according to the U.S. Global Change Research Program. Most coral reefs can not tolerate an increase in temperature and a lower pH. Coral polyps use calcium from sea–water to create their hard skeletons in a process called calcifica–tion. Experimental studies indicate that increases in Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 2. coral reef Essay CORAL REEFS Almost every one of us have heard and most of you have seen the Coral reefs but did you know what actually these are: As a mariner its important to know about the marine life, that was one reason I have chosen this topic for my today's short presentation. GM, my scheme of presentation will be as flashed: DEFINATION OF CORAL REEF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CORAL AND CORAL POLYP WHERE WE CAN FIND CORAL CONSTRUCTION OF CORAL REEFS CONDITIONS FOR GROWTH OF CORAL REEFS TYPES OF CORAL REEFS THREAT TO CROAL REEFS WHAT SHOULD A MARINER DO IN CORAL RICH AREAS FUTURE OF CORAL REEFS CONCLUSION What is a coral reef? Coral reefs are huge structures made of limestone that is deposited by living things. There are thousands of species that...show more content... Soft corals are found in both tropical seas and in cool, dark regions. What is a coral polyp? A coral polyp is a spineless animal. Coral polyps can be the size of a pinhead while others are larger, sometimes a foot in diameter. One coral branch or mound is covered by thousands of these animals. They are invertebrates (spineless animals) and are cousins of anemones and jellyfish. When thousands of these animals are grouped together, they are referred to as coral colonies. Each coral "tree" or "mound" is one colony of coral polyps. A polyp has a sac–like body and an opening or mouth encircled by stinging tentacles called cnidae. The polyp uses calcium carbonate from seawater to build itself a hard, cup–shaped skeleton. This limestone skeleton protects the soft, delicate body of the polyp. Coral polyps are usually nocturnal, meaning that they stay inside their skeletons during the day. At night, polyps extend their tentacles out to feed. Where do corals live? Coral reefs are found in over 100 countries. Most reefs are located between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, in places such as the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Caribbean, the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Corals are also found farther from the equator in places where warm currents
  • 3. flow out of the tropics, such as Florida and southern Japan. Worldwide, coral reefs cover an estimated 284,300 square kilometers (110,000 square miles). How old are Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 4. Essay On Coral Reef Wading through the water with my own school of flying fish felt good. Safe and sound while filling up on plankton. That was, until I spotted something shiny. Swimming away from my group, I made my way to the light reflecting source, only to find that it was a metal something. Maybe debri from a ship, I don't know. When I turned back in the direction of my group, they were gone! I started to panick and began swimming in that direction franticly. How could I lose my group? I thought. I started to slow down only to spot a colorful coral reef. I've never actually stopped by one so I don't really know what it's like. Me being my curious self, decided to go for it. As I was swimming toward the reef, I saw a tuna fish. Struck with fear, I started Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 5. Coral Reefs Essay examples Coral Reefs Coral reefs are one of the oldest types of living systems on earth, and certainly one of the most spectacular (Goreau, 1987). They are massive underwater structures formed by the limestone skeletons of tiny invertebrate animals. Reefs house a greater diversity of body forms, chemistry, and animal phyla (thirty–two compared to the eight that inhabit the most biodiversity ecosystems on land). Phyla comprise the second largest category of living things, after kingdoms. Coral animals begin life as free–floating larvae, but settle on the sea floor in sedentary colonies. The term "coral" applies both to these animals and to their skeletons, particularly the skeletons of stone–like corals (Discover 1997)....show more content... In Florida, patch reefs can be as close as one hundred meters to the shore. Ancient limestone reefs have occupied the Florida peninsula intermittently over the past 150 million years (Discover, 1997). Florida's present coral reefs came into existence 5,000 to 7,000 years ago, when sea levels rose following the Wisconsin Ice Age. The reefs in the Florida Keys are part of the third largest barrier reef system (360 square kilometers from Miami to the Dry Tortugas). Coral reefs are continuously being both built up and decomposed, so different parts of a reef are in varying stages of succession (Richmond, 1993). Coral reefs are very fragile, because reef–building organisms cannot thrive if the surrounding water changes significantly. Coral reefs require very specific conditions in order to grow: a solid structure for the base; warm and consistent water temperatures (averaging between 20 and 30 degrees Celsius); stable salinity; moderate wave action; and clear water that is low in nutrients and plankton. The water on a healthy coral reef is clear because there are very few nutrients, so plankton that would cloud the water are few. In general corals grow slowly, but they are extremely efficient at living and reproducing in these conditions (American Zoologist, pg 524–536). Reefs matter in many ways: Links to other coastal ecosystems: such as Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 6. Coral Reefs Essay Coral Reefs Coral reefs are arguably the world's most beautiful habitats. Coral reefs have been called the rainforests of the oceans, because of the rich diversity of life they support. Scientists have not yet finished counting the thousands of different species of plants and animals that use or live in the coral reef. There are three types of coral reefs: fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls. Fringing reefs are located close to shore, separated from land by only shallow water. Barrier reefs lie farther offshore, separated from land by lagoons more than ten meters deep. Atolls, on the other hand, are formed far offshore and they make a ring–shaped reef that close a circular lagoon. Coral reefs are the largest biological...show more content... This in turns effects the entire ecosystem of the ocean. Pollution by humans have directly or indirectly caused the death of 5%–10% of the world's living reefs, according to marine biologist Clive Wilkinson of the Australian Institute of Marine Science. This estimate didn't take in global warming and ozone depletion as a factor. The pollution is caused by fisheries, oil spills, deforestation, tourists, and even reckless divers. The problems which are getting even bigger is the problem of deforestation and reckless divers. In the watershed of Bacuit Bay in the Philippines, deforestation increased erosion into the bay by more that 200 times.(Futurists, 1995) One of the biggest threats to coral reefs are tourists. Last year alone over 1.2 million tourists visited the Great Barrier Reef. (Star–Bulletin, 1995) The tourists are not only fisherman and devoted divers they are also scientists who wanted to see the enormous reef. Every year the numbers of visitors increase by 10%. It has brought many resorts to the area who also want to get into fun and making a little money in the $1 billion business. Even the hotels and the motels pollute the reefs by their drainage and sewage pipes. This is causing a huge problem in coastal tourism which is the world's fastest growing industry, worth over $7 billion annually in the Caribbean.(Star–Bulletin, 1995) Marine Scientists are really worried of how much longer the reef can survive with all these visitors to the Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 7. Coral Reef Research Paper Massive Pacific–Wide Survey Links Human Presence with Coral Reef Destruction: Even Tiny Human Presence Can Cause 78% Drop in Aquatic Life A large–scale survey of coral reefs at nearly 2,000 sites across some 38 different inhabited and uninhabited Pacific islands has confirmed that even a tiny human presence on an island can cause a massive drop–up to 78%–in the amount of reef fish just offshore. The study, published online in the journal PLOS ONE, is the first to provide a clear estimate of human influence on aquatic life across such a large swath of ocean–from Hawaii in the Central Pacific to Guam in the Western Pacific. Interestingly, the study showed that although the negative influence increases with the number of humans nearby (within a ~124–mile radius), this effect tends to plateau...show more content... and U.S.–affiliated islands, including 25 uninhabited islands. It took over 2,000 underwater hours for divers to physically visit each coral reef site, take a census of fish populations, and measure the coverage and height of coral. The researchers then combined these data with a range of satellite–derived measurements of ocean conditions (water temperature, plankton levels, and wave activity) and compared that with official U.S. government census data on nearby human populations. The aim here was to come up with an estimate of what constitutes the "natural" amount of aquatic life that should exist if humans were not present–this number can vary widely depending solely on natural (non–human) conditions and has eluded previous studies thus far. By comparing the actual amount of sea life from the census with the predicted natural amount and plotting that against human populations, the researchers were able to put a clear number on the influence of humans on the sustainability of our coral reefs. And this number is very Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 8. Descriptive Writing On A Coral Reef February was deep into Summer and the water was bright blue, the beautiful colour of the sky. The animals' moods could not be down today. The fish in the Ocean were playing tag, the dolphins were dancing and the turtles were singing in the reef. The centre of the reef, which was beautiful, vibrant and teeming with life. Two towering magnificentcoral is see able from kilometres around. The knowledgeable turtle even said he saw the corals from the other end of the reef while teaching his hatchlings what type of food is good to eat. These corals were major to the animals, if not significant to the reef as well. They were home to numerous of species, regardless of the possibility that those species didn't have any acquaintance with it. The fish sleeping in the anemone, the Dolphins resting on the shallows of the reef, turtles hid under the multitudes of the submerged rocks, seahorses and crabs slept in the sea grass, and the manta ray sleep under the sand to seek frequent shelter in the sand. It was a gorgeous view, everything was so serene, calm, and placid. Mother Nature herself loved this Reef, for the Moon watched over them to keep them safe and warm. Nothing terrible could ever show up at this reef. The sun came up; another day has begun. The deepest shades of night were replaced with bright magnificent colours, the reef became a busy neighbourhood. the turtles swam out of nest, the woken hatchlings laughed with joy. The fish scuttled out of the anemone womb meanwhile Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 9. Essay about The Ecosystem of the Coral Reef The Ecosystem of the Coral Reef Coral reefs are among the most diverse and productive communities on Earth. They are found in the warm, clear, shallow waters of tropical oceans worldwide. Reefs have functions ranging from providing food and shelter to fish and invertebrates, to protecting the shore from erosion. Although many corals resemble plants, they are actually members of the animal phylum Cnidaria. Most corals are colonial, which means that each coral is made up of many individual polyps connected by living tissue (the coenosarc). Each polyp has a cup–like shape with a ring of tentacles around a central opening (pharynx) that functions as both mouth and anus. The tentacles are tipped with stinging cells called...show more content... The more famous coral forms huge deposits that take on the shape of small, underwater mountains of calcium carbonate. Corals are benthic organisms in the fact that they are stationary for the most part, and do not swim or drift in the ocean. All coral feed on plankton. Soft coral are filter feeders, filtering out plankton as the current passes through the porous structure of the coral. Hard coral have tiny "critters" located inside a limestone shell that rely on plankton that float by as their food source. Since they are very sensitive, coral require a very specific environment in order to survive. They are found generally in warm, shallow areas of the tropical oceans. Although they are best developed in temperatures from about twenty–three to twenty–five degrees Celsius, coral reefs can be found in temperatures as low as eighteen degrees Celsius. Corals are restricted to seawater with a salinity ranging from thirty to forty parts per thousand. They also require a concentrated amount of calcium carbonate to assist in the process of forming their skeleton. The shape, size and structure of the coral are directly related to their location in the ocean, and depth. Coral located near the surface tend to be flexible in order to flex and sway with the wave action and tidal currents. The water currents and wind can also play an important role in the Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 10. Informative Essay On Coral Reefs In the news reporters often talk about the effects of global warming as if they are anywhere from five to one–hundred years off in the future. Those dangers like unpredictable and catastrophic weather patterns may not pose a major threat to human populations yet. However, for the inhabitants of earth's coral reefs, the planet's constant warming immediately endangers thousands of species. While coral reefs occupy only a small fraction of the ocean's floor, they account for roughly one fourth of the world's marine life. Coral itself, which in large part comprises coral reefs is made up of thousands of tiny polyps that cling together and secrete a hard outer coating binding the individual polyps together (Jaap, 212–213). Generally coral make up the vast majority of all reefs, but soft bodied organisms like anemones litter the sea bed as well. Coral reefs' seemingly eternal balance with man is now in jeopardy, as small things like clownfish infertility and massive coral population loss begin to snowball, eventually leading to human casualties. These vibrant structures made up of millions of years of development do not face potential threats from global warming. The existing threats are imminent. As mentioned, sea anemones accompany coral on the bottom of the earth's enormous seas. While this may be true, anatomically they are greatly different from hard bodied corals. They cling to rocks on the seabed using the bottom of their bodies, Their pedal disc, which functions a lot Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 11. Coral Reef Climate Change Essay The article talks about how climate change has affected coral reefs over the past several years. Kim Cobb who is a marine scientist at the Georgia Institute of Technology said that climate change has damaged the coral, the entire reef is covered with red–brown fuzz and algae had grown over the dead coral during his last dive in the deep waters of Kiritimati Island. According to the article, Scientists believe that the damages of coral reefs are caused by the mass bleaching of coral reefs around the world, heat stress from multiple severe weather events like El Nino and climate change. As a result, more than a third of Earth's coral reefs are threatened and many may not recover. Elevated sea temperatures caused by climate change and extra–bright sunlight can result in coral bleaching. As the water gets warmer, corals will expel thealgae known as zooxanthellae that lives in their tissues causing the coral to turn completely white. When temperatures drop, the corals can recover, but they might be vulnerable to disease and when...show more content... They protect against coastal flooding, wave damage, storm surges, wave damage, and also they provide homes for lots of fish.. Coral reefs are dying because of the increase in ocean acidification that is caused by the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. Coral reefs may stop growing if the CO2 concentration levels are high which is expected over the coming decades according to the article. Coral reefs are also vital for people and business. In the article it was reported that more than 30 million small–scale fisherman and women depend on coral reefs for their livelihoods, specifically in Indonesia where fish supported by the reefs provide the primary source of protein. It is crucial that we take actions to protect coral reefs from the damaging effects of climate change. By reducing the temperature increase we may be able to help save the coral reefs left for the future Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 12. Coral Reef Essay The coral reef is a vital part of our ocean. Coral also is a big part of life for people who live near coastal regions. We need to identify the causes of coral degradation, and find ways to repair and keep the reef healthy. Coral reefs are one of the most biodiverse and productive ecosystems on earth and are essential to the plant. Coral reefs only account for less than 1% of the oceans tidal area, but are still home to 25% of all marine creatures like crustaceans, reptiles, seaweeds, bacteria fungi, and over 4,000 species of fish (cite). Although the reef is very important to the natural order of the planet, it is also an economic powerhouse with yearly global value of 375 billion dollars and it feeds over 500 million people around the...show more content... There are over 500 plus species of marine algae that reside in hawaii's coastal waters, producing a lot of oxygen for hawaii. These algae live on or in coral. Corals are creatures which utilize their rock like structures to host symbiotic algae. Which is how the coral gains its vivid appearance. The algae also so provide crucial oxygen and remove waste from the coral itself. When waters start to warm around coral or is dirty or polluted the reef ejects that must have symbiotic algae. All that is left is a vacant white bleached remnant of what was once vibrant live coral. A healthy reef can contribute to economies by generating revenue through tourism. A healthycoral reef system can be very enjoyable to snorkel and adventure through. Beaches would not be possible without coral reefs. Surf Breaks could also not exist without a healthy reef to make the water shallow enough for waves to break. Even sandbar waves would not be possible without reef because sand is just smaller crushed up reef. All these things bring in revenue through tourism without coral reefs there would be none of that. Reef is very important to the world but is especially important to the hawaiian islands. Without reef in hawaii we would have no fish and more than 25% of fish are endemic to hawaii or even to their individual islands. This means they can not be found anywhere else in the world. Due to our coral reefs hawaii is one of the top tourists Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 13. Coral Reefs Essay Coral reefs are very diverse ecosystems. They are "the rainforest of the sea". Coral reefs can be very big or very small. The Great Barrier Reef (Australia) is 1,600 miles long and 40 miles wide. They are very important for our ocean, they provide food and home for many of the fish in the ocean. For some fish, coral reefs are the only viable food source or shelter they have. Coral reefs are very important. Coral reefs are made by individual coral that join together to form a coral colony. Each coral is .06 to .5 inches in size. There is a tissue that joins the coral together, called coenosarc. For coral reefs to live they need certain thing. Coral reefs need water that is warm, shallow, and in tropical climates. They have to have enough...show more content... Reefs can live decades to centuries. This is only when there is little to no damage done to the reefs. There are different kinds of things that can damage the reefs. One of these things is when the weather changes, from cold to hot or hot to cold, it changes the sea level and temperature of it. When sea level and temperature changes it damages the coral reefs. Another thing that can harm the coral reefs are seaweed. Seaweed is a threat to corals because they grow much faster, than the seaweed starts to take over the coral reef. When there is too much nutrients in the sea, the seaweed grows much faster than usual and it take over the reef much faster. Seaweed have a chemical that damages the coral, and kills them also. The most significant threat to coral reefs is human interaction. People use coral reefs for a lot of things. They provide us with jobs, coral reefs bring in 30 billion dollars a year, the most they have ever brought in was 170 billion dollars in a year. Even though they help us so much we harm them in many different ways. Humans overfish, we pollute the ocean, and we change the ocean chemistry. These things kill the coral. Coral reefs also play a big part in other sea animals lives.Coral reefs make up about 1% of the ocean floor, that may seem small but, that about the size of France! One third of all marine animals live in a coral reef for some of their life. For Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 14. Red Coral Reef Essay The Red Sea Coral Reef is full of many different plants and animals that would have died without the protection of the coral reefs. The Red Sea coral reef in all its glory. How Coral Reefs Form Coral reefs form when coral larvae attach to rocks under the water or other hard surfaces. Coral usually starts to form on the edge of islands or continents. As the coral reefs grow the reefs evolve into one of three coral reef structures: fringing, barrier, or atoll. Temperature Coral that is still building cannot live in water temperatures below 670 F. Many thrive in water temperatures between 700 and 850F. Recent research has predicted that, if current Global Warming continues a very important type of coral in the Red Sea coral Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 15. Speech On Coral Reefs Coral Reefs play such a vital role in the oceans. They provide a great source of food for large marine animals, shelter for many fish and invertebrates, and adds biodiversity to the oceans. Without this habitat there would be a large extinction of many species of fish, which effects larger marine animals who find their food in coral reefs. It's important we do our best to better our corals and replenish the habitat. When the coral reefs are injured and dying it effects a very large food chain. One of the key sources to coral reefs survival is zooplankton, their food source, which feeds off phytoplankton. A major concern right now will be that when the oceans start to warm up drastically it will depress the growth of plankton and because of us, this process has already begun. Zooplankton is also a major source of food for species such as sponges and many small fish that call corals their home, and because of ocean acidification the quantity of zooplankton is beginning to fall. This results in the slow process of corals dying and the loss of many fish that live there and feed there. Many corals have already or are very close to being declared dead, which has consequences for the whole food chain. Many fish, such as the pufferfish and parrotfish, feed on corals, which then get fed on by the larger marine life. But when they lose a major food source they can either find another or the species begins to dwindle, and often we don't hear of such a large adaptation, most often we Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 16. The Coral Reefs Essay The Coral Reefs Can we save "Tropical Rain Forests of the Ocean"? Anyone who's ever scuba dived at a coral reef and seen the perfect handprint of dead coral can appreciate how fragile and delicate this ecosystem is. Coral reefs are not just rock, like some people believe, but are an animal. Corals are a type of animal called a polyp, the simplest of predators that eat meat in the form of drifting zooplankton...all corals have boarders, zillions of microscopic, one–celled plants called zooxanthellae that live inside the polyps and transform sunlight into oxygen, keeping the corals alive. As you will see, the corals need these algae in order to live, but too much is deadly. Coral reefs...show more content... When a coral is bleached, it means that all the zooxanthella are expelled, exposing the corals limestone skeleton. A coral can live for a time bleached, but if not revived, the coral will die. Soil runoff is caused by many activities. Logging, mining, farming, dredging, and other coastal activities are some of the main culprits. The loose sediment these activities create wash over the coral reefs, blocking out the sunlight, reducing the zooxanthellae photosynthesis and therefore the quantity of energy available to the coral polyps. If the sediment settles on the reef, the polyps have to work together in waves to attempt to uncover themselves and produce extra quantities of mucus to try to wash off the particles. This stresses the coral, weakening it and having less energy to reproduce. If the stress is not relived, the corals will bleach and perhaps die. Logging is one of the worst causes of sediment runoff, and the clearing of mangroves only exerbates the problem. Mangroves usually grow along the coastline and trap the soils that normally wash into the water. When these mangroves are cleared, they can no longer provide this essential function. Dredging is as harmful as sediment runoff. Resorts will dredge a Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 17. Coral Reef Research Paper Coral reefs are one of nature's most diverse ecosystems. The variability in organisms and plant life is what drives many scientists to understand how can something so unique occur. However, with humans continuing to grow and needing more space, nature is depleting rapidly. Not only with nature, but the coral reefs as well are being affected by humans. Many factors are contributing to the damaging of coral reefs. "Rapid increases in the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by driving global warming and ocean acidification, may be the final insult to these ecosystems" (Guldberg et al. 2007). The need for resources are growing as time progresses and thus the Earth is not able to compete with the demands of human life. Trees are constantly...show more content... Multilocus Adaptation Associated with Heat Resistance in Reef–Building Corals. Current Biology, 24(24), 2952–2956. Bellwood DR, Hughes TP, Folke C, NystrГ¶m M, (June 2004). Confronting thecoral reef crisis, Nature, 429(1), 827–833 Lesser MP, (27 Mar. 2007) Coral Reef Bleaching and Global Climate Change: Can Corals Survive the next Century, National Academy of Sciences Hoegh–Guldberg O, Mumby PJ, Hooten AJ, Steneck RS, Greenfield P, Gomez E, Hatziolos ME (14 December 2007). Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification. Science, New Series, 318(5857), 1737–1742 Hughes TP, Graham N.AJ, Jackson J.BC, Mumby PJ, Steneck RS, Rising to the challenge of sustaining coral reef resilience, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25(11), 633–642 Hughes TP, Bellwood DR, Folke C, Steneck RS, Wilson J, New paradigms for supporting the resilience of marine ecosystems, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20(7), Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 18. Coral Reefs and How We Can Save Them Essay INTRODUCTION Coral reefs are underwater arrangements made from calcium–carbonated substances, which are released by corals. Coral reefs are gatherings of small and large organisms, which are found in marine waters that contain scarce nutrients. Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, which in turn consist of polyps that cluster in groups. The polyps belong to group of animals' known as Phylum Cnidaria, which in turn secrete hard carbonate exoskeletons, which support and protect their bodies. Reefs grow best in warm, shallow, clear, sunny and agitated waters ("NOAA and CoRIS"). Shallow water corals that live in warm water often have another source of food, the zooxanthellae. These specific single–celled algae practice a process...show more content... This phenomenon that is very interesting to researchers due to the fact it happens only on a particular night every year (The Ocean Portal Team). Moreover, once the larva is released and roaming on its own it needs to constantly find light in order to survive. They remain swimming towards to surface where they live for few days to even weeks, by this time if the larvae is not eaten by roaming predators the larvae then makes its descent to the ocean floor where it must find a hard surface to attach themselves. Furthermore, the attached planula now metamorphasizes into a coral polyp begins to divide itself through as sexual budding and making genetic copies of itself and eventually a coral colony is formed. Once, completely formed the cycle will then repeat itself. However, corals can also only go through asexual reproduction yielding in solitary polyps or vast colonies that are identical to each other. They go through budding or fragmentation, a cause of this as result of natural disturbances such as a storm or through being struck by fishermen. Coral reefs are sometimes called "rainforests of the sea" due to the fact that they are a habitat that holds such a diverse amount of aquatic organisms. Furthermore, coral reefs occupy less than 0.1% of the world's ocean surface; however, they do provide 25% of all marine species. Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 19. Coral Reefs And Coral Reef Coral reefs in Belize have declined in abundance over the past decade. The reefs have experienced massive losses due to many local and global stressors such as bleaching, disease, sewage, overfishing, climate change, and tourism damage. After Hurricane Iris in 2001, the coral reef in Belize was left for the dead due to no growth. Direct impacts such as hurricanes are associated with the loss of architectural complexity of coral habitats. The loss of this coral reef complication drives the decline in diversity and species richness. The widespread mortality of corals also increases the chance of net reef erosion. These impacts are expected to amplify calcium carbonate dissolution with negative consequences for the entire reef framework...show more content... Restoration projects strategically planned and mapped nursery sites and out–plant sites. This is the mostly widely used method for ecological recovery of coral reefs which is also called coral gardening. Coral gardening framework has expanded to planting ten thousand rehabilitated corals on degraded coral reefs in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic. This method is based on two factors: the collection of coral fragments within nurseries and the out–planting of nursery grown corals onto ruined reefs (Lirman, 2016). First, engineers took a few factors into consideration – what corals exist, and where, in proximity to the restoration sites. Next, donor corals must be mapped and scoped to the location of the nursery and out–plant sites in the process. Past restoration projects in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic are quite different from coral gardening. They depended on the transplantation of corals from a donor site to a damaged site (Lirman, 2016).Coral gardening techniques are a little different because this technique uses a small amount of corals within ex situ or in situ nurseries prior to outplanting onto degraded reefs. The key to coral gardening is to maximize coral productivity and survivorship. While corals are in the nursery, they can provide an expanding source of corals for ecological restoration. If there's a high productivity at the nursery, they will no longer need to use more corals Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 20. Coral Reef Essay Coral reefs are found in shallow tropical waters and are most commonly present along island and continental shores. Economically, these reefs present a major source of income and resources for their local communities. Without them, crucial elements of tourism, fishing, coastal protection, and even pharmaceutical discovery would be missing. According to the US Department of State, tourism is the fastest growing coral reef–associated sector of the economy as approximately 100 million tourists visit the Caribbean alone generating an estimated $1 billion in a mere seven–year span of time (Hoegh–Guldberg, 1999). These numbers are only expected to grow. Similarly, fisheries associated with coral reefs employ millions of fishers and produce...show more content... The relationship between corals and their symbiotic dinoflagellates is the main factor in the evolutionary success of reef–building corals. The endosymbiotic algae are the source of numerous benefits for the corals and are the main contributor to the long–term survival of coral reefs over time (Muller–Parker et al. 2015). This symbiotic relationship occurs because the algae live within the tissues of the coral and, through photosynthesis, provide a reliable source of nutrients to their hosts. These activities provide the coral with a fixed source of carbon compounds for energy, enhance the calcification process, and help maintain healthy nutrient homeostasis. In return, the host coral provides a protective environment for the algae to live within and a reliable supply of carbon dioxide that can be used in its photosynthetic processes. This mutualistic relationship allows the normally slow growing corals to compete with the other faster growing species because of the efficient trading of resources between the symbiotic organisms. It drastically improves productivity as it allows the corals to feed by day through photosynthesis but still rely on predation to feed at night when photosynthetic processes are no longer available (Buchheim, 2013). Compared to other benthic species, corals have an immense competitive edge as they can thrive in seawater where Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 21. Essay about Coral Reefs Coral reefs have been undergoing global degradation due to increasing natural and anthropogenic impacts for at least the last half–century. The intensity and frequency of stressors, including global climate change, have rapidly increased in number over recent years (Hughes & Connell 1999; Hoegh–Guldberg et al. 2007; Pandolfi et al. 2011). Frequent disturbances such as hurricanes /cyclones, predation outbreaks, diseases and mass bleaching events eat–away at the percent of living coral cover and without recovery, the available space is colonized by sponges, soft corals, and macroalgae. These alternative organisms are often competitive dominants in less than ideal conditions (NorstrГ¶m et al. 2009). The transition is termed a phase–shift from...show more content... 1993; Lirman 2001; Box & Mumby 2007), increased localized sedimentation (Nugues & Roberts 2003), interfering with the settlement of coral larvae through space preemption and/or biofilm production (Birrell et al. 2005; Birrell et al. 2008; Box & Mumby 2007; Vermeij et al. 2009), and allelopathy or chemically mediated competition (deNys et al. 1991, Morrow et al. 2011). Macroalgae can cause physical stress (Quan–Young & Espinoza–Avalos 2006) decreased photosynthetic abilities (Titlyanov et al. 2007), reduced fecundity (Foster et al. 2008), and harbor potential coral pathogens (Nugues et al. 2004). The ability of macroalgae to competitively damage stony corals also depends on the species of macroalgae (Maypa & Raymundo 2004; Birrell et al. 2008), and other compounding factors such as irradiance, sedimentation, dissolved nutrients, and level of herbivory on the reef. Over the past several decades the incidence of coral disease has increased, with striking correlation to increasing macroalgal cover (Goreau et al. 1998; Harvell et al. 1999; Harvell 2004; Weil & Smith 2006). The enhanced need for disease research coupled with the massive advancements in molecular techniques made the study of coral–associated microbes more efficient and less cost prohibitive. Thus, we have recently recognized the significant role microorganisms play in the physiology of both healthy and diseased corals. The term holobiont was coined to describe the dynamic relationship Get more content on HelpWriting.net