Assessment

Jet Zulueta
Jet ZuluetaSaint Paul College, Pasig
PRINCIPLES OF
HIGH QUALITY
ASSESSMENT
What is A High Quality
Assessment?
It provides results
that demonstrate
and improve
targeted
What are the
characteristics of a high
quality assessment?
Clarity of learning
targets
Appropriateness of
assessment
methods
Clarity of learning targets
Learning targets are
the outcomes the
teacher wants his or
her students to
attain or acquire.
Clarity of learning targets
The learning targets
must be a clear
description of what
students should
know and able to
Stiggins and Conklin (1992)
categories of learning targets
1. Knowledge
2. Reasoning
3. Skills
4. Product
5. Affective
1. KNOWLEDGE
LEARNING TARGET
The facts and
concepts we want
students to know
Either rote learned or
retrieved using
reference materials.
COGNITIVE DOMAIN
Bloom’s taxonomy
Assessment
Assessment
2. REASONING LEARNING
TARGET
The ability of the
student to use their
knowledge to reason
and solve problems.
3. SKILLS LEARNING
TARGET
The ability of the
student to demonstrate
achievement-related
skills like conducting
experiments, playing
basketball, and
operating computers.
4. PRODUCTS LEARNING
TARGET
The ability of the
student to create
achievement-related
products such as written
reports, oral
presentations, and art
products.
5. AFFECTIVE LEARNING
TARGET
The attainment of
affective traits such as
attitudes, values,
interest and self-
efficacy.
Students’ attitudes
about school and
What are the
characteristics of a high
quality assessment?
Clarity of learning
targets
Appropriateness of
assessment
methods
5 CATEGORIES OF
ASSESSMENT METHODS
1.Written-Response
Instruments
2.Product Rating Scales
3.Performance Tests
4.Oral Questioning
5.Observation and Self
Reports
1. WRITTEN RESPONSE
INSTRUMENTS
Objective tests are
appropriate for
assessing the various
levels of hierarchy of
educational
objectives.
1. WRITTEN RESPONSE
INSTRUMENTS
Multiple choice tests
are constructed to test
higher order thinking
skills.
1. WRITTEN RESPONSE
INSTRUMENTS
Essays can test the
students grasp of the
higher level cognitive
skills particularly in the
areas of application
analysis, synthesis and
judgment.
2. PRODUCT RATING
SCALES
Products that are
frequently rated in
education are book
reports, maps, charts,
diagrams, notebooks,
essays and creative
endeavors of all sorts.
2. PRODUCT RATING
SCALES
To develop a product
rating scale for the
various products in
education, the teacher
must possess prototype
products over his/her
years of experience
3. PERFORMANCE TESTS
It is used to
determine whether or
not an individual
behaves in a certain
(usually desired) way
when asked to
3. PERFORMANCE TESTS
Checklist is the most
frequently used
measurement
instrument. It consists of
a list of behaviors that
makes up a certain type
of performance.
Performance Checklist in
Solving a mathematics
problem (example)
identifies the given information
identifies what is being asked
uses variables to replace the
unknown
formulates the equation
performs algebraic operations
obtains an answer
4. ORAL QUESTIONING
“The Epitome of a
teacher , was said to
have handled his
classes solely based
on questioning and oral
instructions”--- Socrates
4. ORAL QUESTIONING
Oral Questioning is an
appropriate assessment
method when the
objectives are:
to assess the students’
stock knowledge
to determine the
students’ ability to
5. OBSERVATION AND
SELF REPORTS
A tally sheet is a
device often used by
teachers to record the
frequency of student
behaviors, activities or
remarks.
5. OBSERVATION AND
SELF REPORTS
A self-checklist is a list of
several characteristics or
activities presented to the
subjects of a study, it is
often employed by
teachers when they want to
diagnose or appraise the
performance of students
from the point of view of
5. OBSERVATION AND
SELF REPORTS
Observation and Self
Reports are useful
supplementary
assessment methods
when used in conjunction
with oral questioning and
performance test.
What are the
characteristics of a high
quality assessment?
Clarity of learning
targets
Appropriateness of
assessment
methods
PROPERTIES OF
ASSESSMENT METHODS
Teachers follow a
number of
procedures in order
to ensure that an
entire assessment is
PROPERTIES OF
ASSESSMENT METHODS
1.Validity
2.Reliability
3.Fairness
4.Practicality and
Efficiency
5.Ethics in
1. VALIDITY
the extent to which
the test serves its purpose
or the efficiency with
which it
intends to measure.
1. VALIDITY
the appropriateness,
correctness,
meaningfulness and
usefulness of the specific
conclusions that a teacher
reaches regarding the
teaching-learning
1. VALIDITY
How is validity
determined?
Content validity
Face validity
Criterion-related
validity
CONTENT VALIDITY -
Criteria• Did the teachers cover
sufficient material for most
students to be able to
answer the item correctly?
• Does the item reflect the
degree of emphasis
received during instruction?
• Do students have adequate
experience with the type of
Assessment
Assessment
1. VALIDITY
How is validity
determined?
Content validity
Face validity
Criterion-related
validity
FACE VALIDITY
refers to the outward
appearance of the
test.
CRITERION-RELATED
VALIDITY
a more important
type of validity. The
test item is judged
against a specific
criterion.
CONSTRUCT
VALIDITY
A “construct” is another
term for a factor and we
already know that a group
of variables that correlate
highly with each other
form a factor. A technique
called factor analysis is
required to determine the
**suggestions for enhancing the
validity of classroom
assessment**
1.Prepare a table of
specifications (TOS).
2.Construct appropriate test
items.
3.Formulate directions that are
brief, clear, and concise.
4.Consider the reading
vocabulary of the examinees.
5.Make the sentence structure of
your test items simple.
6.Never have an identifiable
pattern of answers.
7. Arrange the test items from
easy to difficult.
8. Provide adequate time for
student to complete the
assessment.
9. Use different methods to
assess the same thing.
2. RELIABILITY
The Reliability of an
assessment method
refers to its consistency.
It also a term that is
synonymous with
dependability or stability.
How is reliability
determined?
(METHODS IN
ESTIMATING THE
RELIABILITY OF A GOOD
MEASURING
INSTRUMENT)
Test-Retest Method
The same measuring
Split-Half Method
The test in this method may
only be administered once, but
the test items are divided into
two halves.
The reliability of the test is
calculated using the
Spearman-Brown Formula
and Kuder-Richardson
Formula.
Assessment
**suggestions for enhancing the
reliability of classroom
assessment**
1.Use a sufficient number of
items or tasks. A longer test
is more reliable.
2.Use independent raters or
observers who can provide
similar or top the same
performances.
3.Make sure the assessment
procedures and scoring are
5. Eliminate or reduce the
influence of extraneous events or
factors.
6. Assess the difficulty level of
the test.
7. Use shorter assessments
more frequently rather than a few
long assessments.
3. FAIRNESS
This pertains to the intent
that each question should
be made as clear as
possible to the examinees
and the test is absent of
any biases.
An assessment
3. FAIRNESS
Students need to know
exactly what the learning
targets are and what method
of assessment will be used.
Assessment has to be
viewed as an opportunity to
learn rather than an
opportunity to weed out poor
3. FAIRNESS
Fairness also implies
freedom from teacher-
stereo-typing.
Stereotyping means boys
are better than girls in
mathematics or girls are
better than boys in
4. PRACTICALITY AND
EFFICIENCY
Assessments need to take
into consideration the
teacher's familiarity with the
method, the time required,
the complexity of
administration, the ease of
scoring and interpretation,
and the cost to be able to
determine an assessment's
5. ETHICS IN
ASSESSMENT
The term "ethics" refers
to questions of right and
wrong.
The teachers need to ask
themselves if it is right to
assess a specific
knowledge or investigate
5. ETHICS IN
ASSESSMENT
Here are some situations in
which assessment may not
be called for:
• Requiring students to answer
checklist of their sexual
fantasies
• Asking elementary pupils to
answer sensitive questions
without consent of their parents
• Testing the mental abilities of
5. ETHICS IN
ASSESSMENT
ETHICAL ISSUES IN
ASSESSMENT
• The fundamental
responsibility of a teacher.
Naturally, no teacher would
want this to happen to any of
his/her student.
5. ETHICS IN
ASSESSMENT
ETHICAL ISSUES IN
ASSESSMENT
• Test results and assessment
results are confidential
results. Results should be
communicated to the
students in a way that other
students would not be in
5. ETHICS IN
ASSESSMENT
ETHICAL ISSUES IN
ASSESSMENT
• Deception. There are
instances in which it is
necessary to conceal the
objective of the assessment
from the students in order to
ensure fair and impartial
5. ETHICS IN
ASSESSMENT
ETHICAL ISSUES IN
ASSESSMENT
• Temptation to assist certain
individuals in class during
assessment or testing is ever
present. It is best if the
teacher does not administer
the test himself if he believes
SUMMARY: A HIGH
QUALITY ASSESSMENT…
has clear learning
targets
is appropriate in
method
is valid, reliable, fair,
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Assessment

  • 2. What is A High Quality Assessment? It provides results that demonstrate and improve targeted
  • 3. What are the characteristics of a high quality assessment? Clarity of learning targets Appropriateness of assessment methods
  • 4. Clarity of learning targets Learning targets are the outcomes the teacher wants his or her students to attain or acquire.
  • 5. Clarity of learning targets The learning targets must be a clear description of what students should know and able to
  • 6. Stiggins and Conklin (1992) categories of learning targets 1. Knowledge 2. Reasoning 3. Skills 4. Product 5. Affective
  • 7. 1. KNOWLEDGE LEARNING TARGET The facts and concepts we want students to know Either rote learned or retrieved using reference materials.
  • 11. 2. REASONING LEARNING TARGET The ability of the student to use their knowledge to reason and solve problems.
  • 12. 3. SKILLS LEARNING TARGET The ability of the student to demonstrate achievement-related skills like conducting experiments, playing basketball, and operating computers.
  • 13. 4. PRODUCTS LEARNING TARGET The ability of the student to create achievement-related products such as written reports, oral presentations, and art products.
  • 14. 5. AFFECTIVE LEARNING TARGET The attainment of affective traits such as attitudes, values, interest and self- efficacy. Students’ attitudes about school and
  • 15. What are the characteristics of a high quality assessment? Clarity of learning targets Appropriateness of assessment methods
  • 16. 5 CATEGORIES OF ASSESSMENT METHODS 1.Written-Response Instruments 2.Product Rating Scales 3.Performance Tests 4.Oral Questioning 5.Observation and Self Reports
  • 17. 1. WRITTEN RESPONSE INSTRUMENTS Objective tests are appropriate for assessing the various levels of hierarchy of educational objectives.
  • 18. 1. WRITTEN RESPONSE INSTRUMENTS Multiple choice tests are constructed to test higher order thinking skills.
  • 19. 1. WRITTEN RESPONSE INSTRUMENTS Essays can test the students grasp of the higher level cognitive skills particularly in the areas of application analysis, synthesis and judgment.
  • 20. 2. PRODUCT RATING SCALES Products that are frequently rated in education are book reports, maps, charts, diagrams, notebooks, essays and creative endeavors of all sorts.
  • 21. 2. PRODUCT RATING SCALES To develop a product rating scale for the various products in education, the teacher must possess prototype products over his/her years of experience
  • 22. 3. PERFORMANCE TESTS It is used to determine whether or not an individual behaves in a certain (usually desired) way when asked to
  • 23. 3. PERFORMANCE TESTS Checklist is the most frequently used measurement instrument. It consists of a list of behaviors that makes up a certain type of performance.
  • 24. Performance Checklist in Solving a mathematics problem (example) identifies the given information identifies what is being asked uses variables to replace the unknown formulates the equation performs algebraic operations obtains an answer
  • 25. 4. ORAL QUESTIONING “The Epitome of a teacher , was said to have handled his classes solely based on questioning and oral instructions”--- Socrates
  • 26. 4. ORAL QUESTIONING Oral Questioning is an appropriate assessment method when the objectives are: to assess the students’ stock knowledge to determine the students’ ability to
  • 27. 5. OBSERVATION AND SELF REPORTS A tally sheet is a device often used by teachers to record the frequency of student behaviors, activities or remarks.
  • 28. 5. OBSERVATION AND SELF REPORTS A self-checklist is a list of several characteristics or activities presented to the subjects of a study, it is often employed by teachers when they want to diagnose or appraise the performance of students from the point of view of
  • 29. 5. OBSERVATION AND SELF REPORTS Observation and Self Reports are useful supplementary assessment methods when used in conjunction with oral questioning and performance test.
  • 30. What are the characteristics of a high quality assessment? Clarity of learning targets Appropriateness of assessment methods
  • 31. PROPERTIES OF ASSESSMENT METHODS Teachers follow a number of procedures in order to ensure that an entire assessment is
  • 33. 1. VALIDITY the extent to which the test serves its purpose or the efficiency with which it intends to measure.
  • 34. 1. VALIDITY the appropriateness, correctness, meaningfulness and usefulness of the specific conclusions that a teacher reaches regarding the teaching-learning
  • 35. 1. VALIDITY How is validity determined? Content validity Face validity Criterion-related validity
  • 36. CONTENT VALIDITY - Criteria• Did the teachers cover sufficient material for most students to be able to answer the item correctly? • Does the item reflect the degree of emphasis received during instruction? • Do students have adequate experience with the type of
  • 39. 1. VALIDITY How is validity determined? Content validity Face validity Criterion-related validity
  • 40. FACE VALIDITY refers to the outward appearance of the test.
  • 41. CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY a more important type of validity. The test item is judged against a specific criterion.
  • 42. CONSTRUCT VALIDITY A “construct” is another term for a factor and we already know that a group of variables that correlate highly with each other form a factor. A technique called factor analysis is required to determine the
  • 43. **suggestions for enhancing the validity of classroom assessment** 1.Prepare a table of specifications (TOS). 2.Construct appropriate test items. 3.Formulate directions that are brief, clear, and concise. 4.Consider the reading vocabulary of the examinees.
  • 44. 5.Make the sentence structure of your test items simple. 6.Never have an identifiable pattern of answers. 7. Arrange the test items from easy to difficult. 8. Provide adequate time for student to complete the assessment. 9. Use different methods to assess the same thing.
  • 45. 2. RELIABILITY The Reliability of an assessment method refers to its consistency. It also a term that is synonymous with dependability or stability.
  • 46. How is reliability determined? (METHODS IN ESTIMATING THE RELIABILITY OF A GOOD MEASURING INSTRUMENT) Test-Retest Method The same measuring
  • 47. Split-Half Method The test in this method may only be administered once, but the test items are divided into two halves. The reliability of the test is calculated using the Spearman-Brown Formula and Kuder-Richardson Formula.
  • 49. **suggestions for enhancing the reliability of classroom assessment** 1.Use a sufficient number of items or tasks. A longer test is more reliable. 2.Use independent raters or observers who can provide similar or top the same performances. 3.Make sure the assessment procedures and scoring are
  • 50. 5. Eliminate or reduce the influence of extraneous events or factors. 6. Assess the difficulty level of the test. 7. Use shorter assessments more frequently rather than a few long assessments.
  • 51. 3. FAIRNESS This pertains to the intent that each question should be made as clear as possible to the examinees and the test is absent of any biases. An assessment
  • 52. 3. FAIRNESS Students need to know exactly what the learning targets are and what method of assessment will be used. Assessment has to be viewed as an opportunity to learn rather than an opportunity to weed out poor
  • 53. 3. FAIRNESS Fairness also implies freedom from teacher- stereo-typing. Stereotyping means boys are better than girls in mathematics or girls are better than boys in
  • 54. 4. PRACTICALITY AND EFFICIENCY Assessments need to take into consideration the teacher's familiarity with the method, the time required, the complexity of administration, the ease of scoring and interpretation, and the cost to be able to determine an assessment's
  • 55. 5. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENT The term "ethics" refers to questions of right and wrong. The teachers need to ask themselves if it is right to assess a specific knowledge or investigate
  • 56. 5. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENT Here are some situations in which assessment may not be called for: • Requiring students to answer checklist of their sexual fantasies • Asking elementary pupils to answer sensitive questions without consent of their parents • Testing the mental abilities of
  • 57. 5. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENT ETHICAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENT • The fundamental responsibility of a teacher. Naturally, no teacher would want this to happen to any of his/her student.
  • 58. 5. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENT ETHICAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENT • Test results and assessment results are confidential results. Results should be communicated to the students in a way that other students would not be in
  • 59. 5. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENT ETHICAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENT • Deception. There are instances in which it is necessary to conceal the objective of the assessment from the students in order to ensure fair and impartial
  • 60. 5. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENT ETHICAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENT • Temptation to assist certain individuals in class during assessment or testing is ever present. It is best if the teacher does not administer the test himself if he believes
  • 61. SUMMARY: A HIGH QUALITY ASSESSMENT… has clear learning targets is appropriate in method is valid, reliable, fair,