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History of the English Language pdf (1)

  1. History of the English Language Source: English - One Tongue, Many Voices Authors: Jan Svartvik, Geoffrey Leech Jessica Mariani
  2. English: The Working Tongue of a Global Village
  3. “English, no longer an English language, now grows from many roots” Salman Rushdie The Times, 3 July 1982
  4. The Canadian writer Marshall McLuhan claimed that electronically connected media would eventually transform the world into a huge “Global village” What is Globalization? It is the process by which the world has become increasingly interconnected as a result of massively increased trade and cultural exchange EFFECTS Increase in the production of goods and services The biggest companies are no longer national firms but multinational corporations with subsidiaries in many countries Increased international TRADE Greater dependence on the global economy Freer movement of capital, goods, and services
  5. Language is Global for ONE REASON ONLY...... ??????????? Give it a try English has become the working tongue of that Global Village
  6. And that is... The Power of the People who Speak it
  7. How many languages are spoken today in the world? 6.800 distinct languages Just 5 languages are spoken by more than half of the world's population CHINESE ENGLISH SPANISH RUSSIAN HINDI
  8. English is nowadays the mother tongue of over 320 million people But What is the most remarkable thing about English? ….. 1) It is used as an additional language by so many more people all around the world 2) It is the means of international communication 3) It has become big business 4) It is the most taught foreign language in the world
  9. Why this huge demand for English? Maybe... Hypothesis 1 Is it easier, beautiful or superior in linguistic qualities?
  10. Here are a few reasons.. 1. Young people are attracted by things they can do with English, such as listening to music, watching films and surfing the web 2. Scientists and Academics see English as a necessity for reaching out colleagues around the globe 3. Tourists consider the English language as the most useful tool to travel and communicate 4. Air traffic controllers use English to communicate with pilots 5. Business (China, Russia, Saudi Arabia, India) 6. EU working language is English 7. To pursue an international career IN ANY CONTEXT
  11. Last but not least.. 8. The UNIQUE history of the English Language Let's revise it in this 10 minutes video: v=H3r9bOkYW9s
  12. Why is English not the easiest language? Linguists provided scientific evidence 1. Pronunciation corresponding to Spelling 2. Vocabulary: English word stock is vast Oxford English Dictionary: 600,000 words 3. Syntax is no less complex than that of other languages
  13. Grammar is less learner-friendly than is generally assumed Huddlestone and Pullums Cambridge Grammar of the English Language 1.800 pages Remember: Italian and Spanish, despite having pure vowel sounds, did not achieve the status of LINGUA FRANCA
  14. English did not become a world language on its linguistic merits! So, WHY ENGLISH?
  15. The expansion and influence of British colonial power The status of the United States of America as the leading economy, military and scientific power in the 20th century Increasing need of international communication as a result of modern technology
  16. The Indian-American scholar Braj Kachru has taught us to think of English, as used around the world, in the form of three concentric areas.
  17. The Inner Circle ENGLISH AS A FIRST LANGUAGE 8 countries US UK CANADA AUSTRALIA CARIBBEAN IRELAND NEW ZEALAND SOUTH AFRICA On a population of 447 million, 326 million speak English as their first language
  18. Let's look at them in detail! UNITED STATES For 40 million Americans the FIRST language is Spanish Hispanics have now replaced African Americans as the largest minority group Birth of Spanglish as an English variety Afro-American varieties 215/278 million people speak English as their first language
  19. CANADA It is a BILINGUAL COUNTRY 20/32 million people speak English as their first language Almost a quarter of the population report French to be their mother tongue Native Canadians speak various Indigenous languages
  20. IRELAND Two official languages: ENGLISH IRISH/GAELIC ( taught in schools) 4/4 million people speak English as their first language
  21. AUSTRALIA 15 million/19 million speak English as their first language + Indigenous languages
  22. NEW ZEALAND Nearly 4/4 million people speak English as their first language
  23. SOUTH AFRICA 4/44 million people speak English as their first language English is the language most commonly used in Parliament and in higher education istitutes
  24. However, what many people find surprising is that neither in the United States nor in Britain, has English ever been FORMALLY declared THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE! Although both of them have fought to impose English for a long time.. Counter effects for Native Speakers: General lack of enthusiasm for learning other languages Do not mingle with other cultures and enjoy it Counter effects for Non-Native Speakers English is seen as a threat for their cultural and linguistic identity
  25. The Outer Circle ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE English is an official language, widely used in administration, education and the media Mainly former British colonies: AFRICA: Kenya, Tanzania ASIA: India, Pakistan, Malaysia, Singapore
  26. INDIA Among the leading English-using nations in the world More than a BILLION inhabitants and 200 languages 200 million people use English as a second language
  27. The Expanding Circle ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE Is this expansion of English going to reach a SATURATION POINT? Are we moving towards an “EXPANDED CIRCLE”?
  28. To overcome the confusion of tongues people have tried in the past to make up ARTIFICIAL INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGES Esperanto Ido Volapuk Novial Interglossa Interlingua Esperanto was the most successful attempt but Artificial languages have met with little success
  29. Conclusive remarks Globalization has fostered our need to have a world language Non-native speakers of English in the world now outnumber native speakers The future of English will be more determined by the majority of its users, those in the Outer Circle and the Expanding/-ed Circle
  30. Further reading: “English as Global Language” - David Crystal David Crystal Talk at the British Council v=5Kvs8SxN8mc
  31. The End Thank you for you attention!