Nancy Reid, Dept. of Statistics, University of Toronto. Inaugural receiptant of the "David R. Cox Foundations of Statistics Award". Slides from Invited presentation at 2023 JSM: “The Importance of Foundations in Statistical Science“ Ronald Wasserstein, Chair (American Statistical Association) ABSTRACT: David Cox wrote “A healthy interplay between theory and application is crucial for statistics… This is particularly the case when by theory we mean foundations of statistical analysis, rather than the theoretical analysis of specific statistical methods.” These foundations distinguish statistical science from the many fields of research in which statistical thinking is a key intellectual component. In this talk I will emphasize the ongoing importance and relevance of theoretical advances and theoretical thinking through some illustrative examples.