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Personal Inquiry & Online Research: Connecting Learners in Ways That Matter

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This was the Keynote talk presented at Day 1 at the Summer Institute in Digital Literacy 2015 at the University of Rhode Island presented by Julie Coiro, Jill Castek, and Dave Quinn

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Personal Inquiry & Online Research: Connecting Learners in Ways That Matter

  1. 1. PersonalInquiryand OnlineResearch: ConnectingLearnersin WaysThatMatter Julie Coiro, Ph.D. Associate Professor School of Education University of Rhode Island jcoiro@snet.net uri.academia.edu/JulieCoiro/Papers Jill Castek, Ph.D. Research Assistant Professor Portland State University jcastek@pdx.edu www.pdx.edu/linguistics/jillcastek Dave Quinn Student, Ph.D. in Education University of Rhode Island david_quinn@my.uri.edu Twitter: @eduQuinn
  2. 2. What is digital literacy?
  3. 3. We define digital literacy as involving the skills, strategies, and dispositions to use the Internet productively to: • Generate useful questions to solve problems • Locate information • Critically evaluate information • Synthesize information • Communicate answers/solutions Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, Castek & Henry (2013). New literacies: A dual-level theory of the changing nature of literacy, instruction, and assessment. Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading, Sixth Edition.
  4. 4. Others define digital literacy in slightly different ways Renee Hobbs Michael Eisenberg Doug Belshaw Henry JenkinsHoward Rheingold
  5. 5. Often, these varied definitions reflect our varied roles in teaching and learning Classroom Teachers Librarians and Library Media Specialists Community Media Makers Educational Researchers
  6. 6. But…we have much in common (in addition to special areas of expertise)! Classroom Teachers Community Media Makers Librarians and Library Media Specialists Educational Researchers
  7. 7. Turn and Talk (5 minutes) • Introduce yourself and identify your role. • What does digital literacy mean to you? • Identify a similarity and a difference compared to your partner’s definition. Is there enough in common to support each other in designing productive learning experiences? How might you capitalize on your individual areas of expertise?
  8. 8. Where (and how) does STUDENT-DRIVEN INQUIRY fit into digital literacy? • Quick context setting: Engaging Today’s Learners • What is important to consider when planning opportunities for personal (student-driven) inquiry? • What role does the teacher play in the inquiry process? • How can we choose technologies that can be used in meaningful ways as part of the inquiry process? • What does Personal Digital Inquiry look like in classrooms across different grade levels? • It is the core of everything!
  9. 9. The Challenge:Connecting Learnersin Ways That Matter • Move beyond industrial model of universal school toward new era focused on lifelong learning and individual choice – or lose learners emotionally & physically (Collins & Halverson, 2009: Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology) Gallup Poll (2012) - 500,000 US students, Gr. 5-12
  10. 10. • If we engage learners with rigorous academic content and expect them to know why, when, and how to apply knowledge to answer questions & solve problems (National Research Council, 2012) • “Lessen achievement gap in ways that lead to positive adult outcomes for more young people” • High school students engaged in deep, relevant, and personal (student-driven) learning opportunities: • Demonstrated higher levels of interpersonal and intrapersonal skills (American Institutes for Research, 2014) • Achieved better outcomes in every aspect of life, including academic, career, civic, and health (Center for Public Education, 2009) Optimistic Findings
  11. 11. Personal vs. Personalized: What’s the differencewhenit comesto studentdirected learning? • “Personalized” is about a top-down designed or tailored approach to learning; customized for the student, but still controlled by the teacher (serve up learning based on a formula of what a child needs) • “Personal” is something human where the learner initiates and controls the learning process; often emerges from engagement with others about one’s personal wonderings. True personal learning: It’s all about who’s doing it! (Sarah Pasfield, 2013; Wendy Ng, 2010)
  12. 12. Sohowcanweusetechnology(and goodteaching)todesignpersonal, studentdirectedspacesfor learning? (JulieCoiro,JillCastek,&DavidQuinn,inpress, TheReadingTeacher)
  13. 13. Choosing technology: What’s the coolest new tool you’ve seen? Hey, that’s cool! 1. How could I use that?2. Hmmm…how might this connect with what I teach? 3.
  14. 14. Choosing technology: What’s the coolest new tool you’ve seen? Hey, that’s cool! 1. How could I use that?2. Hmmm…how might this connect with what I teach? 3.Turn and talk some more…
  15. 15. Are we asking the right questions? Hey, that’s cool! 1. How could I use that?2. Hmmm…how might this connect with what I teach? 3. But how? Which parts and why? For whom? How will your students actively engaged with this tool? To what end? What will your students know, understand, and be able to do before/during/after using this tool?
  16. 16. What if we refocus and flip the sequenceof our planning questionsfor teaching with technology? 1 2 3 What will my students know, understand, and be able to do? How will my students be actively engaged in a way that allows them to use their own voice? Which digital tool(s) would work best and in what ways? 1. Set learning outcomes 2. Create authentic opportunities for students to be actively engaged 3. Then…make purposeful choices about technology (or no technology) 1. Hey that’s cool! 2. How could I use that? 3. How might this connect with what I teach? RATHER THAN…
  17. 17. A critical piece is still missing… A safe classroom culture that values curiosity and honors student voices while encouraging collaboration, problem solving, risk taking, and reflection. Building a culture of inquiry is key!
  18. 18. 1. Set learning outcomes 2. How will my students be actively engaged in a way that allows them to use their voice? 3. Then…make purposeful choices about technology (or no technology) trust and respect risk-taking problem-solving collaboration
  19. 19. What might a culture of inquiry feel like in a digitalage?(Foursetsofcorepractices) Personal Digital Inquiry (PDI) Framework
  20. 20. Inquire • Inquiry: “Learning that starts with lived experience…where people actively shape their own learning as they work on real problems in their own communities” (Bruce & Bishop, 2008; Dewey, 1938) • Generating their own wonderings about these problems helps students connect their own interests to real-life issues in ways that can lead to real change (Hobbs & Moore, 2013) • Opportunities for purposeful, self-directed inquiry become personally fulfilling learning experiences (Drive by Daniel Pink, 2009)
  21. 21. VariedLevels of [Digital]Inquiry • Modeled inquiry: Students observe models of how the leader asks questions and makes decisions. • Structured Inquiry: Students make choices which are dependent upon guidelines and structure given by the leader (may vary). • Guided Inquiry: Students make choices during inquiry that lead to deeper understanding guided by some structure given by the leader. • Open Inquiry: Students make all of the decisions. There is little to no guidance. Alberta Inquiry Model of Inquiry Based Learning (2004)
  22. 22. Collaborate & Discuss • Learning is social! Today’s learners prefer and expect opportunities to collaboratively construct meaning and support each other’s thinking in ways that lead to action (Schofield & Honore, 2010). • Expand discussion based reading practices such as reciprocal teaching (Palinscar & Brown, 1984), collaborative reasoning (Anderson et al, 2013), quality talk (Wilkinson, Soter, & Murphy, 2012), and CORI (Guthrie, Wigfield, & Perencevich, 2004) to support satisfying one’s personal wonderings while working with peers to co- construct new knowledge in complex digital spaces.
  23. 23. Collaborate & Discuss Cognitive Social Social Practices: Request & give information; jointly acknowledge, evaluate, & build on partner’s contributions Cognitive Strategies: Read, question, monitor, repair, infer, connect, clarify, and interpret
  24. 24. Participate & Create • Student action through creation and participation is the ultimate goal of learning (Casey, 2013) • When students investigate personally meaningful problems in their community they want to make positive changes or build awareness by creating a digital product (Hobbs, 2011). • Through participation, individuals assert their autonomy and ownership of learning (Zhao, 2009); in turn, their inquiry becomes more personal and engaging while seeing meaningful connections between home, school, and community (Ito et al., 2013)
  25. 25. ReneeHobbs(2013) The Life Of A Homeless Person (after a photo walk Discovery) Discussion… Research…. Composition… Revision… 10 page Comic book Participate & Create
  26. 26. Reflect • Final stage = reflection; but also the beginning stage! • Inquiry should lead to a student’s next burning question (Thomas & Brown, 2011) • Reflecting on action enables students to reframe problems, identify gaps in their knowledge, and decide what additional inquiries may be necessary (Casey & Bruce, 2011). • It also challenges students to develop and consider social and ethical impacts of their creation and ideas (Hobbs, 2010).
  27. 27. Reflect What decisions informed your design?
  28. 28. 1. Set learning outcomes 2. Create authentic opportunities for students to be actively engaged 3. Then…make purposeful choices about technology (or no technology) INQUIRE COLLABORATE & DISCUSS PARTICIPATE & CREATE REFLECT
  29. 29. Knowledge-Based Learning Outcomes How will studentsuse their knowledge? Knowledge Acquisition Acquire knowledge as a first step toward knowledge building Knowledge Building Build their content & process knowledge Knowledge Expression Express/share convergent and/or divergent understanding of content Knowledge Reflection Publicly and/or privately discuss what they brought to the content and what ideas they constructed Adapted from Harris & Hofer (2009)
  30. 30. Inquiry Practices How activelyengage withlearning outcomes acrossdifferent stages of inquiry? Inquire Generate personal wonderings Collaborate & Discuss Co-construct understanding and/or new knowledge (which type?) Participate & Create Express knowledge to build awareness and/or make positive changes Reflect Reflect on action during and/or after Coiro, Castek, & Quinn (in press)
  31. 31. Purposeful Technology Use Howcantechnologysupportorenhance… Teachers Giving Use technology to give information (direct instruction; digital resources); students passively acquire information Teachers Prompting Use digital tools, prompting questions, and selected materials to guide knowledge building Students Making Use digital tools/technologies to make/create new content that expresses their knowledge Students Reflecting Use digital tools/networked technologies to examine content learned and reflect on choices made during inquiry to improve Adapted from Hammond & Manfra (2009)
  32. 32. VariedPurposesfor Using Technologyto Support DigitalInquiry Knowledge-Based Learning Outcome (adapted from Harris & Hofer, 2009) Curricular-Related Purposes of Technology Use (adapted from Hammond & Manfra 2009) Knowledge Acquisition Teachers Giving Knowledge Building Teachers Prompting Knowledge Expression Students Making Knowledge Reflection Students Reflecting  Choices in inquiry-based learning can progress from teachers using technology for giving information and prompting knowledge toward students actively using technology to make and reflect on new content
  33. 33. TEACHER DIRECTED INQUIRY STUDENT DIRECTED INQUIRY Technology for Knowledge Expression Technology for Knowledge Building Modeled Inquiry Guided Inquiry Open Inquiry Giving Prompting Making Structured Inquiry Reflecting INQUIRE COLLABORATE & DISCUSS PARTICIPATE & CREATE REFLECT
  34. 34. PersonalDigitalInquiryPlanningGuide Learning Outcomes Self-Directed Inquiry Practices Purposes of Technology Use for Teaching and/or Learning Curricular: Participatory: Inquire: Collaborate & Discuss: Participate & Create: Reflect: Giving: Prompting: Making: Reflecting:  Useful for building curriculum-based models of how personal inquiry, online research, and digital tools can connect and engage young learners in ways that matter
  35. 35. Some examples
  36. 36. Guided Inquiry, Grade 4
  37. 37. In Summary • The Personal Digital Inquiry (PDI) Framework can serve as a springboard to inspire ways of engaging learners in the full range of digital inquiry practices while planning strategically for how students use technology to acquire, build, express, and reflect on new knowledge gained during their inquiry. Learning Outcomes Self-Directed Inquiry Practices Purposes of Technology Use for Teaching and/or Learning Curricular: Participatory: Inquire: Collaborate & Discuss: Participate & Create: Reflect: Giving: Prompting: Making: Reflecting:
  38. 38. Possibilities: Using Inquiry and Technology to Enhance Wondering, Dialogue, Participation & Reflection in Kindergarten
  39. 39. Opportunities to learn more this week: • Organizing Learning: Extending Collaboration, Cognition, & Connection (Jill Castek) Tuesday Promising Practices • 20 Time Projects (Dave Quinn) Wednesday Research Roundtable • Designing Supports for Digital Inquiry (Julie Coiro) Thursday Tips and Tools To read more: PersonalLearningandOnlineResearch:ConnectingLearnersinWays ThatMatter(Julie Coiro, Jill Castek, & Dave Quinn, in press, The Reading Teacher) Personal Digital Inquiry (PDI) Framework
  40. 40. The BIG QUESTION: Howcanwefoster inquiry,collaboration& dialogue,participation& creation,andreflectionusingacommon instructionalframeworkandeffective teachingpracticestosupportdigital literacyeducation? After the break…
  41. 41. Things to consider when planning a lesson • Context: Your personal values about teaching and learning; learner needs, school resources and values • Purpose: Curricular goals and learning standards • Materials: Texts, tools, and technologies • Pedagogy: Organizing instructional strategies to shape learning (informed by your values and beliefs) • Assessment: Work products and criteria for judging quality
  42. 42. The DigitalLiteracy CurriculumFramework (Coming up next!
  43. 43. More examples

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