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Client Description This case involves Peter Parkly, a 21-year-old Caucasian male, who was experiencing problems identify a potential career after graduation and concerned that he consumes to much alcohol at social events.
Purpose of Assessment Peter entered counseling stating concerns that when he graduates from college this spring he will not find a job, does not know what career he is interested in, and not sure if he chose the right major. Peter also says his alcohol consumption has increased during social events with friends and he is worried that he is using alcohol to help cope with academic problems. The Self-Directed Search and SASSI-3 will be administered to Peter to help formulate a diagnosis and treatment goals.
Assessment Procedures and Protocols The Self- Directed Search (SDS) (Form R) (Holland, 1994a) is based from John Holland’s Typology. Holland’s (1992) theory has four tenants 1: In our culture, most persons can be categorized as on of sixetypes: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional.
Assessment Procedures and Protocols 2: There are six kinds of environments: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional. 3: People search for environments that will let them exercise their skills and abilities, express their attitudes and values, and take on agreeable problems and roles 4: A person’s behavior is determined by an interaction between his personality and the characteristics of his environment. The SDS will be given to match personality traits with a fitting work environment.
Assessment Procedures and Protocols Administration of the SDS should be given to individuals curious about vocational alternatives and self-exploration. SDS is most effective in a quiet environment Those with an 8th grade education or above should be capable of answering Form R. While the test is taken and scored by the individual, supervision or checking the test can help reduce errors.
Assessment Procedures and Protocols Alcohol Abuse (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is diagnosed based on problems in at least one of four areas in a 12 month period: 1: failure to fulfill major social role obligations at work, home, or school. 2: drinking repeatedly in a manner that creates the potential for harm (e.g., drinking and driving) 3: incurring repeated alcohol-related legal consequences 4: continuing to drink despite known social or interpersonal problems because of drinking.
Assessment Procedures and Protocols Whiston (2009) states, “The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory 3 (SASSI-3) has a 93% rate of accuracy in identifying individuals with substance-related disorders. Reporting feedback to clients can help increase self- awareness, more information, and build rapport. The SASSI-3, along with, guidance from the DSM-IV-TR will infer if Peter has reached clinical significance for a diagnosis.
Medical/ Developmental History Peter has no known medical conditions. Based from information Peter has disclosed it seems he could be suffering from identity confusion-clashing roles, value systems, unable to make decisions (Berzonkly &Kuk, 2000; Kroger, 2004). Moreover, those suffering from identify confusion mask problems by procrastination and avoidance (Berzonkly &Kuk, 2000; Kroger, 2004) Peter could be using alcohol and partying as ways to avoid feelings of low self-esteem.
Medical/ Developmental History Zunker( 2006 ) states that the exploratory stage of Super’s theory of developmental stages and tasks states: Exploratory (15-24) characterized by a tentative phase in which choices are narrowed but not finalized. Specification (18-21) a period of moving from a tentative vocational preferences toward a specific vocational preference. It seems that Peter is close to his developmental stage. Preferences and interests are being narrowed down.
Family Psychiatric History Peter’s mother has a diagnosis of Bipolar I disorder, and until her mood stabilized from psychopharmacology, she actively abused alcohol, pain medication, and marijuana.
School/Academic History Peter had maintained a 3.2 grade point average until his senior year in college. His grades have slipped this semester due to partying, and he is trying to maintain a 3.0. He also has been skipping class more frequently attending only one or two classes a week.
Home Behavioral/Social Peter has been sleeping late and skipping classes. His days now consist of watching television, going to fraternity parties and checking Facebook. Each weekend he goes to the Square and consumes 3-5 alcoholic beverages Friday and Saturday night.
Assessments Used and Appropriate Interpretations After reviewing the SDS, activities, competencies, occupations, self-estimates were summed to get the total scores of RIASEC personality types. The highest three score compose the summary code: S (highest), I (second), E (third) S and I have a correlation of .30, S and E have a correlation of .54.
Assessments Used and Appropriate Interpretations Social Occupations (SIE) Clinical Dietitian Nurse Instructor Physical Therapist Nuclear Medicine District Supervisor Probation and Parole Officer
Assessments Used and Appropriate Interpretations Following the nine rules of the SASSI-3 results show that Peter has a low probability of a substance dependence disorder. Using the DSM-IV-TR Peter meets criteria for Alcohol Abuse by meeting criterion 1 and 2.
Summary of Findings Peter meets the Holland summary code of SIE meaning he is Social, Investigative, and Enterprising. He has a low probability of substance abuse, however, he does meet criteria for Alcohol Abuse.
DSM Diagnosis Axis I: 305.00 Alcohol Abuse Axis II: None Axis III: None Axis IV: Problems related to social environment and educational problems
Treatment Plan and Recommendations Peter can begin exploring career environments that fit his personality and interests. By using the SDS he now has ideas of future vocations and can begin to find more information about those jobs to narrow down a selection. Cognitive and Behavioral strategies can be used to intervene his Alcohol Abuse. Identifying replacement behaviors and self-reinforcement could help, along with, challenging thinking errors for the need to drink excessively.