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Elements of Interior Designing

what are the Elements of Interior Designing
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Elements of Interior Designing

  1. 1. Elements of interior design
  2. 2. The elements of design are the fundamental building blocks of any composition. These pieces work together to form a unified composition, and when utilized successfully, create a strong, dynamic visual layout. The designer uses these elements as tools that control how a message is delivered to an audience. These principles can be applied to fine art, photography and graphic design. sr 5
  3. 3. sr 6
  4. 4. form Line Space Shape Form Texture Color sr line space shapes colour texture 7
  5. 5. sr 8
  6. 6. One of most important element of design, line defines a subjectʼs form or shape on a flat, two- dimensional surface. Lines can be thick or thin, smooth or jagged, rigid and mechanical or organic and hand drawn. When discussing line as it applies to interior design, we mean the lines created by the furnishings and architecture of a room. Line sets form and shape. Line is responsible for harmony, contrast and unity in interior design. Line can be used to show movement and guides the eye throughout a room. Line can be used to show mood. Lines can be used to convey a sense of strength, serenity, gracefulness, or action. Combining lines and placing them in a design in certain ways can create specific effects and feelings. The use of line can also have an effect on how space is perceived. Different types of lines have different effects on design.
  7. 7. a mark, or stroke that is longer then it is wide. It is the path of a point moving in space. Objects and things are perceived by the line that describes them. Characteristics of line include: Width - thick, thin, tapering, uneven Length - long, short, continuous, broken Direction - horizontal, vertical, diagonal, curving, perpendicular, oblique, parallel, radial, zig-zag Focus - sharp, blurry, fuzzy, choppy Feeling - sharp, jagged, graceful, smooth ... can you think of others? sr 10
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  9. 9. The difference in line quality have created works with very different impact. How you use line is very important while creating some artwork. sr 12
  10. 10. Vertical lines Vertical lines lead the eye up, adding height formality growth spirituality grandeur strength to a design. Can be seen in: Tall furniture Columns Pillars Striped wallpaper Long narrow draperies sr This drawing room displays the use of vertical line. The example that stands out the most in this image is the glass window. Vertical line is also shown in the columns. 14
  11. 11. The back wall, glass window, furniture etc. give rise to verticality s 15
  12. 12. Vertical railing showing vertical lines. These suppose to increase the height. 16
  13. 13. Vertical lines can make rooms seem more spacious than they actually are and ceilings appear higher. sr 17
  14. 14. Horizontal lines Horizontal lines lead the eye to the left or right, suggesting informality calm peace gentleness gravity restfulness. Can be seen in: Long, low roofs Long, low furniture pieces such as sofas and chests sr 18
  15. 15. Horizontal lines can make buildings, rooms, and furniture seem wider and shorter. s 19
  16. 16. Horizontal lines can make buildings, rooms, and furniture seem wider and shorter. sr
  17. 17. Horizontal lines depicts calm, peace, and relaxation s 21
  18. 18. Diagonal lines Diagonal lines suggest action, activity, movement excitement Creates a sense of speed Can be seen in: Staircases Cathedral ceilings Gable Roofs sr 22
  19. 19. Diagonal lines can be overpowering and tiring, so they should be used sparingly in design sr
  20. 20. Diagonal lines creating action and excitement. s 24
  21. 21. Depicting a sense of action sr
  22. 22. Curved lines Too many curved lines create a busy look Represent freedom Natural Flow Appearance of softness A soothing feeling. Can be seen in: Doorway arches Ruffled curtains Curved furniture Rounded accessories Staircases sr
  23. 23. Curved lines create natural flow and freedom. The dynamic nature of diagonal lines creates drama and movement in room with a staircase sr
  24. 24. Curved line represent freedom Appearance of softness s 28
  25. 25. Curved lines add a softening, graceful effect to designs. sr 29
  26. 26. 3
  27. 27. Directional/jagged lines Can be perceived as forceful chaotic sharp threatening Thin lines Can be experienced by Unstable weak sr Thick lines Can be experienced by Rigid Dependent dominating
  28. 28. sr 33
  29. 29. Space, in two-dimensional design, is essentially flat. It has height and width, but no depth. There are certain visual cues, however, that can create the illusion of space in the mind of the viewer. By using those cues, artists and designers can create images that are interpreted as three-dimensional. Space is the area provided for a particular purpose. It may have two dimensions (length and width) such as a floor, or it may have three dimensions (length, width, and height), such as a room or dwelling. It refers to the area that a shape or form occupies. When space changes gradually, it is more pleasing than when it changes abruptly. When space changes suddenly, the eye shifts from one view to the other without making a smooth transition. sr 34
  30. 30. Space can be defined as positive or negative. Positive space is the filled space, the object(s) or element(s) in the design. Negative space is the empty space, or the open space between design elements or objects, such as a background. sr
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  32. 32. Any space, no mater what size or shape, can be divided into distinct parts. sr
  33. 33. Designers can create the illusion of physical space and spatial relationships through: Linear Perspective Size & Vertical Location Overlapping sr
  34. 34. Shapes that contrast negative and positive space can create the illusion of perspective. Linear perspective is based on the visual phenomenon that as parallel lines (such as railroad tracks) recede into space, they appear to converge at a distant point. Linear perspective not only evokes a feeling of great depth, but it also creates a strong focal point at the place where the lines converge. sr •Linear perspective in a photorealistic image.
  35. 35. Size is one of the easiest ways to create the illusion of space. A larger image will appear closer than a smaller one because we observed (very early in life) that objects appear to become smaller as they get farther away.
  36. 36. Overlapping is another easy way to suggest depth in an image. When objects overlap each other, the viewer perceives the one that is covering parts of other to be in front and the one that is covered to be in the back. 41
  37. 37. Compositional location refers to where a form is positioned vertically in the image. The bottom is seen as the foreground, the part of the image that is nearest the viewer and the top as the background, the part farthest from the viewer. The higher an object is place in the image, the farther back it is perceived to be. 43
  38. 38. Too little space can create a feeling of being exposed. sr 44
  39. 39. Very large rooms designed for many people can produce a lonely feeling when a person is alone
  40. 40. Space is affected by the number and size of objects in it. 4
  41. 41. Many objects scattered throughout a room will most likely destroy the design effect because the space will have no apparent organization or unity. sr
  42. 42. Objects grouped into large units will create a more ordered space. sr
  43. 43. sr 49
  44. 44. A shape is defined as a two or more dimensional area. All objects are composed of shapes and all other 'Elements of Design' are shapes in some way. Shape is a flat image with two dimensions: Length and Width. Any self-contained area with defined form or outline. It refers to the nature of an enclosure, actual or implied formed by a line/curve on a flat surface. Examples of "shape" in this context include "a geometri shape" (eg square), "organic shape" (flower-shaped obj Perceivable area. Shapes can be created by enclosing line, or by color and value changes which define edges. sr
  45. 45. Shape has size, which may connote significance or insignificance, strength or weakness. A coloured shape on a white back-ground is itself a positive shape creating a negative shape (the background) Types of shapes Mechanical Shapes or Geometric Shapes are the shapes that can be drawn using a ruler or compass. Mechanical shapes, whether simple or complex, produce a feeling of control or order.[5] Organic Shapes are freehand drawn shapes that are complex and normally found in nature. Organic shapes produce a natural feel. sr
  46. 46. Shape creating pattern Some geometrical shapes sr 52
  47. 47. Color alone can create shapes.
  48. 48. Connecting one continuous line to make a circle also creates shape
  49. 49. These are perfect geometric shapes, which are very pleasing to the eye. 55
  50. 50. Imperfect geometric shapes tend to create tension and attract greater interest. s
  51. 51. Shape may be: Shiny and reflect images- mirrors Transparent and create visual effects - window glass Textured and absorb light and sound - window treatments and carpeting Hard or Soft Plain or patterned Colored light or dark sr
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  53. 53. sr 59
  54. 54. Form is the outlined edges of a three-dimensional object. It has length, width, and depth (or height) as well as volume and mass. Form can be measured, from top to bottom (height), side to side (width), and from back to front (depth). Form is also defined by light and dark. It can be defined by the presence of shadows on surfaces or faces of an object. There are two types of form, geometric (man- made) and natural (organic form). Form may be created by the combining of two or more shapes. It may be enhanced by tone, texture and color. It can be illustrated or constructed. sr 60
  55. 55. Organic - natural, living form. Inorganic or geometric - man-made, non-living forms. Open-forms - forms that can be looked into. Closed-forms - self-contained. Geometric Shape - circle, square, rectangle, triangle, pentagon, octagon, other polygons. Geometric Form - sphere, cube, pyramid, cone, cylinder. Free-Form - any non-geometric shape: irregular, amorphic sr
  56. 56. Inorganic or geometric - man-made, non-living forms. 62
  57. 57. Organic - natural, living form. 6
  58. 58. Free-Form - any non- geometric shape: irregular, amorphic sr
  59. 59. Related forms tend to look better together than unrelate d forms. sr
  60. 60. Open-forms - forms that can be looked into. s 66
  61. 61. A room is more pleasing if the form of the dominate piece is repeated in minor pieces and accessories in a room.
  62. 62. Other examples of forms are found in furniture and architecture Large, heavy forms provide stability to a design scheme. Thin, delicate forms appear fragile, even when built of sturdy materialssr
  63. 63. sr 69
  64. 64. It is the surface quality or appearance of an object. Texture can be used to enhance a room’s features or provide added dimension. The element of texture is defined as “the feel, appearance, or consistency of a surface.” Texture is a surface’s tactile quality. Tactile refers to the perception of touch. types Visual texture is a quality of the surface that you can ‘see’, but not necessarily ‘felt’. Actual textureis a quality of the surface that you can both ‘see’ and ‘feel’. sr
  65. 65. Texture may be : rough/smooth, wet/dry, hard/soft, shiny/matte (dull), slick/sticky, slippery/abrasive, coarse/porous ... s
  66. 66. In design, texture appeals to sight as well as touch. sr
  67. 67. A room with the same texture throughout is monotonous, but too many different textures can appear disjointed and distracting. sr
  68. 68. Most well-designed rooms have a dominate texture with accents of contrasting textures. 74
  69. 69. Often patterns or colors are used to create the illusion of texture. s
  70. 70. Rough surfaces absorb more light, making them look darker and less intense. Smooth surfaces reflect more light than rough surfaces, making them look lighter and brighter. sr 76
  71. 71. sr 77
  72. 72. Color is the key element of interior design. It is used to create aesthetically pleasing combinations and also works on a psychological level. Each color has three characteristics: hue, value, and intensity. It can give emphasis to create a hierarchy and the piece of art Colour Saturation gives a color brightness or dullness. Colour may indicate emotion (excitement, rage, peace) and stimulate brain activity (action, relaxation, concentration). sr 78
  73. 73. Hue is the name of a color. Red, green and blue-violet are examples of hues. A color may be lightened or darkened, brightened or dulled, but the hue will remain the same. Colour is said to have value, which refers to the lightness or darkness of the colour (hue). Tint (colour plus white) is high-value colour, whereas shade (colour plus black) is low value colour s
  74. 74. Primary colors are hues from which all other colors can be made: red, yellow, blue. Secondary colors are made from mixing equal parts of the Primary colors: orange, green, violet. Tertiary colors are those colors between Primary and Secondary colors: yellow-orange, red-orange, etc. Complementary colors are colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel: red-green, orange- blue, yellow-violet. Analogous colors are colors that are adjacent (side by side) to each other on the color wheel. Monochromaticcolorsare variations in value of one color by adding either white to make tints or black to make shades. sr 80
  75. 75. Intensity refers to the brightness or dullness of a color. Intensity is the brightness or dullness of a hue. Adding some of its compliment can lower the intensity of a hue. The compliment of a hue is the color directly opposite it on a standard color wheel. Examples of high intensity colors include hot pink and fire-engine red. Low intensity colors include rust and smoky blue. Colors have degrees of transparency A color is Transparent if the viewer can see clearly through it. A color is translucent if it admits light but the image is diffused and can not be seen clearly. A color is opaque if it can't be seen through. Descriptors: brilliant, medium, dull. sr
  76. 76. Value is the lightness or darkness of a hue. The value of a hue can be made lighter by adding white. This produces a tint. Pink is a tint of red, made by adding white to red. A hue can be made darker by adding black. This produces a shade. Maroon is a shade of red. Google knows how to apply colour in a way that not only enforces their brand, but also to create a fun and interesting working environment that benefits their employees. sr 83
  77. 77. The offices of Octavian Advisors utilizes a monochromatic colour scheme, except for the bright green elevator entrances. This is an effective way of using colour for way finding. The Red Prime Steak restaurant takes advantage of colour psychology by using the colour red to increase appetites. sr
  78. 78. This carpet adds a pop a colour and also provides a sense o direction within the space Colour can be applied to surfaces or as light to create interested and dynamic spaces. 85
  79. 79. Color schemes look best when one color dominates. Dominate color should cover about two-thirds of the room area. s
  80. 80. 8
  81. 81. Tints and tones add interests and breaks monotony. sr