O slideshow foi denunciado.
Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.

Information Architecture and the Distributed User Experience

2.280 visualizações

Publicada em

Presentation delivered at the Museums Association - World Wide Wonder: Museums on the Web event.

Publicada em: Negócios, Tecnologia, Educação

Information Architecture and the Distributed User Experience

  1. 1. // World Wide Wonder Museums on the web // Information Architecture and the distributed online experience June 10 th 2009 // Jason Ryan Head of User Experience, iCrossing UK
  2. 2. 1. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Working in digital for 14 years </li></ul><ul><li>Joined Cogapp in 1998 - involved in many projects with Museums & Galleries </li></ul><ul><li>IA and consultancy work for cultural, government and commercial clients </li></ul><ul><li>Left Cogapp in 2007 to join iCrossing </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on 4 main areas </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction: How online is changing – and how this is affecting IA </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing IA: What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Practical: Developing an effective IA? </li></ul><ul><li>Consider: IA beyond the site </li></ul>// About me // About this presentation
  3. 3. What does this mean for IA? 1. INTRODUCTION Online has changed, and is changing… <ul><li>We started by replicating existing models (internal structures, buildings, collections, marketing, advertising) </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhere along the way we realised it was about doing things differently… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explosion of content creation and distribution tools.. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From passive consumers to active participants … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly creating interfaces and context for our content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The web IS social , content is democratic – everyone is having to adapt </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 1. INTRODUCTION Digg: A network of experiences
  5. 5. 2. INTRODUCING IA What is Information Architecture? Home Galleries Links Contact Information Photography Art Other The effective organisation, labelling and layout of information that allows users to achieve their goals
  6. 6. 2. INTRODUCING IA What about the quality of the experience? (Introducing User Experience) useful valuable credible usable desirable findable accessible ‘ UX is an approach to problem-solving that is media agnostic, interdisciplinary, holistic, and is driven by an understanding of human behaviour, cognition, capacities, needs, desires, and context’ ‘ It doesn’t matter how perfect the articulation of the interaction, or how elegantly the experience is structured; if it does not address a human need or desire, it is destined to fail’ ‘ Ultimately, our efforts must deliver value’
  7. 7. divergent convergent 2. INTRODUCING IA IA is part of a (user centred) design process personas and scenarios information architecture interaction design design iterations documentation contextual research stakeholder research competitor evaluation concept development user research
  8. 8. Many organisations see their website as the sum total of their online existence – But every organisation exists in a broader network; through networks of links and conversations – The question is to what degree we choose to be part of those networks ? through listening and engagement - And to what extent we can develop our IA to embrace and optimise the flow of information across the social web ? 2. INTRODUCING IA But what about the rest of the web? Welcome to the network map ...
  9. 9. 2. INTRODUCING IA Information Architecture Is the term sufficient to describe what we are trying to achieve? We need to design architectures that deliver experiences and support human activities - communication and participation - Experience Architecture ? As used by some agencies - Network Architecture ? A network of experiences - Social Architecture ? The web is social - Participation Architecture? As used by Tim O’Reilly re. Web 2.0 - Engagement Architecture? - Communication Architecture ?
  10. 10. 2. INTRODUCING IA The challenges - We are moving from a channel to a network view of the web - We need to consider centralised and de-centralised web strategies - Distributed access to content needs to inform the IA/UX strategy - What does success look like - measure engagement as well as page views
  11. 11. 3. DEVELOPING IA Developing an effective IA IA is not about a set of rules and methodologies IA is about ways of working - a toolbox of principles , guidelines and techniques Business Users Content IA
  12. 12. 3. DEVELOPING IA A program for developing an effective IA <ul><li>Objectives: be clear about what you want to achieve (and how you will measure it) </li></ul><ul><li>User Needs: Understand what your (potential) audience / collaborators are doing, and want to do </li></ul><ul><li>Content: What content meets both your objectives and user needs? </li></ul><ul><li>Context: Embrace the rest of the web (understand trends, what people are doing online and where they are doing it) </li></ul><ul><li>Design, test, iterate </li></ul><ul><li>Continually measure and optimise </li></ul>IA is dynamic, it is a process, it can always be improved
  13. 13. 3. DEVELOPING IA Developing an effective IA: Set objectives <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder interviews – involve as many as possible </li></ul><ul><li>External consultants are well placed to do this </li></ul><ul><li>The process is important – a good process ensures representation and buy-in </li></ul><ul><li>The output - a clear set of strategic objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Think in terms of cultural, political and economic objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study: The British Museum </li></ul><ul><li>24 stakeholders interviewed (including Trustees, Deputy Director, Curators, Exhibitions, Education, Marketing, IT, Content creators etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders asked to identify opportunities, challenges, ideas, frustrations </li></ul><ul><li>The output was consensus on 10 strategic objectives </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3. DEVELOPING IA Developing an effective IA: Identify user needs <ul><li>User needs </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative site analysis – user journeys and popular pages with web analytics </li></ul><ul><li>User research: interviews and survey – quantitative and qualitative research </li></ul><ul><li>One output is a set of user goal statements </li></ul><ul><li>Another output is a set of task-based personas that are used to inform design process </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study: The British Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Over 50 user interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Over 300 replies to survey </li></ul><ul><li>Around 80 user goals identified </li></ul><ul><li>5 key personas (general public, researcher, teacher, journalist, venue booker) </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Strategy workshop </li></ul><ul><li>Decide which user goals to support </li></ul><ul><li>Map identified user goals against strategic objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate strategic objectives against user research: refine if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study: The British Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Refined set of objectives to 3 key objectives – one overarching principle </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced set of user goal statements to take into design phase </li></ul>3. DEVELOPING IA Developing an effective IA: Strategy
  16. 16. 3. DEVELOPING IA Developing an effective IA: Content <ul><li>Content review / gap analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Review existing content against the strategic objectives and user goals </li></ul><ul><li>Identify useful, redundant and missing content </li></ul><ul><li>The key output is a content strategy </li></ul>
  17. 17. 3. DEVELOPING IA Developing an effective IA: Top-down Successful design comes from two approaches… <ul><li>Top-down IA </li></ul><ul><li>Top-down is about primary navigation and labelling </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual models are important </li></ul><ul><li>Research navigation systems first – don’t reinvent the wheel ! </li></ul><ul><li>Build a prototype navigation system and test </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study: The British Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Development of a conceptual model that makes sense to everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Card-sorting exercises to test the conceptual model </li></ul><ul><li>Information hierarchy (primary, secondary etc. navigation) was the output </li></ul>
  18. 18. 3. DEVELOPING IA Why do we need a conceptual model ?
  19. 19. 3. DEVELOPING IA Case Study: British Museum conceptual model <ul><li>BUILDING </li></ul><ul><li>Visiting </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Galleries </li></ul><ul><li>Shops </li></ul><ul><li>Cafes </li></ul><ul><li>Tickets </li></ul><ul><li>THEMES </li></ul><ul><li>World cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Themes </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNITY </li></ul><ul><li>Friends of BM </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Outreach </li></ul><ul><li>Online networks </li></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><li>Friends of BM </li></ul><ul><li>Curators </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeologists </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></ul><ul><li>Historical figures </li></ul><ul><li>Famous people </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Collections </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIVITIES </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibitions </li></ul><ul><li>Programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Events </li></ul><ul><li>OUTPUTS </li></ul><ul><li>Publications </li></ul><ul><li>TV Programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Learning resources </li></ul><ul><li>Picture Library </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Building The Collection People Exhibitions Events Speed of change 3. DEVELOPING IA Developing an effective IA: Conceptual model
  21. 21. 3. DEVELOPING IA Developing an effective IA: Top-down Top-down IA <ul><li>Case Study: The British Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Card-sorting was useful for some areas of the IA, and supported the conceptual model – but not the collection... how can you find the optimal organisation of the whole of human history and endeavor through card-sorting exercises? </li></ul><ul><li>Key insight from the research… 3 modes of enquiry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I am looking for something specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I am interested in this topic/subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspire me! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The information hierarchy for the site was developed from the user research, through both regular testing and consultation with Museum staff </li></ul>
  22. 22. 3. DEVELOPING IA Developing an effective IA: Bottom-up Bottom-up IA <ul><li>Case Study: The British Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of content types and relationships between them </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of taxonomy (authority tags and lists) </li></ul><ul><li>Top-down and bottom-up IA brought together in wireframes </li></ul><ul><li>Iterative testing of wireframes </li></ul><ul><li>Iterative testing continued into the UI design stages </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom-up is about content types, relationships and contextual navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomies and user journeys are vital </li></ul>
  23. 23. 3. DEVELOPING IA Developing an effective IA: Bottom-up
  24. 24. 3. DEVELOPING IA Developing an effective IA: Bottom-up
  25. 25. 3. DEVELOPING IA Developing an effective IA: Wireframes
  26. 26. 3. DEVELOPING IA Developing an effective IA: Wireframes
  27. 27. 3. DEVELOPING IA Developing an effective IA: Research & testing Continually test and optimise throughout the design process
  28. 28. 4. IA BEYOND THE SITE From Channels to Networks The people formerly known as ‘the audience’ now exist in connected networks of experiences and information Those organisations that are aware , active , useful and ultimately trusted in these networks will succeed Search and social media help define networks as they enable the navigation and conversation that is fundamental to our online journeys
  29. 29. Search as Navigation 4. IA BEYOND THE SITE Search as Navigation UK only All searches
  30. 30. 4. IA BEYOND THE SITE Search as Navigation Home page Search optimised landing pages Widgets on 3 rd party sites Yoursite.org.uk Home
  31. 31. 4. IA BEYOND THE SITE Search as Navigation Industry Language Oral care Oral health Locate dental professional Good oral hygiene Oral hygiene Good Oral hygiene Whitening Battery-powered toothbrush Kid’s toothbrush Professional whitening system 148 5,232 10 190 5,155 190 5,075 145 592 670 17,407 Search Volume per month Consumer Language Dental care Dental health Find a dentist Dental hygiene Dental hygiene Personal hygiene Tooth whitening Electric toothbrush Child toothbrush Tooth whitening system 188,818 74,588 29,525 24,558 24,558 17,670 146,212 16,522 835 6,205 529,491 Search Volume per month
  32. 32. TWO : ENGAGE 4. IA BEYOND THE SITE Network Architecture 3 principles for success in networks / listen / be useful / be live / Map networks and monitor conversations to understand what people are saying and doing / Attention is earned in networks not bought / Use this understanding to provide useful content for people to find and share / Free up information so it can travel online / Set engagement targets / Measure / Respond through active management / Use social media spaces that are immediate and responsive, i.e. Twitter / Develop relationships with influencers and advocates
  33. 33. Media platforms Forums Applications Streams / feeds RSS Widget 4. IA BEYOND THE SITE Network Architecture Yoursite.org.uk
  34. 34. 4. IA BEYOND THE SITE Network Architecture <ul><li>Network Architecture is a framework for effectively planning tactical implementation of objective-led activities or campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on mapping content types to : </li></ul><ul><li>locations, either onsite or in networks; </li></ul><ul><li>potential engagement activities; </li></ul><ul><li>roles and responsibilities around maintaining/building engagement around the content; and </li></ul><ul><li>success criteria/metrics </li></ul>  Content types   Site copy Images Video Audio Docs Links Objects Events People Articles Format(s)                   Location(s) CMS CMS YouTube iTunes CMS CMS CMS CMS CMS CMS     Flickr Vimeo Vimeo Slideshare Delicious Forums Upcoming LinkedIn Blogs     Picasa   Facebook Houndbite   Scribd Magnolia Flickr Twitter Facebook News     Facebook   Flickr AudioBoo   Papers   Google OAI    Feeds Blogs upublica API Twitter Shareable             Comments             Who                   KPIs                   Metrics                  
  35. 35. 4. IA BEYOND THE SITE Network Architecture: 3 rd party content
  36. 36. 4. IA BEYOND THE SITE Network Architecture: 3 rd party content
  37. 37. 4. IA BEYOND THE SITE Network Architecture: Set your content free
  38. 38. 4. IA BEYOND THE SITE Network Architecture: Set your content free
  39. 39. 4. IA BEYOND THE SITE Case Study: Brooklyn Museum of Art
  40. 40. 4. IA BEYOND THE SITE Case Study: Brooklyn Museum of Art
  41. 41. 4. IA BEYOND THE SITE Case Study: Brooklyn Museum of Art
  42. 42. 4. IA BEYOND THE SITE Case Study: Brooklyn Museum of Art
  43. 43. MEASURE & OPTIMISE 5. SUMMARY Summary <ul><li>IA is part of a research and design process </li></ul><ul><li>It strives to balance organisational objectives and user needs </li></ul><ul><li>There are no rules – one size does not fit all </li></ul><ul><li>The web is changing and IA must adapt along with the rest of us </li></ul><ul><li>IA techniques can be useful for designing our web presence as well as our web site </li></ul><ul><li>We need to consider architectures that support human activities – such as communication and participation </li></ul><ul><li>We need to consider how we can design and build architectures that support distributed content and engagement across the whole of the web </li></ul>
  44. 44. Jason Ryan Email : jason.ryan@icrossing.co.uk Twitter: www.twitter.com/jasonryan Thank you
  45. 45. 4. IA BEYOND THE SITE Search as Navigation
  46. 46. Advocacy Actions Awareness Volume & Brand Control Involvement Interaction Influence Intimacy MEASURE & OPTIMISE 5. MEASURE AND OPTIMISE Measurement framework: Search, site & social
  47. 47. MEASURE & OPTIMISE 5. MEASURE AND OPTIMISE Measurement framework “ Do people know about us?” “ What are they doing when they get here?” “ What do they say?” “ Are they acting differently?” Involvement <ul><li>Visits </li></ul><ul><li>Clicking on an advert </li></ul><ul><li>How long they stay there </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bounce Rates”; whether people stick around </li></ul>Interaction <ul><li>Rating something... </li></ul><ul><li>Leaving a comment... </li></ul><ul><li>Registering for something... </li></ul><ul><li>Watching a video... </li></ul><ul><li>Downloading something... </li></ul><ul><li>Signing up … </li></ul>Initmacy <ul><li>Bookmarking us </li></ul><ul><li>Following us </li></ul><ul><li>Expressing opinions on blogs and forums </li></ul>Influence <ul><li>Content recommended / forwarded </li></ul><ul><li>High profile bloggers posting </li></ul><ul><li>about us </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes changing </li></ul>