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El acceso abierto y las revistas depredadoras: un paso adelante y dos pasos hacia atrás

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Jeffrey Beall, retirado de la University of Colorado, Denver, Estados Unidos. Conferencia presentada en el 4.° Encuentro Regional de Editores de Revistas Académicas 2019. Journals & Authors, Medellín - Colombia.

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El acceso abierto y las revistas depredadoras: un paso adelante y dos pasos hacia atrás

  1. 1. El Acceso Abierto y las Revistas Depredadoras: Un Paso Adelante y Dos Pasos Hacia Atrás Jeffrey Beall ORCID number 0000-0001-9012-5330
  2. 2. Revistas depredadoras: una crisis ética en la publicación
  3. 3. Introducción • Predatory publishers = Editores depredadores • Scholarly publishing = Edición académica • Science and pseudo-science = La ciencia y la pseudo-ciencia • Scholarly publishing scams = Estafas en la edición académica • The open-access movement = El movimento de acceso abierto
  4. 4. Publishing models for scholarly journals Modelos de edición de revistas académicas • Traditional (subscription) model • Hybrid open-access • Platinum open-access = free to author, free to reader • Delayed open access = subscription model but OA after some time • Gold open access = free to reader, author pays a fee
  5. 5. Predatory publishers and journals Editores y revistas depredadores • Predatory publishers (journals) are those that exploit the gold open- access model for their own profit • They take advantage of, exploit, and pander (complacen las exigencias de) to scholarly authors • They pretend (fingen) to be legitimate, copying established and respected journals' websites and practices • Many do a poor or fake peer review • Some name themselves as "Institutes," "Associations," or "Centers" • Some operate as single mega-journals
  6. 6. Gold (author pays) open-access [1] • Publishing costs financed by fees charged to authors upon acceptance of their articles • The customers are the authors (not libraries, not readers) • Low barrier to startup • Immediate revenue generation • Low overhead • Proven business model, easy to copy • Ever-growing customer base
  7. 7. Gold (author pays) open-access [2] • Conflict of interest: More articles = more publisher income • No organization looks out for the interests of scholarly authors • Makes it hard for scholarly societies to generate income from their publishing programs • Making publishing free for authors would solve many problems • We're giving up on the selectivity that the subscription publishing model provided
  8. 8. materia oscura y energía oscura
  9. 9. History of predatory publishers • I first started to receive spam email solicitations from publishers in 2008 and 2009 • My first publication about a predatory publisher was in 2009 • I coined the term "predatory publisher" in summer 2010 • I started my blog in early 2012 — and ended it in 2017 • Not all open-access journals are predatory
  10. 10. History of predatory publishers
  11. 11. Predatory Medical Journals Revistas Médicas Depredadoras
  12. 12. How predatory publishers damage science [1] • They've increased published research misconduct (mala conducta en la investigación), such as plagiarism • The pseudo-science they publish gets indexed in Google Scholar and other academic indexes • They threaten demarcation, the division between science and pseudo-science, the cumulative nature of research (naturaleza cumulativa de la investigación) • They feed bogus research to societal institutions that depend on authentic science • They publish activist science and conspiracy-theory science (ciencia de teoría de la conspiración)
  13. 13. How predatory publishers damage science [2] • They are polluting taxonomy • Many also sponsor bogus scholarly conferences • Pharmaceutical entrepreneurs are using predatory publishers to make invented compounds appear efficacious • Author fees (tasas de publicación) may prevent some authors from being able to publish their work, especially those in middle-income countries and unaffiliated researchers
  14. 14. Five theses on scholarly publishing Cinco tesis sobre la edición académica • The open-access model has created more serious problems than those it has solved. • Green open-access is essentially dead. • Academic libraries should not take on the role of scholarly publishers = Las bibliotecas académicas no deben asumir el papel de los editores académicos. • Open access is disintermediating academic librarians = El acceso abierto causa la desintermediación de los bibliotecarios académicos
  15. 15. Napoleon A. Chagnon “… anthropology has become more like a religion — where major truths are established by faith, not facts” (p. 232).
  16. 16. http://www.hoajonline.com/autism/2054-992X/3/1
  17. 17. Predatory Journals and Academic Evaluation [1] • Universities use scholarly publications as a measure of academic achievement • Academic managers want objective evaluation methods: lists, bibliometrics (bibliometría) • Scholarly publishing has changed, but evaluation systems have not changed • It is very easy now to get an article published in an OA journal • Evaluation systems based on counting are no longer valid • Some researchers take advantage of easy publishing
  18. 18. Predatory Journals and Academic Evaluation [2] •At many universities, academic evaluation is broken •If you use a whitelist, many seek out the list’s “easiest” journals •Researchers who publish in top journals feel cheated
  19. 19. My (former) work
  20. 20. Indirect Victims of Predatory Publishers • Those who are inundated with spam • Those preparing literature reviews (Revisiones literarias) • Those preparing review articles and systematic reviews (Revisiones sistemáticas), and meta-analyses (metaanálisis) • Those who take the high road, only to see colleagues advance academically through high numbers of publications in predatory journals • Students preparing class papers
  21. 21. FTC lawsuit against OMICS International pleito
  22. 22. Fake Impact Factor Companies
  23. 23. Hijacked Journals
  24. 24. The stigma of predatory publishers • Publishing an article in a predatory journal can harm a researcher's reputation • Membership on a predatory journal's editorial board (consejo de redacción) reflects poorly on the individual and his institution • Articles published in legitimate journals that cite conclusions from earlier articles in predatory journals may be seen as questionable = • Los artículos publicados en revistas legítimas que citan conclusiones de artículos publicados anteriormente en revistas depredadores pueden ser vistos como cuestionables
  25. 25. Questionable conferences
  26. 26. Science “Since science is our most reliable source of knowledge, in a wide variety of areas, we need to distinguish scientific knowledge from its look-alikes.” “Dado que la ciencia es nuestra fuente de conocimiento más fiable, en una amplia variedad de áreas, necesitamos distinguir el conocimiento científico de sus semejantes.” —S.O. Hansson.
  27. 27. Conclusion • The author-pays model is a major cultural change in scholarly publishing that has led to the creation of many scams • We have given up on selectivity in scholarly publishing = Hemos renunciado a la selectividad en la publicación académica • Predatory journals threaten the integrity of science • Scholarly authors are now consumers of publishing services, but there's no organization that represents their interests
  28. 28. Thank you Junio 2019 •Jeffrey Beall, jeffrey.beall@ucdenver.edu