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Introduction to Drawing

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An introduction to drawing for use in Art I and Art II High School Visual Art Classrooom. Warm-up questions are at the end of the presentation.

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Introduction to Drawing

  1. 1. Drawing-The Foundation “A drawing must bring life to the space which surrounds it. “ Henri Matisse
  2. 2. Blind Contour as Art
  3. 3. Blind ContourTape your drawing paper to the table orboard.Draw a picture of our your hand withoutlooking at your paper.Use one continuous line using your whole It is acceptable to drawarm, not just your wrist. Don’t pick your back over lines to get from one point tomedium off the paper until you are done. anotherChallenge yourself by overlapping hands ofdifferent colors on top of one another. Dothis by turning your paper 90 degrees eachtime you finish a drawing.
  4. 4. Student Example –Blind Contour
  5. 5. Contour Drawing (not blind)Contour Lines describe the shape of an object, andinclude interior detail.Using one continuous line, sketch your hand. This timeyou can look at your paper. Go slow and draw everysingle crease and wrinkle in your hand!Common mistakes are drawing sausage fingers too fastand then picking up your pencil to draw the creases. 
  6. 6. What makes a good work of art?Let’s brainstorm what makes a good workof art on the Smart Board.Everyone needs to say at least one thing!
  7. 7. What makes a good work of art?Consider such criteria as: good design, harmoniousrelationships among parts, craftsmanship, theaesthetic response the work provokes, whether itwas intended to be seen as a work of art.In small groups pick works of art in your textbooksthat illustrate and support you and your groupsdefinitions.
  8. 8. Scribbling Exercise & A NewPencil GRIPTape your drawing paper to the table or board and holdyour pencil in the drawing grasp rather than a writinggrasp.Fill up your paper with scribble either using 1 type ofpencil or changing it for another.Use as many scribble as possible, long, short or brokenscribbles, overlap and cover the page.Remember to keep your hand loose and your fingersrelaxed. Don’t grip your drawing implement too hard.
  9. 9. Pencil Leads
  10. 10. Media InformationThere have been crude pencils for over 300 years and pencilssimilar to those we use today with the writing materialsencased in wood, since the 19th Century. The center andwriting part of the pencil, called the lead, is a mixture ofgraphite and clay. The tiny flakes of graphite rub off thepencil and onto the texture of the paper. Pencils are availablewith a variety of different leads for different purposes. Ahard lead is necessary for tiny numbers and exact imageswhile a soft lead is used for drawing and shading. The softestpencils are labeled B for bold and the hardest are labeled H.Numbers with these letters indicate the degree of hardness orsoftness. A 6H pencil is harder than a 3H pencil.
  11. 11. VocabularyGradate – To gradate is to change from one thing intoanother by imperceptible degrees. In drawing we changevalues, light into dark and then dark into light, in a verygradual transition.Model – To model an object is to cause it to take on athree dimensional appearance, by gradually changing thecolor or tone.Line – A line, a basic element of design, is the path of apoint moving through space. In drawing, we arereducing the image we wish to recreate into eitherstraight or curved lines.
  12. 12. Negative Space What is the subject of this drawing by Katelyn Gomez? How can we apply this to drawing a still life of fruit or bottles?
  13. 13. Negative Space
  14. 14. CalligraphyOrchids and Rocks1644Gu Mei , (Chinese, 1619-1664)Qing dynasty - Ink on satinH: 28.5 W: 1033.5 cm - Nanjing, China
  15. 15. Calligraphy The word calligraphy means beautiful handwriting. Calligraphy is often associated with Asian writing and art. In China and Japan, calligraphy is used to form characters that represent the language. However, characters are more than just a letter of the alphabet. They are like pictures. They can represent an idea, an object, or a verbal sound. Chinese and Japanese use the same types of calligraphic lines and brushstrokes in their paintings. Calligraphic lines are usually made with brushstrokes that change from thin to thick in one stroke.http://www.asia.si.edu/explore/china/calligraphy/standardScript.asp http://www.asia.si.edu/collections/singleObject.cfm?ObjectNumber=F1898.423
  16. 16. Calligraphy Calligraphy, or beautiful writing, is the most revered form of artistic expression in the Islamic world, for it was through the act of writing that the Koran, the word of God revealed in a series of revelations to the Prophet Muhammad, was recorded and given visual form. Consequently, the Arabic script was continuously refined and imaginatively embellished to become the most recognizable and ubiquitous symbol of Islam. Adapted to every possible surface—from monumental stone structures to delicate silk robes—words, both religious and secular, were employed not only to impart information, but also to lend visual beauty to these works.http://www.asia.si.edu/exhibitions/online/islamic/calligraphy1.htm
  17. 17. Calligraphy Contrary to the assumption that the Koran prohibits figurative representation, it only warns against the creation and worship of idols to prevent idolatry. Fueled by more orthodox interpretations of Islam, however, religious disapproval of figural representation took hold shortly after the Prophets death in 632. In general, Korans, religious structures, and the furnishings for these spaces are devoid of figural imagery and adorned primarily with abstract motifs and calligraphy. Figural representation, on the other hand, is found on works of art created for use in a private, secular context. In part, the religious prohibitions encouraged the development of a distinct abstract decorative language that became another principle feature of the arts of the Islamic world.
  18. 18. Break it Down!Cezanne consideredshapes to be thebasic forms; thesphere, cone, andcylinder.
  19. 19. Break it Down!
  20. 20. Media ExplorationDraw a straight lineMake 2 lines that are exactly the sameDraw curved lines, moving only your fingers.Draw curved lines with your whole arm, keeping your wrist lockedHold your pencil at an angle and draw with the side of the lead and drawa spiral, looping down and down, using relaxed and easy movements.Draw a very dark patch.Draw a very pale, faint line.Draw a circle shape. Pick a spot to be the palest area and use the spotfarthest away (opposite) from it to be the darkest area. Change the circleinto a sphere by modeling evenly, gradating from light to dark.Draw a rectangle and gradate it from dark at the bottom to light on top.Experiment on your own.Do all of the above on a separate sheet of paper AGAIN and create acomposition.
  21. 21. Media Exploration
  22. 22. Letter ExerciseDivide your drawing paper into 3 columns and rows likea tic-tac-toe board. Choose a letter of the alphabet.Using your pencil. Repeat the letters or numbersthroughout the composition, changing the value andthe direction of each. This exercise will help you betterunderstand the concept of positive and negative space.It will also improve your ability to use variety, value andorganization in your composition. Notice how thenegative space stand out clearly from the composition insome cases, and appears neutral or insignificant inothers.p.30 Discover Drawing
  23. 23. LetterRotation Student Example by Courtney Hooker Page30 in Discover Drawing
  24. 24. Drawing with Depth!
  25. 25. Still Life Gesture –Let’s Practice
  26. 26. GestureGestural drawing: A quickdrawing that captures thegestures and movements ofthe body. Also a quickdrawing to capture theessence of a subject.It is a quick drawing withno erasing.Hint: Draw the mass of theobject & keep your handmoving.
  27. 27. Sketching –The underdrawing orbefore painting
  28. 28. Line creates MoodSurrealist Kay Sage often depicted landscapes andenvironments in this style. Look at the angles anddiagonal lines in the lower part of All Soundings AreReferred to High Water, and note the lines formedby shadows. Write a short description of the moodthat the diagonal lines help emphasize.I will pick people at random to read theirdescriptions.Do you think they will all be the same or different?
  29. 29. Value ExerciseDivide your paper into 4 rows.There are many ways to create value in adrawing. Use the same basic shapes (circles,rectangles, squares, triangles) in threedifferent compositions. Create a range ofvalues by using tones (2nd row), dots(3rdrow) and hatching (bottom row).p.35 Discover Drawing
  30. 30. Scribbling into TONE
  31. 31. Scribble into TONEExerciseThere are those who find the subtle gradation ofvalue (sometimes we say tone) from darkest darkto lightest light – one of the miracles of drawing.Start scribbling on your paper without lifting yourmedium off the paper and by slightly varying thepressure, you will begin to get the effect ofgradation. If you remember that gradation comesfrom scribbling and that scribbles must be keptclose together you will soon master it.
  32. 32. ValueValue: Refers to the properties of darks andlights used in a composition. The range ofvalue depends on how much light is reflectedon the surface of the objects.Value gradation is used to create the illusionof three –dimensional space on a two-dimensional plane. Value gradation shows thegradual change of lights to darks. Values areusually shown on a value scale, with white atone extreme and black at the other.p.35 Discover Drawing
  33. 33. Shading Techniques
  34. 34. Highlight, Midtone & Shadow Direct Light – Lighting in which the light goes straight from the source to the lit object. An example is a light bulb or the sun. Compare that to indirect lighting, which is when there is no single direct light source. The object is lit by scattered or bounce light. For example on a cloudy day when the sun is covered by clouds, its rays are scattered and everything is lit indirectly. All forms, when lit with direct light have the same elements – highlight, halftone, core shadow, reflected light, and cast shadow. It’s an essential skill to be able to quickly identify each element on a given object and to execute each accurately. In this example there are 4 different values on the object and one shadow. A. Highlighthttp://www.stanprokopenko.com/blog/2009/08/direct-light/ B. Halftone C. Core Shadow D. Reflected Light E. Cast Shadow
  35. 35. Highlight, Midtone & Shadow
  36. 36. ShadingTechniques
  37. 37. CubistDrawing
  38. 38. Cubist Drawing What is wrong with the drawing above??
  39. 39. Point to Ponder #1/2Name and define the five basic kindsof lines.
  40. 40. Point to Ponder #1/2ANSWER Vertical lines move straight up and sown Horizontal lines are parallel to the horizon. Diagonal lines slant. Curved lines change direction gradually. Zigzag lines are made from a combination of diagonal lines
  41. 41. Point to Ponder #1What feelings and moods dohorizontal, vertical and diagonal linesusually suggest?
  42. 42. Point to Ponder #1ANSWERHorizontal lines usually suggestcalmness, repose, and balance. Verticallines convey height, stability, anddignity. Diagonal lines express action,movement, and tension.
  43. 43. Point to Ponder #2What is the difference between anoutline and a contour line?
  44. 44. Point to Ponder #2An outline is usually made by just theouter edges of the object, whereas acontour outline of an object usuallyincludes some interior detail.
  45. 45. Point to Ponder #3What are two characteristics of linethat give the line personality and helpconvey a specific mood or feeling?
  46. 46. Point to Ponder #3ANSWERTwo characteristics of line that givethe line personality and help convey aspecific mood or feeling are itsdirection or movement, and its qualityor weight.
  47. 47. Point to Ponder #4What are implied lines? Give anexample of an artwork in yourtextbook that illustrates implied lines.Be prepared to point out these impliedlines to your table partner or Mrs.Henderson
  48. 48. Point to Ponder #4ANSWERImplied lines are lines that aresuggested without actually havingbeen drawn or incorporated.See Exploring Visual Elements pg. 24 & 25
  49. 49. Point to Ponder #5Lines vary in appearance in five major ways:(A) length (B) width (C) texture (D)direction and (E) degree of curve. Matchthe letter above with the description of theline below.____ (a) Lines can curve gradually or not atall, become wavy, or form spirals.____ (b) Lines can be rough or smooth____(c) Lines can move in any direction,such as vertical, horizontal, or diagonal____(d) Lines can be long or short.____(e) Lines can be wide or thin.See Glencoe ArtTalk Teacher Materials Study Guide – Chapter 4 pg. 7
  50. 50. Point to Ponder #5ANSWER(a) E(b) C(c) A(d) D(e) B
  51. 51. Changing PerspectiveLook at artist’s who have used ordinaryobjects in different ways. How do they helpyou look at objects differently? GiuseppeArcimboldo. Marcel Duchamp. JosephCornell, Andy Warhol p.212, GeorgiaO’Keeffe p.77.Exploring Visual Elements pg. 24 & 25
  52. 52. Changing PerspectiveJoseph Cornell Marcel Duchamp
  53. 53. Cross Contour Drawing
  54. 54. Let’s Draw BoxesMove your pencil like a wind-shield washer to check the angle of your boxes. Next lookat the negative space and shadows. Think which of the 3 sides you see is light, mediumand dark. Shade them in appropriately.
  55. 55. Let’s draw ananimal Using the 5 different types of line (notice no shading) Pick a picture from the pile And Draw your animal Remember to break it down!
  56. 56. Sequential Self-Portrait Sequential art