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Knowledge about Visha, Upavisha &
Metalic preparations.
Knowledge of formulations
containing Visha, Upavisha & Rasa
aushad...
THE DRUGS AND
COSMETICS ACT, 1940
Divided Into Five Chapters
contains
38 Sections
The First Schedule
Ayurveda
1. Arogya Kalpadruma
2. Arka Prakasha
3. Arya Bhishak
4. Ashtanga Hridaya
5. Ashtanga Samgraha...
Conti…
Siddha
55 Siddha Vaidya Thirattu
56 Therayar Maha Karisal
57 Brahma Muni Karukkadai (300)
58 Bhogar (700)
59 Pulipp...
SCHEDULE E (1)
[See Rule 161 (2)]
List of poisonous substances under the Ayurvedic (including
Siddha) and Unani Systems of...
AYURVEDIC SYSTEM
• Drugs of vegetable origin
• Ahipena Papaver somniferum Linn.
• Arka Calotropis gigantea (linn.)R. Br. e...
AYURVEDIC SYSTEM
• II Drugs of Animal Origin .
• Sarpa Visha Snake poison
• III Drugs of Mineral Origin
• Gauripashana Ars...
Synonyms of visha
• विषं हालाहलं ब्रह्मपुत्रं सौरष्ट्र्काहम म
• प्रदीपनं दारदाख् ं काकोलं शौक्तिके कं
• अहहछत्रम मेषशृङ्गं...
Visha
The word Visha is derived from the root ‘vis’ (vyaptau)
having ‘kt’pratyaya which means to encompass or to get
fully...
Visha&Bheshja
In Ayurvedic classics, after proper processing, many visha
dravyas are used as aushadha dravya because, dose...
contd
The treatment of visha vegas, in a very systematic
manner, according to twenty four upakramas are
also explained in ...
Brief History
The history of visha (poison) and its treatment ways back to centuries. The mythological concept
regarding o...
Classification
Visha, basing upon its origin, has been classified into two
categories viz. Jangamavisha (animal poison) an...
विष्च त्रत्रविधं प्राहु ्थािरं जङ्गमं
गरम
• दशाधध्ठानमाद् ञ्च द्वििी ं षोडसास्र ं
• गरञ्च कृ त्रत्रमं प्रोतिं विरुद्धम भोज...
Sources of poison
• three varities of poison
• 1,Sthavar,2 Jangam 3,Gara
• 1 sthavar 10 sources-(Root, leave,
Fruit,Flower...
कन्द विष
• सतिुकं कालकू िंच लसिमु्िं िथैि च
• शृङ्गी कृ ष्ट्रण विषञ्चैि पञ्चैिे िु महाविषााः
• ग्रन्थान्िरे (र ि )
हलाहलाः...
रसेन्द्र चूडामणण
• अष्ट्रिादशविधम ् ज्ञे ं कन्दजं प्रथमं विषं
• कालकू िं म ूराख् ं विन्दुकं सतिुकं िथा
• बालुकं बत्सनाभञ्च...
Various strong poisons
Saktuka,kalkoota,sita-musta,shringi&krishna(5)
Other acharya(9)Halahal,saktuka,kala-
koota,shringi,...
Therapeutically useful species
• सतिुकं मुष्ट्रिकं शृङ्गी बालुकं सषापाहम ं
• ित्सनाभञ्च कू माञ्च श्िेिशृङ्गी िथाष्ट्रिमम ्...
Properties of Poison
रूक्षमुष्ट्रणं िथा िीक्ष्णम सूक्ष्ममाशु म िान च
विकाशी विसरन््चैि लब्धपाक् च ित््मृिं
िद्रौक्ष् ात्को...
Stage wise symptoms
प्रशमाः प्रथमे िेगे ,द्वििी े िेपथुभािेि
दाहो िेगे िृिी े िु चिूथे च विचेक्ष्ट्रििा
फे नन्िु पञ्चमे िे...
Management
रजनीं मेघनादञ्च सपााक्क्षं ि घृिाक्न्ििं
ललहेद िा मधुसवपाभ ां चूणणािां अजुानत्िकं
िानिमात्रे विषेभुतिे िमनं कार...
Technique for Human consumption
त्रत्रशूललकाम अश्िगन्धाम् गोक्जहिाम त्रत्रफ़लाम् िथा
प्रथमं भक्षन त्िा च सेि ेद्धध विषम िरम...
Dose for consumption
प्रथमा साषापीमात्रा द्वििी ा सषापद्ि ं
िृिी े च चिूथे च पञ्चमे हदिसे िथा
षष्ट्रठे च सप्िमे चैि क्रं ि...
Season of consumption
• विषं ोज् ं मुहदिे भानौ सदा शीि िसन्ि ोाः
• ग्रीष्ट्रमे चात् धधके म ाधौ ण िषाासु न दुहदाने
Do’s during consumption
• घृिं क्षीरं लसिां क्षौद्रं गोधूमं लसद्ध िण्डुलं
• मररचं सैन्धिं द्राक्षां मधुरं पानकं हहमं
• ब्र...
Don’ts during consumption
• कट्ि्ल लिणं िैलं हदिा्िप्नानलािपान्
• िजा ेदधधकाहारं नाप्नोनि मृत् ुिोभ ं
िजानी विषाणण
• कालकू िं मेषशृङ्गी हालाहलश्च दादुारम
• कका िं मका िम ् ग्रक्न्थ हाररद्रं रतिधश्रङ्धगकं
• के शरं दशमंचेनि िज...
Pharmacology&Therapeutics
ित्सनाभं किु ्िेद् म् नितिं मूत्रेल्मेि च
आग्ने ं िेद्न्नं च सादनम ् शूलनाशनं
अलभघाि रुजं हक्न्ि...
Importance of Sodhana
The poisonous plants reported in ancient scriptures of Ayurveda are being
still practiced widely in ...
vatsanabha formulations in AFI Part I
• 8:46 Mahavishgarbha Tel (Sl.No.54,57)
• 8:a8 LaghuVishgarbha Tel(8)
• 8:56 VranaRa...
Contd. Vatsanabha AFI-I
• 20:18 Jvararyabhra Ras(5)
• 20:20 TribhvanKirtiRas(2)
• 20:22 NagvallabhaRas(10)
• 20:23 Prabhak...
Visha Dravya (Poisonous Substances)
In spite of their fatal effect many visha dravyas are used
as medicines e.g. many of t...
Gunas (Properties) of Visha
Acharya Charaka and Sushruta have enumerated ten
similar gunas of visha with an exception of a...
Visha Dravya and its Action
On the basis of the actions on various components of body, the
probable mode of action of a vi...
Visha vis a vis Madya
Classical text of Ayurveda attributed ten common
gunas
to both Madya and visha, where the intensity ...
Treatement Principle for visha
Treatment of any ailment is prescribed to be done through.daivavyapashraya, yuktivyapashray...
Review of Literature for visha & Upavisha
• In literature ‘Rasarnava’ appears to be the first text to mention about ‘Visa’...
Sl UPVI
SHA
Rasar
nava
RRS R.Ci. BP R Sa
Ka
RKD AyP Y.R Suta
pradi
Ra
Tar
1 Snuhi
kshe
era
+ - + + + + - + - +
2 Arka
Kshe...
5 Lang
ali
+ + + + halini + + + + +
6 Vish
mush
ti
- + - - + - + + + +
7 Vijay
a
- + - - - - + - + +
8 Nilak
a
- + - - - -...
Various Sodhana Procedures
Mentioned for Upavisha
Review of Ayurvedic literature reveals that the following ‘Sodhana
proce...
Ahipena Papaver somniferum Linn.
Papaver somniferum Linn
The opium obtained from the fruits is bitter, astringent, sweet, constipating,
aphrodisiac,sedativ...
FOrmulations of opium in AFI part I
• 1:7 Ahiphenasava(2)
• 11:2 kacchoradi churnam(28)
• 12:2 Ashtakshari Gutika (1)
• 20...
Arka Calotropis gigantea (linn.)R. Br.
ex. Ait
ArkaCalotropis procera is small, erect and compact shrub, which is used in several traditional medicines to cure
various d...
Arka formulations in AFI-I
• 6:22 Dhanvantara Ghrita (17)
• 8:16 Chitrakadi tel (2)
• 8:30 Prabhanjana vimardana tel (5)
•...
Bhallataka Semecarpus anacardium
Linn. F
Bhallataka
Semecarpus anacardium Linn. belongs to the family Anacardiaceae, also called the
“marking nut has been evaluate...
Formulations in AFI Part I
• 1:25 Madhukasava(4)
• 3:6 Kutajavaleha (18)
• 6:3 AmritaBhallataka(1)
• 6:6 Eladi Gutika(15)
...
Bhanga Cannabis sativa Linn
Vijaya
• भङ्गा गन्जा मािुलानी मादनी विज ा ज ा
• भङ्गा कफ़ हरर नितिा ग्राहणी पाचनी लघुाः
• निक्षोष्ट्रणा वपत्तला मोह्मद्िाक्...
Formulations of vijaya in AFI Part I
• 3:12 Jirkadi Modaka(2)
• 7:36 Svalnayika Churne(11)
• 7:12 Jatiphaladya Churna(21)
...
Danti Baliospermum monatanum Mull.
Arg
दन्िी
• दन्िीद्ि ं सरं पाके रसे च किु दीपनं
• गुदान्कु राश््शूलाशााः कण्डूकु ष्ट्रठविदाहनुि
• िीक्ष्णोष्ट्रणं हक्न्ि वपत्त...
Formulations of Danti in AFI Part-I
• Abhayarishta(15)
• Dantyadyarishta(1)
• Devdarvyadyarishta(5)
• Kumaaryasava(A)(32)
Danti -contd
3:13 Danti Haritaki(1)
5:2 Kaishor Guggulu(15)
6:7 KalyanakaGhrita(26)
6:20 Dadhika Ghrita(53)
6:22 Dhanvanta...
Danti -cntd
7:19 Narayana Churna(30)
7:21Nyagrodhadi Churna(20)
7:33 samudradya churna(8)
8:7Kasisadi Tel(9)
10:4 Aviltola...
Dhattura Datura metal Linn
Dhattura
D. metel Family; Solanaceae, Phytochemical screening of D. metel
seeds revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannin...
Dhatura formulations in AFI-I
• Kanakasava(1)
• Mritsanjeevani Sura(25)
• 8:46 MahaVishgarbh Tel(2)
• 8:48 Laghu Vishgarbh...
Gunja Abrus precatirius Linn
Gunja
Abrus precatorius is a widely distributed tropical
medicinal plant with several therapeutic properties. The
seeds ar...
Gunja containng formulations in AFI-I
8:26 Neeli Bhringadi Tel (11)
12:23 Mritsanjeevani Gutika(18)
Jaipala (Jayapala) Croton tiglium Linn
Jaypal
The genus Croton belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. The Croton oil, the
essential oil of SCT, as the effective pa...
Formulations containing Jayapala in
AFI-I
20:5 Ichhabhedi Ras (6)
20:13 Ashvakanchuki Ras(12)
Karaveera Nerium indicum Mill
Karavir
Nerium oleander L. Family: Apocynaceae. It has been used to provoke menstruation, as an
abortive, and as an antisp...
Formulations containing Karveer in
AFI-I
8:7 Kasisadi Tel(8)
8:16 citrakadi Tel(6)
8:53 Vajraka tel(3)
Other formulations of karveera
1. Karaveeradya taila : Bhaishajya ratnavali
2. Karaveeradi tailam : Vydya chintamani
3. Ka...
Langali Gloriosa superba Linn
Langali
Gloriosa superba, Liliaceae family is an erect, perennial,climbing herb.
Tribesmen of Patalkot apply the rhizome e...
Langali Formulations in AFI-I
• 8:7 Kasisadi Tel(Sl.No.6)
• 8:16 Chitrakadi Tel(9)
• 8:46 MahaViashgarbh Tel(12)
• 8;50 La...
Parasika Yavani Hyoseyamus inibar
Linn/Niger
Snuhi Euphorbia neriifolia Linn
Snuhi
It is popularly known as Sehund, Thohar and Milk Hedge. The leaves are thick
succulent, 6 to 12 inches long, ovular ...
Snuhi Formulations in AFI-I
• 1:1 Ayaskriti(Sl.No.33)
• 6:22 Dhanvantar Ghrita (16)
• 8:16 Chitrakadi Tel(7)
• 8:46 MahaVi...
Vatsanabha Acontium Chasmanthum
StapfexHolm
• A Ferox A.Balfouri A Balfouri
Vishamushti Strychnox nuxvomica
Linn.
Therapeutic Sprectrum of Upavisha
Kupilu
Strychnos nux-vomica is widespread in its original area of distribution in India,...
Kupeelu Formulations in AFI-I
8:46 MahaVishgarbhTel(Sl.No51)
8;55 VushtinduksTel(1)
12:1 AgnitundiVati(17)
20:6 EkangveerR...
Formulations containing visha/upvisha
in AFI -II
• 3:7 Bahushala Guda-Danti
• 4:2 Arkadi kvatha churna-Arka
• 4:19 Mutra s...
Formulations in AFI Part III
• 1 kameshwer Modak-vijaya
• 2 Vashishtha Haritaki-Danti
• 3 Shatavari Modak -Danti
• 4 Amvat...
AFI Part III conti.
• 14 RasabhraMandura-Parada
• 15 AgastiSutarajRas- Parada,Dhattura&Ahiphena
• 16 AgnikumarRas-Parad,Ah...
Contd
• 28 NashtaPushpantakaRas-Parada,TamraDanti
• 29 PashupatRas-Parad,Vish,Dhatura,Ark
• 30 PradarRipuRas-Parada,Naag
•...
Contd
• 43 VidyadharabhraRas-Danti
• 44 ShulaKutharRas-Ras,Tamra.Jaipal
• 44 ShothKalanalRas-Ras
• 45 SwaskalehswarRas-Tam...
RAS SHSTRA
• It takes undigestible substances like metals
,minerals, Gems & Poisonous substances and
transforms them into ...
रस सेिन विधध
अथािुरो रसाच ं सक्षाद्देिं महेश्िरं
साधधिञ्च रसं शङ्खिेण्िाहद धाररिम
अचान त्िा थाशक्ति देिगोब्राह्मणामवप
पणाख...
रस सेिने पथ् ं
घृिसैन्धिधान् कजीरकाद्राकसं्कृ िं
िण्डुली क-धान् ाक –पिोलालाबुकाहदकम
गोधूमजीणाशाल् न्नं गम ं क्षीरं घृिं दध...
रस सेिने अपथ् ानन
िृहिी विल्िकु ष्ट्रमाण्डं िेत्राग्रं कािेल्लकं
माषं मसूरं ननष्ट्रपािं कु ललत्थं सषापम निलं
लङ्घनोद्ििान्...
देिी शा्त्रोति ककाराहद गण
कण्िारीफ़लकाक्न्जकञ्च,कमठ्िैलं िथा राक्जका
नन्बूकं किकमकाललङ्गकफ़लम ् कु ष्ट्रमाण्डकं कका िी
के क्...
श्रीकृ ष्ट्रणदेिोति ककाराहद गण
• कन्गुकन्दुककोलकु तकु िकलक्रोडााःकु लत्था्िथा
• कण्िारी किुिैलकृ ष्ट्रणगलकाःकू मााः कला ाः...
ककाराहद ननषेध् अपिादाः
• क््मन रसे च कण्ठोकत् ा ककाराहद ननषेधधिाः
• ित्र ित्र ननषेद्धम ं िदौधचत् मिोन् था
रस म ापहद प्रिीकाराः
उद्गारेसनिद् न्नं कृ ष्ट्रणमीनं सजीरकं
अभ न्गमननलक्षोभे िैलेरनारा णाहदलभाः
अरिौ शीि िो ेन म्िकोपरर से...
रस िी ा वििृ् थामुपचार विधध
द्राक्षा दाडडम खजूारं कदलीनां फ़लम् भजेि्
रस िी ा वििृ् थे दधधक्षीरेक्षु शका रा
शीिोपचारमन् ्च
रस त् ाग विधध
रस त् ाग विधौ पुनाः
भक्ष ेद बृहिीं विल्िं सकृ ि साधारणो विधधाः
Classification of meterial
Maharasa
• 1 Abhraka-Mica
• 2 Vaikrant-flurite/tourmelin
• 3 Makshika-copper pyrite
• 4 vimala-...
Krishna vjrabhraka
Vaikranta
vimala
Adrija(shilajatu)
Shasyaka
chapala
Rasaka
• Uparasa
• 1 Gandhaka-sulpher
• 2 Gairika-Red iron oxide
• 3 Kasisa-ferrous sulphate
• 4 kankshi- ------Allum
• 5 Harital...
Gandhak
Gairika
Kasheesh
Kankshi(sphatikaa)
Pinda Hartala Arseno sulphide
Orpiment patraHarital
Manahashila Arseno sulphide
Manh shila
Neelanjana
Kankushtha(Gum Gamboj)
• Sadharana Rasa
• 1 kampilla-Monkey fresh fruit
• 2 GauripashanaArsenic trioxide
• 3 Narsara-Ammonium tri chloride
• 4 Ka...
Kampilla
MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS
Gauri pashana(Arsenic Trioxide)
Narsar(Ammonium chloride)
Sal Amoniac NH4Cl
Kapardika (monetaria monaea&cyprea
moneta)
Agnijar(ambergriss)
Hingula(cinnabar)
Mriddarshriga(Litharge)
(LeadMonooxide)
Dhatu-Metals
• 1 Swarna-Gold
• 2 Rajata-silver
• 3 Tamra-copper
• 4 Loha-Iron
• 5 Mandur-Rust of iron/
• 6 vanga-Tin
• 7 N...
Swarna
Rajata
Tamra
Loha
Mandur
vang
Naag
Yashad
Pittala
kansya
• Ratna- precious gem stones
• 1 Manikya-Ruby
• 2 Mukta-pearl
• 3 Pravala-coral
• 4 Tarkshya-Emerald
• 5 Pushparaga-Topaz
...
Manikya
Mukta
Praval
Tarkshya
Pushparag
Heeraka
Neelam
Gomeda
Vaidurya
Uparatna-semi precious gemstones
• 1 Akika-Agate
• 2 suryakant-sun stone
• 3 chandrakant-Moon stone
• 4 Rajavarta-lapis la...
Akika
suryakant
chandrakanta
Rajavarta
Sangeyasav
Pirojaka
Vaikranta
Kaharuba
Sudha varga-calcium carbonate
• 1 shankha-conch shell
• 2 Mrigshringa-Deer horn
• 3 Kukkutanda-Egg shell
• 4 Mukta Shukti-...
shankha
Mriga shringa
Kukkutanda
Mukta shukti
samudraphena
Ajasthi
Sudha
Godanti
Surma safed
Dugdha Pashana
Khatika
Miscellanious
• 1 Kausheyasma-Asbestos
• 2 Badarasma-Jews stone/lapis judaicus
• 3 kanta pashana-lodestone
• 4 Nag pashana...
Kausheyasma
Badarashma
Kanta pashana
Nag pashan
sphatik
Naag sindura
Tankan
Abresham
Kasturi
Myur pichha
Gorochana
Kalami shora
Sarjika kshar
Birds eye view of Ras shastra,Poisons and sub poisons from the angel of Allopathic nurses working in Ayurveda Hospitals
Birds eye view of Ras shastra,Poisons and sub poisons from the angel of Allopathic nurses working in Ayurveda Hospitals
Birds eye view of Ras shastra,Poisons and sub poisons from the angel of Allopathic nurses working in Ayurveda Hospitals
Birds eye view of Ras shastra,Poisons and sub poisons from the angel of Allopathic nurses working in Ayurveda Hospitals
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Birds eye view of Ras shastra,Poisons and sub poisons from the angel of Allopathic nurses working in Ayurveda Hospitals

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Birds eye view of Ras shastra,Poisons and sub poisons from the angel of Allopathic nurses working in Ayurveda Hospitals

  1. 1. Knowledge about Visha, Upavisha & Metalic preparations. Knowledge of formulations containing Visha, Upavisha & Rasa aushadhis. Dr.Janardan Panday Frormer Joint Advisor (Ay) & Addl.Drug Controller Deptt. Of AYUSH G.O.I
  2. 2. THE DRUGS AND COSMETICS ACT, 1940 Divided Into Five Chapters contains 38 Sections
  3. 3. The First Schedule Ayurveda 1. Arogya Kalpadruma 2. Arka Prakasha 3. Arya Bhishak 4. Ashtanga Hridaya 5. Ashtanga Samgraha 6. Ayurveda Kalpadruma 7. Ayurveda Prakasha 8. Ayurveda Samgraha 9. Bhaishajya Ratnavali 10. Brihat Bhaishajya Ratnakara 11. Bhava Prakasha 12. Brihat Nighantu Ratnakara 13. Charaka Samihita 14. Chakra Datta 15. Gada Nigraha 16. Kupi Pakva Rasayana 17. Nighantu Ratnakara 18. Rasa Chandanshu 19. Rasa Raja Sundara 20. Rasaratna Samuchaya 21. Rasatantra Sara Va Siddha Prayoga Sangraha—Part 1 22. Rasa Tarangini 23. Rasa Yoga Sagara 24. Rasa Yoga Ratnakara 25. Rasa Yoga Samgraha 26. Rasendra Sara Samgraha 27. Rasa Pradipika 28. Sahasrayoga 29. Sarvaroga Chikitsa Ratnam 30. Sarvayoga Chikitsa Ratnam 31. Sharangadhara Samhita 32. Siddha Bhaishajya Manimala 33. Sidha Yoga Samgraha 34. Sushruta Samhita 35. Vaidya Chintamani 36. Vaidyaka Shabda Sindu 37. Vaidyaka Chikitsa Sara 38. Vidya Jiwan 39. Vasava Rajeeyam 40. Yoga Ratnakara 41. Yoga Tarangini 42. Yoga Chintamani 43. Kashyapasamhita 44. Bhelasamhita 45. Vishwanathachikitsa 46. Vrindachikitsa 47. Ayurvedachintamani 48. Abhinavachintamani 49. Ayurveda-Ratnakara 50. Yogaratnasangraha 51. Rasamrita 52. Dravyagunanighantu 53. Rasamanijari 54. Banagasena 54A Ayurvedic Formulary of India (Part-I) 54B Ayurveda Sara Samgraha 54C Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India
  4. 4. Conti… Siddha 55 Siddha Vaidya Thirattu 56 Therayar Maha Karisal 57 Brahma Muni Karukkadai (300) 58 Bhogar (700) 59 Pulippani (500) 60 Agasthiyar Paripuranam (400) 61 Therayar Yamagam 62 Agasthiyar Chenduram (300) 63 Agasthiyar (1500) 64 Athmarakshamrutham 65 Agasthiyar Pin (80) 66 Agasshiyar Rathna Chrukkam 67 Therayar Karisal (300) 68 Veeramamuni Nasa Kandam 69 Agasthiyar (600) 70 Agasthiyar Kanma Soothiram 71 Siddar’s Chillarai Kovai 72 Yog Vatha Kaviyam 73 Therayar Tharu 74 Agasthiyar Vaidya Kaviyam (1500) 75 Bala Vagadam 76 Chimittu Rathna (Rathna) Churukkam 77 Nagamuni (200) 78 Agasthiyar Chillarai Kovai 79 Chikicha Rathna Deepam 80 Agasthiyar Nayana Vidhi 81 Yugi Karisal (151) 82 Agasthiyar Vallathi (600) 83 Therayar Thaila Varkam 84 Siddha Formulary of India (Part I)] Unani Tibb System 1 Karabadin Qadri 2 Karabadin Kabir 3 Karabadin Azam 4 Ilaj-ul-Amraz 5 Al Karabadin 6 Biaz Kabir Vol. II 7 Karabadin Jadid 8 Kithalf-ul-Taklis 9 Sanat-ul-Taklis 10 Mifta-ul-Khazain 11 Madan-ul-Aksir 12 Makhzan-ul-murabhat 13 National Formulary of Unani Medicine (Part I)
  5. 5. SCHEDULE E (1) [See Rule 161 (2)] List of poisonous substances under the Ayurvedic (including Siddha) and Unani Systems of Medicine A. AYURVEDIC SYSTEM Drugs of vegetable origin Ahipena Papaver somniferum Linn. Arka Calotropis gigantea (linn.)R. Br. ex. Ait. Bhallataka Semecarpus anacardium Linn. F Bhanga Cannabia eativa Linn. Danti Baliospermum monatanum Mull. Arg Dhattura Datura metal Linn.. Gunj Abrus precatirius Linn. Jaipala (Jayapala) Croton tiglium Linn Karaveera Rerium indicum Mill Langali Gloriosa superba Linn Parasika Yavani Hyoseyamus inibar Linn Snuhi Euphorbia neriifolia Linn Vatsanabha Acontium Chasmanthum StapfexHolm Vishamushti Strychnox nuxvomica Linn. Shringivisha Acontium chasmanthum Stapfex Holm. II Drugs of Animal Origin . Sarpa Visha Snake poison III Drugs of Mineral Origin Gauripashana Arsenic Hartala Arseno sulphide Manahashila Arseno sulphide Parada Mercury Rasa Karpura Hydrargyri subchloridum Tuttha Copper sulphate Hingula Cinnabar Sindura Red oxide of lead Girisindura Red oxide of mercury B. SIDDHA SYSTEM Abini Papaver Somniferum Linn. Alari Nerium indicum Mill. Azhavanam Lawsonia inermis Linn. Attru thummatti Citrullis colocynthis Scharad. Anai Kunri Adanathera pavonina Linn. Rattha Polam Aloe barbadensis Mill. Ilaikalli Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. Eezhaththalari Plumeria acuminota Ait. Gomatthai Datrua stramonium Linn. Etti Strychnos nuxvomica Linn. Ganja Cannabis sativa Linn. Kalappaik Kizhangu Gloriosa superba Linn. Kodikkalli Euphorbia tiruqalli Linn. Chadurakkalli Euphorbia antiquorium Linn. Karia polam Aloe sp. Kattamanakku Jatropha glandulifera Roxb. Kattu thumatti Cucmis trigonus Roxb. Kunri Abrus precotorusu Linn. Cheran Kottai Semicorpus anacardium Linn. Thillai Exoecoria agallocha Linn. Nabi Aconitum ferox Wall. Nervalam Croton tiglium Linn. Pugai Elai Nicotiana tobucum Linn. Marukkarai Randia dumetorum Lam. Mansevikkalli Euphorbia sp. C. UNANI SYSTEM I Drugs of vegetable origin Afiyun Papaver somniferum Linn. Bazrul-banj Hyoscyamus niger Linn Bish Aconitum chasmanthum Strapfex Holmes Bhang Cannabis sativa Linn. Charas Canabis sativa Linn Dhatura seeds Datura metal Linn (seeds) Kuchla Strychnos nuxvomica Linn Shokran Conium maculatum Linn II Drugs of Animal origin Sanp (head) Snake (head) Telni makkhi Mylabris cichori Linn Mylabaris pustulata Thund Mylabris macilenta III Drugs of Mineral origin Darchikna Hydrargryi perchloridum Hira Diamond Ras Kapoor Hydrargryi Subchloridum (calomel) Shingruf Hydrargryi bisulphuratum Zangar Cupri subacetas Sammul-Far (Abyaz, Asfar, Aswad and Ahmar) Arsenic (white, yellow, black and red) Tootiya Copper Sulphate Para Hydrargyrum Hartal Arsenic trisulphide (yellow)
  6. 6. AYURVEDIC SYSTEM • Drugs of vegetable origin • Ahipena Papaver somniferum Linn. • Arka Calotropis gigantea (linn.)R. Br. ex. Ait. • Bhallataka Semecarpus anacardium Linn. F • Bhanga Cannabia eativa Linn. • Danti Baliospermum monatanum Mull. Arg • Dhattura Datura metal Linn.. • Gunj Abrus precatirius Linn. • Jaipala (Jayapala) Croton tiglium Linn • Karaveera Rerium indicum Mill • Langali Gloriosa superba Linn • Parasika Yavani Hyoseyamus inibar Linn • Snuhi Euphorbia neriifolia Linn • Vatsanabha Acontium Chasmanthum StapfexHolm • Vishamushti Strychnox nuxvomica Linn. • Shringivisha Acontium chasmanthum Stapfex Hol
  7. 7. AYURVEDIC SYSTEM • II Drugs of Animal Origin . • Sarpa Visha Snake poison • III Drugs of Mineral Origin • Gauripashana Arsenic • Hartala Arseno sulphide • Manahashila Arseno sulphide • Parada Mercury • Rasa Karpura Hydrargyri subchloridum • Tuttha Copper sulphate • Hingula Cinnabar • Sindura Red oxide of lead • Girisindura Red oxide of mercury
  8. 8. Synonyms of visha • विषं हालाहलं ब्रह्मपुत्रं सौरष्ट्र्काहम म • प्रदीपनं दारदाख् ं काकोलं शौक्तिके कं • अहहछत्रम मेषशृङ्गं क्ष्िेडो हैमििं ्मृिं • िथा वपप्पलपािालमललनानन च के िलम ् • Visha,Halahal,Brahm-putra,Sourashtra, • Pradeepana,Darada,Kakola,souktikeya,Ahichh atra,Meshshringi,Kustha,Haimavata,Pippala, • Patala,Malina&Kambala
  9. 9. Visha The word Visha is derived from the root ‘vis’ (vyaptau) having ‘kt’pratyaya which means to encompass or to get fully pervaded or to get occupied. Thus the one which pervades the whole body immediately after ingestion is called as Visha 2 . A substance which causes sadness to the world is also called as visha. Hence visha dravya may be defined as a substance which is life threatening or produces many other complications and brings about sadness other complications and brings about sadness.
  10. 10. Visha&Bheshja In Ayurvedic classics, after proper processing, many visha dravyas are used as aushadha dravya because, dose differentiates a drug from poison, a medicine at one dose,can serve as visha or poison at the other. Hence, a substance which is fatal at relatively smaller dose can be considered as visha. Visha dravyas are attributed with certain properties which are responsible for its fatality in smaller dose. Action of visha i.e. poison in context of its gunas, vega lakshanas and dhatugata lakshanas is very elaborately explained in Ayurvedic texts. Visha when used by proper yukti (justification) can be converted to bheshaja
  11. 11. contd The treatment of visha vegas, in a very systematic manner, according to twenty four upakramas are also explained in different texts. These vega- lakshanas and upakramas too depend on the gunas and gati of visha. So to understand Ayurvedic concept of visha it is necessary to understand its gunas. Authors of different classical texts of Ayurveda described their view regarding the types, properties, actions of visha dravya and their management, in a scattered manner.
  12. 12. Brief History The history of visha (poison) and its treatment ways back to centuries. The mythological concept regarding origin of visha states that it was created at the time of creation of universe by lord Bramha .Some opine that it was obtained during samudra manthana. References regarding visha or poison and poisoning can also be traced in Vedas. In Atharvaveda (1500 B.C.),description of two types of visha i.e sthavara and jangama and their management through mantrachikitsa is narrated. In Ramayana (500 B.C.), Rama and Lakshmana were treated for poisoning by Vaidya Sushena with the help of Sanjeevani vidyaa along with four types of herbs from Himalaya. In Mahabharata (400 B.C.13), poisoned Bhima was treated by the sarpavisha. Further, a conversation between Kashyapa and Takshaka regarding treatment of poisoing (vishachikitsa) is also reported in Mahabharata. Brahmavaivarta Purana (3/51) (600 B.C. to 700 A.D.) also narrates the conversation between Dhanvantari and Nagadevi which gives information about condition of Vishachikitsa at that time. In Kautiliya Arthashastra(363 B.C.), a book not related to toxicology, many references regarding visha particularly description regarding kalakuta, vatsanabha, halahala, meshasringa, musta, kushtha, mahavisha, vellitaka, gaurardra, balaka, markata, haimavata, kalingaka,daradaka, kolasaraka, ushtraka, are mentioned . Ayurveda dedicated one of its branches as Danshtrachikitsa/ Agadatantra/ Vishatantra Vishagaravairodhikaprashamana which is dedicated solely to the concept and treatment of visha. These references provide ample evidence to prove that toxicology was a well developed branch in ancient India
  13. 13. Classification Visha, basing upon its origin, has been classified into two categories viz. Jangamavisha (animal poison) and Sthavaravisha (plant and mineral poisons)The sites of Sthavaravisha and jangamavisha are narrated as ten and sixteen respectively. Further it is also classified as Akritrimavisha(naturalpoison) And kritrimavisha/Garavisha (unnatural or chemically prepared poison) Akritrima visha is again sub divided into two i.e. sthavara and jangama Certain texts of Rasashastra and Dravyaguna classified visha in various manners like mahavisha-upavisha etc.
  14. 14. विष्च त्रत्रविधं प्राहु ्थािरं जङ्गमं गरम • दशाधध्ठानमाद् ञ्च द्वििी ं षोडसास्र ं • गरञ्च कृ त्रत्रमं प्रोतिं विरुद्धम भोजनाहदकं • मूलं पत्रं फलं पुष्ट्रपं त्िक् क्षीरं सर एि च • नन ाासो धाििश्चैि कन्द्च ्थािराश्र ााः • दृक्ष्ट्रिननश्िासशिजा नख्मूत्रपुरीषजााः • शुक्र लालािािदन्ष्ट्र्ााः मुखसंदन्श(वि)शधधािााः • िुण्डाक््थवपत्तशूका्च षोडशेनि प्रक्निािााः • रसलमत्र
  15. 15. Sources of poison • three varities of poison • 1,Sthavar,2 Jangam 3,Gara • 1 sthavar 10 sources-(Root, leave, Fruit,Flower,Bark,lactate,Exudate, wood, metals &Tubers) • 2 jangam 16 sources-(sight,Respiration,Dead body,touch,teeth,Mouth,Nail,Bone,Urine,Stool Semen,Mense,Saliva,Stinge,Bile,Blood)
  16. 16. कन्द विष • सतिुकं कालकू िंच लसिमु्िं िथैि च • शृङ्गी कृ ष्ट्रण विषञ्चैि पञ्चैिे िु महाविषााः • ग्रन्थान्िरे (र ि ) हलाहलाःसतिुक कालकू िौ,शृङ्गीप्रदीपािथित्सनाभाः सब्रह्मपुत्र्चहररद्रक्चसौराक्ष्ट्र्कश्चेनिविषानि् ुाः रससारे म ूरम कालकू िञ्च सतिुकं विन्दुकं िथा ित्सनाभं सुनभञ्च संख्नाभं सुमङ्गलम् शृङ्गी ककोिकम मु्िं पुष्ट्रकरम् शुतलकन्दकं रति शृङ्गं हाररद्रं च विषम् हालाहलं िथा
  17. 17. रसेन्द्र चूडामणण • अष्ट्रिादशविधम ् ज्ञे ं कन्दजं प्रथमं विषं • कालकू िं म ूराख् ं विन्दुकं सतिुकं िथा • बालुकं बत्सनाभञ्च शङ्खनाभं सुमङ्गलम ् • शृङ्गी मका िकम मु्िं कदामं पुष्ट्रकरम् लशखी • हाररद्रं हररिं चक्रं विषं हालाहलं िथा
  18. 18. Various strong poisons Saktuka,kalkoota,sita-musta,shringi&krishna(5) Other acharya(9)Halahal,saktuka,kala- koota,shringi,Pradeepa,Vatsanabha,Brahmaputra,H aridraka,SourastrikaRasasara(18)Mayura,kalkoota,s haktuka,Binduka,Vats,Nabh,Sunabha,SankhaNabh,S umangala,shringi,karkotaka,Mustak,Pushkar,Shukla, kanda,Raktashringa,Haridra,Vish,Halahala.Rasendra chudamani(18)kalkoota,Mayur,Vinduk,saktuk,valuk, vatsnabh,shankhnabh,sumangal,shringi,markataka, musta,kardam,pushkar,shikhi,Haridra,harit, chakra,halahal
  19. 19. Therapeutically useful species • सतिुकं मुष्ट्रिकं शृङ्गी बालुकं सषापाहम ं • ित्सनाभञ्च कू माञ्च श्िेिशृङ्गी िथाष्ट्रिमम ् • 1,saktuka------------2Mustaka-Cyprus Rotandus • 3 shringi--------------4 Baluka --------------------- • 5sarsapa--------------6 kurma--------------------- • 7shvet shringi--------8 vatsanabha-Aconite
  20. 20. Properties of Poison रूक्षमुष्ट्रणं िथा िीक्ष्णम सूक्ष्ममाशु म िान च विकाशी विसरन््चैि लब्धपाक् च ित््मृिं िद्रौक्ष् ात्कोप ेद्िा ु मौष्ट्रण् ाक्त्पत्तं स शोणणिं मानसम् मोह े िैक्ष्ण् ाि् अङ्ग बन्धाः नछनत् वप शरीराि िान सौक्ष्् ात्प्रविशेि् विकरोनि च आशुत्िादाशु िद््नक्न्ि म िा ाि प्रकृ निं भजेि् क्षार े्च विकालशत्िाद दोषान्धािु मलानवप िैस ाादनिरर् ेि दुक््चककत्् ्च लाघिाि दुजारं चाविपाककत्िाि् ि्माि् तलेश िे धचरं सद् ो म ापद ेत्तत्तु ज्ञे ं दशगुणाक्न्ििम् ह् ष्ट्रिौिेगा प्रजा न्िे सहसा विष शीललनाः
  21. 21. Stage wise symptoms प्रशमाः प्रथमे िेगे ,द्वििी े िेपथुभािेि दाहो िेगे िृिी े िु चिूथे च विचेक्ष्ट्रििा फे नन्िु पञ्चमे िेगे षष्ट्रठे ्कन्ध प्रभञ्जनं जडिा सप्िमे िेगे मरणं चाष्ट्रिमे भिेि् विष िेगानननिज्ञात्िा मन्त्रद्रम ैविानाश ेि अनिमात्रं दा भुतिं िदात्िं िन्कणम ् वपबेि्
  22. 22. Management रजनीं मेघनादञ्च सपााक्क्षं ि घृिाक्न्ििं ललहेद िा मधुसवपाभ ां चूणणािां अजुानत्िकं िानिमात्रे विषेभुतिे िमनं कार ेि बुधाः अजा दुग्धं प्रदद् ा्च िाक्न्ि ननग्रहणा िै िमनं राक्जका चूणालिणिारर शीलनाि मदना् फलेनेनि मीन् धौिांबुनावप िा
  23. 23. Technique for Human consumption त्रत्रशूललकाम अश्िगन्धाम् गोक्जहिाम त्रत्रफ़लाम् िथा प्रथमं भक्षन त्िा च सेि ेद्धध विषम िरम ब्रह्मच ं प्र त्नेन विषकल्पे सदाचरेि ् गम क्षीर घृिं पे ं शाल् न्नं भक्ष ेि सदा जाङ्गलानन च मान्सानन छागलानन िथैि च शका रा माक्क्षकं चैि शीिं द्रम ं च सेि ेि
  24. 24. Dose for consumption प्रथमा साषापीमात्रा द्वििी ा सषापद्ि ं िृिी े च चिूथे च पञ्चमे हदिसे िथा षष्ट्रठे च सप्िमे चैि क्रं िृद्् ा वििधा ेि् सप्ि सषाप मात्रेण प्रथमं सप्िके भजेि् क्रम हान् ा िथा सेम ं द्वििी े सप्िके विषं िमात्रम ् िथा दे ं िृिी े सप्िके क्रमाि् िृद्धध हान् ा च दािम ं चिूथे सप्िके िथा ि मात्रं ग्रसेत््ि्थो गुञ्जा मात्रञ्च कु ष्ट्रठिान
  25. 25. Season of consumption • विषं ोज् ं मुहदिे भानौ सदा शीि िसन्ि ोाः • ग्रीष्ट्रमे चात् धधके म ाधौ ण िषाासु न दुहदाने
  26. 26. Do’s during consumption • घृिं क्षीरं लसिां क्षौद्रं गोधूमं लसद्ध िण्डुलं • मररचं सैन्धिं द्राक्षां मधुरं पानकं हहमं • ब्रह्मच ं हहमं देशं हहमं कालं हहमं जलं • श्रेष्ट्रठं सिे भजेन्नूनं हहिा विषभक्षकाः
  27. 27. Don’ts during consumption • कट्ि्ल लिणं िैलं हदिा्िप्नानलािपान् • िजा ेदधधकाहारं नाप्नोनि मृत् ुिोभ ं
  28. 28. िजानी विषाणण • कालकू िं मेषशृङ्गी हालाहलश्च दादुारम • कका िं मका िम ् ग्रक्न्थ हाररद्रं रतिधश्रङ्धगकं • के शरं दशमंचेनि िजानी ंलभष्ट्रग्िरैाः • धचत्रमुत्पल कन्दाभं सुवपष्ट्रिं सतिुिि भिेि् • सतिुकन्िु विजानी ाद्हदघं िेगं महोल्िणम ्
  29. 29. Pharmacology&Therapeutics ित्सनाभं किु ्िेद् म् नितिं मूत्रेल्मेि च आग्ने ं िेद्न्नं च सादनम ् शूलनाशनं अलभघाि रुजं हक्न्ि विषपं कफजान गदान आमिािं महाघोरं हृद्रोगमवप दारुणम् पुण्डरीकं सविषफ़ोिम ् श्िेिमौदु्बरं िथा नछन्न लभन्न्च कापालं क्तलन्नाहं शिगक्न्ध हह
  30. 30. Importance of Sodhana The poisonous plants reported in ancient scriptures of Ayurveda are being still practiced widely in a number of diseases after proper Shodhana (purificatory procedures). Ayurvedic physicians successfully employed these drugs after proper Shodhana (processing) known as Samaskara. The concept of Shodhana was mentioned for the first time in Charaka Samhita in the context of Danti Dravanti Kalpadhyaya. To reduce the ‘Vikasi’ property of Danti root,Charaka mentioned it as ‘Samaskara’ Acharya Vagbhata also mentioned the Shodhana of plant drugs in detail in the context of Bhallataka Rasayana and 'Bhallataka. The concept of Shodhana in Ayurveda is not only a process of purification/detoxification but also a purificatory procedure to enhance the potency an efficacy of the drug. It is reported that Aconite (Vatsanabha) purified by cow’s urine is converted to cardiac stimulant, whereas raw Aconite is cardiac depressant. It is clearly mentioned in ‘Bhava Prakasa’ that the bad/toxic effects attributed to ‘Asodhita Visas’ are minimized when these are used after being subjected to ‘Sodhana’ process. Hence ‘Vishas’ should be subjected for ‘Sodhana’ before being used in therapeutics
  31. 31. vatsanabha formulations in AFI Part I • 8:46 Mahavishgarbha Tel (Sl.No.54,57) • 8:a8 LaghuVishgarbha Tel(8) • 8:56 VranaRakshas Tel(7) • 12:1 AgniTundiVati(2) • 12:4 Kasturyadi(Vayu)Gutika(37) • 12:13 Dugdha Vati (1) • 12:32 SankhaVati(10) • 12:33 Sowbhagya Vati(2) • 12:35 Sanjeevani Vati(10) • 20:2 Ashvakanchuki Ras(4) • 20:3 Anandbhairav Ras(2) • 20:8 Kaphaketu Ras(4)
  32. 32. Contd. Vatsanabha AFI-I • 20:18 Jvararyabhra Ras(5) • 20:20 TribhvanKirtiRas(2) • 20:22 NagvallabhaRas(10) • 20:23 PrabhakarRas(4) • 20:28 Maha Vat GajankushRas(13) • 20:37 LaghvanandRas(4) • 20:38 LakshmiNarayanRas(3) • 20:24 VatVidhvanshanRas(14) • 20:49 SvasKutharRas(3) • 20:51 Svarna BhupatiRas(9) • 20:52 SutShekharRas(4) • 20:53 shuchika BharanRas(4)
  33. 33. Visha Dravya (Poisonous Substances) In spite of their fatal effect many visha dravyas are used as medicines e.g. many of the of the poisonous plants as well as rasaushadhis which are reported for their toxic nature but they are used, after proper processing, widely in the treatment without any adverse effects as they are effective in small doses to cure the diseases.Visha dravyas, along with their undesirable properties, are also incorporated with certain desirable properties, by which they act faster than other medicines or plants.Further, to make these properties therapeutically effective certain shodhana (purificatory) procedures are explained in the classical texts, which may be helpful for diminution of toxic properties of the poisonous substances
  34. 34. Gunas (Properties) of Visha Acharya Charaka and Sushruta have enumerated ten similar gunas of visha with an exception of apaaki (Sushruta) being replaced by anirdeshya rasa (Charaka).A visha dravya, having all these ten gunas to its maximum extent, is called as mahavisha, while those having these gunas to a smaller extent or less than ten gunas are termed as upavishas Acharya Vagbhata has attributed eleven gunas to a visha dravya by including apaki and Avyaktarasa (instead of anirdeshya rasa) Sharngadhara(13th century A.D.) has stated certain extra gunas of visha dravya like chhedi, madavaha, jivitahara and yogavahi
  35. 35. Visha Dravya and its Action On the basis of the actions on various components of body, the probable mode of action of a visha dravya has been described in Ayurveda. It produces distress of the body constituents, burning sensation and putrefaction. Vishada guna, does not contain any mucous nature and doesn’t stop anywhere in the body, passes through all the doshas resulting in their vitiation. In this way, visha leads to vitiation of all the three doshas and becomes complicated to treat. Vikasi guna breaks the bonding between various dhatus and brings about looseness in the dhatus (dhatushaithilya) and resulting in their improper function. Activity of a visha dravya depends on the dominance of its possessing guna. For instance the domination of ruksha guna will lead to the vitiation of vata, domination of sukshma guna lead to vitiation of rakta dhatu as compared to others, while domination of tikshna guna will lead to the impairment of three marmas of the body i.e.shira, hridaya and basti and may lead to murchha, sanyasa and other symptoms of marmaghata.
  36. 36. Visha vis a vis Madya Classical text of Ayurveda attributed ten common gunas to both Madya and visha, where the intensity of the Guna of visha is more than that of madya. Study of visha gunas is necessary for its treatment. Since the basis of treatment is samanya-vishesha siddhanta a drug or diet which is opposite in the properties as that of the disease should be used for its treatment.
  37. 37. Treatement Principle for visha Treatment of any ailment is prescribed to be done through.daivavyapashraya, yuktivyapashraya satvavajaya and Vishachikitsa is not different. Daivavyapashraya chikitsa has got the first position while treating poisoning in the form of mantra. Along with this it also consists of manaschihkitsa i.e. ashvasana which is very important while treating snake bite. During yuktivyapashraya chikitsa.For the management of visha, the drug or formulation used must be of opposite guna as that of visha or similar to the guna of oja. Accordingly it can be presumed that all the dravyas of jivaniya gana can be used for the treatment of visha.as Oja which gets vitiated due to vishaprayoga should be brought back to its normalcy by these drugs. Ghrita is the substance which has similar gunas as that of oja is useful in treating such conditions. Due to its yogavahi nature,as it can acquire the gunas of the substance with which it is mixed without losing its own gunas and also attributed with the vishahara property. So it can be used as the best media for treating visha conditions.Due to its madhura, snigdha, shita, mrudu, shlakshna, ojasya,jivaniya gunas which acts to pacify visha.Goghrita is considered as superior. Acharyas have also explained use of various formulations in toxic conditions. These formulations are called as agada.
  38. 38. Review of Literature for visha & Upavisha • In literature ‘Rasarnava’ appears to be the first text to mention about ‘Visa’ ‘Upavisa’ classification. After‘Rasarnava’, ‘Rasa Ratnakara’, ‘Rasendra Cudamani’ and‘Rasa Ratna Samucchaya’ have mentioned about five ‘Visas’while other texts like ‘Rasendra Cintamani’, ‘SarngadharaSamhita’, Bhava Prakasa and Ayurveda Prakasa have enumerated nine dravyas as ‘Visas’. The Author of‘Rasatarangini’ (20th A D) described only ‘Vatsanabha’ in‘Visa’ group considering its medicinal importance, common availability and frequent use in therapeutics. The other drugs of poisonous nature have been included in ‘Upavisa’ group by this text. The literary review on the subject revealed that there is a difference of opinion amongst the authors regarding the drugs of ‘Upavisa’ group. ‘Rasarnava Kara’ mentioned five dravyas in ‘upavisa; group, while ‘RasaratnaSamucchaya Kara’ and ‘Rasendra Cintamani Kara’enumerated seven drugs; in later texts like ‘AyurvedaPrakasa’ and ‘Yogaratnakara’ it is raised up to nine while in‘Rasa Tarangini it has gone up to eleven. • Thus historically there seems to be a gradual increase in the number of poisonous herbs which means more and more drugs have been recognized for their poisonous nature as the time passed.
  39. 39. Sl UPVI SHA Rasar nava RRS R.Ci. BP R Sa Ka RKD AyP Y.R Suta pradi Ra Tar 1 Snuhi kshe era + - + + + + - + - + 2 Arka Kshe era + + + + + + + + - + 3 Dhat ura + + + + + + + + + + 4 Karve era + + + + + + + + + +
  40. 40. 5 Lang ali + + + + halini + + + + + 6 Vish mush ti - + - - + - + + + + 7 Vijay a - + - - - - + - + + 8 Nilak a - + - - - - - - + + 9 Gunj a - - + + - + + + - + 10 Ahip hena - - + + - + + + - + 11 Jayap al - - - - - - - + - + Sl UPVI SHA Rasar nava RRS R.Ci. BP R Sa Ka RKD AyP Y.R Suta pradi Ra Tar
  41. 41. Various Sodhana Procedures Mentioned for Upavisha Review of Ayurvedic literature reveals that the following ‘Sodhana procedures’ have been mentioned for different ‘Visopavisa’ drugs. (i) Gomutra Nimajjana (soaking in cow’s urine) for a prescribed period (ii) Swedana (boiling) in different liquids such as cow’s milk, Goat’s milk, cow’s urine, vegetable extractives and Kanjika etc. (iii) Bharjana (frying) with ghee or without ghee. (iv) Bhavana (Maceration / trituration), with vegetable extractives (v) Nishshehana (reducing of oily content) (vi) Ksalana (washing) with hot water. VI Nistvacikarana (Decortications). Among the above procedures the treatment with cow’s urine and boiling in cow’s milk are the most common procedures applied for almost all the ‘Visopavisa’ drugs.
  42. 42. Ahipena Papaver somniferum Linn.
  43. 43. Papaver somniferum Linn The opium obtained from the fruits is bitter, astringent, sweet, constipating, aphrodisiac,sedative, somniferous, narcotic, myotic, antispasmodic,sudorific and nervine tonic. It is useful in cough, fever,inflammatory affections of eye, otitis, proctalgia and low back pain due to diarrhoea and dysentery. It is good for internal haemorrhages, decrease secretions, restrain tissue changes and used as analgesic. It beneficial in migraine,malaria, dysmenorrhoea, cystitis, menorrhagia and other painful conditions. Opium (the in bspissated milky juice from immature capsules) is a soporific drug, given either alone or as an adjunct, in the preparation of various medicines. It acts on the CNS, induces sleep, relieves pain,develops euphoria and highly toxic in large doses. Opium available in the market is purified by steeping in cold water for 5-6 h. The insoluble brown latex finds application in the Ayurvedic medicine. It is prophylactic in post-operative period (50-60 mg/day). Vapours of boiling water mixed with small doses of opium, is useful in conjunctivitis.Camphorated opium (1:1) is an excellent pain killer in sprain.However, it is contraindicated for people suffering from asthma, cardiac and urinary bladder diseases. Seed oil, free from narcotic principles is useful in diarrhoea and dysentery At the present time opium in combination with other drugs is used in diabetes. An infusion of the capsules is used as a soothing application for bruises, inflammatory swellings, sometimes in painful conjunctivitis, inflammation of ear, irritant cough and sleeplessness. The petals are bitter
  44. 44. FOrmulations of opium in AFI part I • 1:7 Ahiphenasava(2) • 11:2 kacchoradi churnam(28) • 12:2 Ashtakshari Gutika (1) • 20:7 karpura Rasa(2)
  45. 45. Arka Calotropis gigantea (linn.)R. Br. ex. Ait
  46. 46. ArkaCalotropis procera is small, erect and compact shrub, which is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases. This shrub has been known to possess analgesic, antitumor, antihelmintic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti diarrhoeal, anticonvulsant, antimicrobial, oestrogenic, antinociceptive, and anti malarial activity. All the parts, viz, root, stem, leaf and flowers of Calotropis are in common use in indigenous system of medicine.Compounds derived from the plant have been found to have emeto-cathartic and digitalic properties. The principal active medicines are asclepin and mudarin Other compounds have been found to have bactericidal and vermicidal properties. The latex contains a proteolytic enzyme called caloptropaine.An infusion of bark powder is used in the treatment and cure of leprosy and elephantiasis. It is inadvisable to use bark that has been kept for more than a year.The root bark is an emetic, the flower a digestive, and a tonic is used for asthma and catarrh. Bark and wood stimulate lactation in cattle46. Roots (extremely poisonous) are applied for snakebite. The milky sap is used as a rubefacient and is also strongly purgative and caustic. The latex is used for treating ringworm, guinea worm blisters, scorpion stings, venereal sores and ophthalmic disorders; also used as alaxative. Its use in India in the treatment of skin diseases, it has caused severe bullous dermatitis leading sometimes to hypertrophic scars. The local effect of the latex on the conjunctiva l congestion, epiphora and local anaesthesia The twigs are applied for the preparation of diuretics, stomach tonic and anti-diarrhoetics and for asthma. Also used in abortion, as an anthelmintic, for colic, cough, whooping cough, dysentery,headache, lice treatment, jaundice, sore gums and mouth, toothache, sterility, swellings and ulcer Root bark of C. procera exerts anti proliferative action against Hep2 cells via apoptotic and cell cycle disruption based mechanism.The latex is used as an abortifacient, spasmogenic and carminative properties, anti dysentric, anti syphilitic, anti rheumatic, antifungal, mullusccide, diaphoretic and for the treatment of leprosy, bronchial asthma and skin affection. Different parts of the plant have been reported to possess a number of biological activities such as proteolytic, antimicrobial, larvicidal, nematocidal, anticancer, anti- inflammatiory action. Its flowers possess digestive and tonic properties. On the contrary, the powdered root bark has been reported to give relief in diarrhoea and dysentery. The root of the plant is used as a carminative in the treatment of dyspepsia. The root bark and leaves of Calotropis procera are used by various tribes of central India as a curative agentfor jaundice.
  47. 47. Arka formulations in AFI-I • 6:22 Dhanvantara Ghrita (17) • 8:16 Chitrakadi tel (2) • 8:30 Prabhanjana vimardana tel (5) • 8:46 MahaVishgarbh tel(32) • 8:53 Vajraka Tel(4) • 8:60SaidhvadiTel(2) • 10:1 ArkaLavana(1) • 10:3 AbhayaLavan(3) • 10:4 AbhayaLavana(3) • 10:4 AviltoladiBhasma Kshara(4) • 10:12 Vajra kshara(10&8) • 20:6 Ekangaveer Rasa(21) • 20:24 BrihatKasturiBhairavRas(9) • 20:45 Vat Vidhvansana Ras(21) • 20:54 SutikaBharanRas(14)
  48. 48. Bhallataka Semecarpus anacardium Linn. F
  49. 49. Bhallataka Semecarpus anacardium Linn. belongs to the family Anacardiaceae, also called the “marking nut has been evaluated pharmacologically the following actions. Vardhaman yoga of S. anacardium when administered for 4 weeks shows positive response in periarticular arthritis of shoulder, Sciatic neuralgia and early stage of rheumatoid arthritis along with spondylitis. Bhallaka has been evaluated pharmacologically on the isolated tissue and the whole animal Anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti arthritic and antioxidant activity have been reported in experimental animals. Very few studies have been reported on hypolipidaemic, hypoglycaemic, anti atherogenic, antifungal, anti fertility and neuroprotective activity.Anti inflammatory and anti arthritic activity of milk extract and chloroform extract have been documented in rats and mice.Oil rich fraction of water extract of nut shows inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced nitic acid production. It has significant effect against FeSO4 induced lipid per oxidation with alcohol extract.The biflavonoids from the stem bark shows dose dependant anti inflammatory activity in carageenan induced paw oedema comparable to that of ibuprofen. Nut extract demonstrated antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity on the compounds of the immune system in adjuvant induced arthritis.Effective regulation of cartilage metabolism and bone turn over in experimental model of arthritis by the nut milk extract has been demonstrated. Cytotoxic effect on the cell of P388 lymphocytic leukaemia was demonstrated by acetylated oil of the nut. Anti mutagenic activity has been shown by ‘Ames test’ with water, alcohol and oil extract of nut.
  50. 50. Formulations in AFI Part I • 1:25 Madhukasava(4) • 3:6 Kutajavaleha (18) • 6:3 AmritaBhallataka(1) • 6:6 Eladi Gutika(15) • 6:22 Dhanvantara Ghrita(20) • 6:23 NarsimhaGrita(5) • 6:27 Panchatikta Guggulu Ghrita(25) • 7:18 NarsimhaChurna(5) • 7:21 Nyagrodhadi Churna(28) • 7:26 BhallatakaRasayana(1) • 8:32 Prasarini Tel(16) • 10:6 Kalyanaka kshara(11) • 12;34 SuranaVataka(11) • 12:35 Sanjeevani Vati (9)
  51. 51. Bhanga Cannabis sativa Linn
  52. 52. Vijaya • भङ्गा गन्जा मािुलानी मादनी विज ा ज ा • भङ्गा कफ़ हरर नितिा ग्राहणी पाचनी लघुाः • निक्षोष्ट्रणा वपत्तला मोह्मद्िाक्ग्ििधानन • भा.प्र.
  53. 53. Formulations of vijaya in AFI Part I • 3:12 Jirkadi Modaka(2) • 7:36 Svalnayika Churne(11) • 7:12 Jatiphaladya Churna(21) • 20:39 Lakshmi Vilas Ras(9) • 20:32 Ratnagiri Ras(14)
  54. 54. Danti Baliospermum monatanum Mull. Arg
  55. 55. दन्िी • दन्िीद्ि ं सरं पाके रसे च किु दीपनं • गुदान्कु राश््शूलाशााः कण्डूकु ष्ट्रठविदाहनुि • िीक्ष्णोष्ट्रणं हक्न्ि वपत्तास्रकफ़शोथोदरकक्रमीन • भा.प्र.
  56. 56. Formulations of Danti in AFI Part-I • Abhayarishta(15) • Dantyadyarishta(1) • Devdarvyadyarishta(5) • Kumaaryasava(A)(32)
  57. 57. Danti -contd 3:13 Danti Haritaki(1) 5:2 Kaishor Guggulu(15) 6:7 KalyanakaGhrita(26) 6:20 Dadhika Ghrita(53) 6:22 Dhanvantara Ghrita(12) 6:31 Brihat phala Ghrita(32) 6:32 Brahmi Ghrita (8) 6:33 MahaKalyanakGhrita(19) 6:37Mishraka Sneha(5)
  58. 58. Danti -cntd 7:19 Narayana Churna(30) 7:21Nyagrodhadi Churna(20) 7:33 samudradya churna(8) 8:7Kasisadi Tel(9) 10:4 Aviltoladi Bhasma(kshara)(3) 10:6 Kalyan kshar(10) 12:5 kankayan Gulika(3) 12:10 Chandra prabha vati(29) 19:1 Punarnavadi Mandur (15) 20:38 LakshmiNarayanRas(11
  59. 59. Dhattura Datura metal Linn
  60. 60. Dhattura D. metel Family; Solanaceae, Phytochemical screening of D. metel seeds revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and carbohydrates. Scopolamine (an alkaloid) content of the plant is higher than that of other Datura species. Traditionally it is used to treat conditions like mumps, rheumatism, epilepsy and leprosy. Paste of its leave along with the turmeric is domestic remedy used to reduce inflammation or along with opium oil to reduce body lice. Smoke of Dhattura leaves used for the treatment of respiratory diseases like asthma. It is principally valued as analgesic, a remedy for violent headache, toothache and piles. Seed were used to treat vertigo, epilepsy and hydrophobia. It has narcotic property.It has significant role in treatment of malaria. It also cures Cholera, chronic diarrhoea, intermittent fever. Datura metel Linn The analgesic and CNS depressant property of the plant is often attributed to the presence of this alkaloid (Tyler et al., 1990)81
  61. 61. Dhatura formulations in AFI-I • Kanakasava(1) • Mritsanjeevani Sura(25) • 8:46 MahaVishgarbh Tel(2) • 8:48 Laghu Vishgarbh Tel(2&9) • 8:55 Vishtinduk Tel (4) • 12:13 Dugdha Vati(2&4) • 20:6 EkangveerRas(22) • 20:18 Jvararyabhra(6) • 20:19 Tarunarka Ra(5) • 20:20 TribhuvankirtiRas(10) • 20:21 NavaratnarajmrigankaRas(36) • 20:27 MahalakshmivilasRas(11) • 20:39 LakshmivilasRas(8) • 20:57 sutashekharRas(7)
  62. 62. Gunja Abrus precatirius Linn
  63. 63. Gunja Abrus precatorius is a widely distributed tropical medicinal plant with several therapeutic properties. The seeds are used in various diseases like Indralupta (alopecia), Shotha (edema), Krimi (helminthes), Kustha (skin diseases), Kandu (itching), Prameha (urinary disorders) Abrus precatorius have high antioxidant and anti proliferative activity. Gunja has also been reported for its antitumor anticancer, anti fertility, CNS depressant and analgesic activity in experimental models, anti spermatogenic, anti diarrhoeal and antihelminthic, also in treatment of ulcer and skin disorders
  64. 64. Gunja containng formulations in AFI-I 8:26 Neeli Bhringadi Tel (11) 12:23 Mritsanjeevani Gutika(18)
  65. 65. Jaipala (Jayapala) Croton tiglium Linn
  66. 66. Jaypal The genus Croton belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. The Croton oil, the essential oil of SCT, as the effective part, has been reported to have purgative, analgesic, antimicrobial, and inflammatory properties. It regulates the gastrointestinal transit in mice, and affects the inflammatory and immunological milieu croton oil causes spontaneous smooth muscle contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum and the underlying mechanisms. From the leaves of C. tiglium, a pyrazine derivative crotonine was isolated which shows significant analgesic effects. C. tiglium has been extensively studied as the source of phorbolderivatives Phorbol esters have been shown to be responsible for eliciting a markable range of biochemical effects except tumour promoting. skin irritant effects platelet aggregation and cell differentiation. Eight phorbol esters isolated from the C. figlium have the ability to inhibit an HIV induced cytopathic effect on MT-4 cells. Ctoton oil also have anti leukemic action. The most investigated activity of the phorbolesters proteinkinase C (PKC), which plays a critical role in signal transduction pathway and regulates the cell growth and differentiation. An In- vitro and In-vivo Study was done to evaluate the Antinociceptive and Smooth Muscle Relaxant Activity of Croton tiglium L Seed.
  67. 67. Formulations containing Jayapala in AFI-I 20:5 Ichhabhedi Ras (6) 20:13 Ashvakanchuki Ras(12)
  68. 68. Karaveera Nerium indicum Mill
  69. 69. Karavir Nerium oleander L. Family: Apocynaceae. It has been used to provoke menstruation, as an abortive, and as an antispasmodic in the treatment of angina pectoris. As an external medicine it is used against all kinds of skin diseases like rash, scabies, ringworm, lice, leprosy and boils, skin eruptions or irritations in herpes and to destroy maggots in wounds. Latex, bark and roots have been used against corns, warts, cancerous carcinoma, ulcerating or hard tumours. Ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander elicited shows typical cardiac glycoside activity with dose-dependent increase in amplitude of contraction and increase the force of contraction of cardiac muscle. Oleanders contain within their tissues cardenolides that are capable of exerting positive inotropic effects on the hearts of animals and humans. The cardiotonic properties of oleanders have been exploited therapeutically and as an instrument of suicide since antiquity. The basis for the physiological action of the oleander cardenolides is similar to that of the classic digitalis glycosides, i.e. inhibition of plasmalemma Na+, K+ ATPase.Three oligosaccharides were obtained by acid degradation of crude polysaccharides from Neriumindicum Millshowsanti-angiogenesis activity.More recently, research has focused on the anticancer effects of oleander and its constituent compounds. Oleandrin inhibits certain kinases, transcription factors and inflammatory mediators, including tumour necrosis factor. This may provide a molecular basis for the ability of oleandrin to suppress inflammation and perhaps tumorigenesis. The authors of this in vitro study suggest that oleandrin may have applications for various diseases, including arthritis, but all require further investigation.
  70. 70. Formulations containing Karveer in AFI-I 8:7 Kasisadi Tel(8) 8:16 citrakadi Tel(6) 8:53 Vajraka tel(3)
  71. 71. Other formulations of karveera 1. Karaveeradya taila : Bhaishajya ratnavali 2. Karaveeradi tailam : Vydya chintamani 3. Karaveeradya tailam : Vydya chintamani 4. Vajratailam : Vydya chintamani 5. Karaveeradilepam : Astanga hrdayam 6. Sveta karaveeradi lepam : Astanga hrdayam 7. Yekanga sophahara lepam Astanga hrdayam(ci.17/25) 8. Palita rogahara lepam Astanga hrdayam(U.24/35) 9. Garidamalaku chendanadi tailam : Astanga hrdayam 10. Jyotishmatyadi tailam Astanga hrdayam(U.28/34) 11 Mustadi churnam Astanga hrdayam (Ci.19/67) 12. Sleshmavisarpahara lepam Charaka samhita (Ci.21/87) 13. Vishaharnjana Charaka samhita)Ci.23/69) 14. Vishatailam Vydya chintamani 15 Pallavadya tailam Materia Medica by Nadkarni 16. Sveta karaveeradya tail: Charaka quoted in chakra datta 17. Karaveeramula lepa Saramgadhara samhita(U.11/.105) 18. Chermaroganasaka tailam Vanoushadi chandrodaya 19 Vaatanasaka tailam : Vanoushadi chandrodaya
  72. 72. Langali Gloriosa superba Linn
  73. 73. Langali Gloriosa superba, Liliaceae family is an erect, perennial,climbing herb. Tribesmen of Patalkot apply the rhizome extract over the navel and vagina to induce labour and facilitate normal delivery. According to them, 250 to 500 mg of the extract may lead to abortion if given to a lady with a pregnancy of 1-2 months. It is also used for the treatment of ulcers, leprosy, piles, inflammations. It is used to treat intestinal worm infestations, thirst, bruises, skin problems and snakebite. Gloriosa superba is used for labour induction by traditional birth attendants in India. The tests carried out on G. superba extract indicate that its mechanism of action was neither estrogenic nor progesterone like. However, it is early abortifacient activity appears to suggest that its activity is oxytocic. The absence of any effects on the cardiovascular parameters enhances the plant extract’s safety profile in pregnancy Credence to the folkloric use of Gloriosa superba Linn. (Langli) in labour induction.
  74. 74. Langali Formulations in AFI-I • 8:7 Kasisadi Tel(Sl.No.6) • 8:16 Chitrakadi Tel(9) • 8:46 MahaViashgarbh Tel(12) • 8;50 LangaliTel(3)
  75. 75. Parasika Yavani Hyoseyamus inibar Linn/Niger
  76. 76. Snuhi Euphorbia neriifolia Linn
  77. 77. Snuhi It is popularly known as Sehund, Thohar and Milk Hedge. The leaves are thick succulent, 6 to 12 inches long, ovular in shape. E. neriifolia hydroalcoholic extract was found to contain sugar, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, triterpenoidal saponin on preliminary phytochemical analysis. Several triterpenoids like glut-5-en-3b-ol, glut- 5(10)-en-1-one, taraxerol and b-amyrin has been isolated from powdered plant, stem and leaves of E. neriifolia28. Neriifolione, atriterpene and a new tetracyclic triterpene named as nerifoliene along with euphol were isolated from the latex of E. neriifolia29Antiquorin have been isolated from ethanol extract of fresh root of E. neriifolia.30 Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of E. neriifolia is reported by31. There are reports on the mild CNS depressant, wound healing and immunomodulatory activities of the hydroalcoholic leaf extract,32 E. neriifolia leaves are used as aphrodisiac, diuretic and also used in the treatment of bronchitis, bleeding piles and in ano-rectal fistula33 The plant is useful in abdominal troubles,bronchitis,tumours,leucoderma,piles, inflammation, enlargement of spleen, anaemia, ulcers, fever and in chronic respiratory troubles34 . The aqueous extract of the latex of E. neriifolia facilitated the wound healing process as evidenced by increase in tensile strength, DNA content, epithelization and angiogenesis.
  78. 78. Snuhi Formulations in AFI-I • 1:1 Ayaskriti(Sl.No.33) • 6:22 Dhanvantar Ghrita (16) • 8:16 Chitrakadi Tel(7) • 8:46 MahaVishgarbhTel(31) • 8:55 VishtindukaTel(8) • 10:3 Abhaya lavan(4) • 10:4 AviltoladiBhasmakshar (8) • 10:12 VajraKshar(9)
  79. 79. Vatsanabha Acontium Chasmanthum StapfexHolm • A Ferox A.Balfouri A Balfouri
  80. 80. Vishamushti Strychnox nuxvomica Linn.
  81. 81. Therapeutic Sprectrum of Upavisha Kupilu Strychnos nux-vomica is widespread in its original area of distribution in India, Indo-China and Thailand and is not in danger of genetic erosion. The antimicrobial activity of N-Butanol, Methanol and aqueous leaf extract of two medicinalm plants followed Cassia agustifolia and Strychnosnux vomica were tested against the human pathogenic micro-organisms,such as Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis, A niger, A terreus and A. Flavus24. The antimicrobial potential of plants was compared according to their zone of inhibition against the several pathogenic organisms. The antibacterial activity of the herbal extracts, indicated by the size of their zones of inhibition, Activity was detected from the ethanol extract. None of the herbal extracts examined showed antibacterial against E. coli or P. aeruginose (gram negative bacteria) Herbal extracts have a greater activity against gram positive bacteria. Identification of targets for suppression of inflammation and cancer, Pharmacologically Strychnos nux-vomica showed anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti feederent activity, Their specific effects on gastrointestinal problem, nervous system, blood glucose level, bones cells and cardiovascular systems have been also investigated27.
  82. 82. Kupeelu Formulations in AFI-I 8:46 MahaVishgarbhTel(Sl.No51) 8;55 VushtinduksTel(1) 12:1 AgnitundiVati(17) 20:6 EkangveerRas(20) 20:10 KrimiMudgarRas(5)
  83. 83. Formulations containing visha/upvisha in AFI -II • 3:7 Bahushala Guda-Danti • 4:2 Arkadi kvatha churna-Arka • 4:19 Mutra sangrahneeya kashaya churna-Bhallataka • 5:1 Panchamrit Lauha Guggulu-parada • 8:3 KabjaPrasarini Tel—Bhallataka • 8:9 Brihanmarichyadi Tel- Danti,Arka,karvira,manahshila,langali,Snuhi,visha, • 8:11 Marichyadi Tel-Visha,Arka • 9:3 Pardadadi Lepa-parada,Hingula,Manhshila,dhattura • 9:5 Swet Malhar-Tuttha
  84. 84. Formulations in AFI Part III • 1 kameshwer Modak-vijaya • 2 Vashishtha Haritaki-Danti • 3 Shatavari Modak -Danti • 4 Amvatari Yog -vatsanabh • 5 Nagkesharadi churna-vijaya&Ahiphena • 6 Pashanabhedadi churna-Danti • 7 MadhyamNayika churna-parada&vijaya • 8 Lavantritayadya churna-Danti • 9 Vidangadi Tel------Manahshila(For Nasya) • 10 Vyaghri tel---------Danti • 11 chandramrita---Hingula &Raskarpura • 12 DantiMuladiLepa-Danti,Arka&Bhallataka • 13 Bhallatakadi Lepa- Bhallataka&Gunja
  85. 85. AFI Part III conti. • 14 RasabhraMandura-Parada • 15 AgastiSutarajRas- Parada,Dhattura&Ahiphena • 16 AgnikumarRas-Parad,Ahiphena&Vatsanabh • 17 Agnitund Ras-parad &Vishmushtika • 18 Ajirna kantak Ras-Parada &Vatsanabha • 19 AbhrakMalla yog- Malla • 20 ArdhNareeshwarRas Parad&visha • 21 KanchanabhraRas Brihat-Tamra&parad • 22 KaminiVidravanRas-Hingula &Ahiphena • 23 GrahniGajKshariRas-Parada,Vatsanabh,vijaya,Dhatura,Ahiphena • 24 JvaraKalketuRas- Parad,Hartal,Manhshila,Tamra,Bhallataka • 25 JvaraMatangKeshariRas-Parad,Harital,vishmushti,Dhatura,vish • 26 Jvar SamharRas-Rassindura • 27 TripurBhairaviRasVish,Tamra,Hingula
  86. 86. Contd • 28 NashtaPushpantakaRas-Parada,TamraDanti • 29 PashupatRas-Parad,Vish,Dhatura,Ark • 30 PradarRipuRas-Parada,Naag • 31 PranBallabhRas-Tamra,Tuttha,Jaipal • 32 PraneshwerRas-Parada • 33 BhairavaRas-Parad,Visha • 34 MahaMrityunjayaRas-Harital,Jaipal,Hingula • 35 MahaShleshmaKalanalRas-Parada,Tamra,Jaipal,Danti • 36 MritSanjeevanRas-Parad,Tamra,Vish,Tal,Manahshila,Hingula • 37 MedoharRas-Parad,Ark • 38 RaghunathRas—Parada • 39-RatneshwerRas-Rassindur • 40 VasantTilakRas-Parada • 41 Vikram keshariRas-Tamra,vish,Ras • 42 VidyadharaRas-Tala,Tamra,Shila,Ras
  87. 87. Contd • 43 VidyadharabhraRas-Danti • 44 ShulaKutharRas-Ras,Tamra.Jaipal • 44 ShothKalanalRas-Ras • 45 SwaskalehswarRas-Tamra,Vish • 46 SarvalokashvryaRas-Ras,Tal,Vish • 47 SarveshverRas-Vijaya • 48 SarveshverRas2-Rassindur,Ahiphena • 49 SarvangaSunderRas-Tamra,Hingula,Arka,visha • 50 SomYog-Rassindura • 51 KarnaVindu-Ahiphena • 52 Netravindu-Ahiphena
  88. 88. RAS SHSTRA • It takes undigestible substances like metals ,minerals, Gems & Poisonous substances and transforms them into substances that are easy for human body to assimilate
  89. 89. रस सेिन विधध अथािुरो रसाच ं सक्षाद्देिं महेश्िरं साधधिञ्च रसं शङ्खिेण्िाहद धाररिम अचान त्िा थाशक्ति देिगोब्राह्मणामवप पणाखण्डे घृिं सूिमद् ाद् ोज्ञानुपानिाः
  90. 90. रस सेिने पथ् ं घृिसैन्धिधान् कजीरकाद्राकसं्कृ िं िण्डुली क-धान् ाक –पिोलालाबुकाहदकम गोधूमजीणाशाल् न्नं गम ं क्षीरं घृिं दधध हन्सोदकं मुद्ग रसाः पथ् िगााः समासिाः
  91. 91. रस सेिने अपथ् ानन िृहिी विल्िकु ष्ट्रमाण्डं िेत्राग्रं कािेल्लकं माषं मसूरं ननष्ट्रपािं कु ललत्थं सषापम निलं लङ्घनोद्ििान्नानिाम्रचूडसुरासिान आनूप मान्सम् धान् ा्लं भोजनं कदली दले कान्् ेचगुरुविष्ट्रिंभी िीक्षोष्ट्रणम ् च भृशं त् जेि
  92. 92. देिी शा्त्रोति ककाराहद गण कण्िारीफ़लकाक्न्जकञ्च,कमठ्िैलं िथा राक्जका नन्बूकं किकमकाललङ्गकफ़लम ् कु ष्ट्रमाण्डकं कका िी के क्कु तकु िकारिेल्लकफ़लम ् ककोहिका ााःफ़लम ् िृन्िाकन्चकवपत्थकाःखलु गणाः प्रोतिाः ककारहदकाः देिी शा्त्रोहदिं सोऽ ं ककाराहद गणो मिाः शा्त्रान्िर विननहदाष्ट्रिाः कथ् िे अन् प्रकारिाः
  93. 93. श्रीकृ ष्ट्रणदेिोति ककाराहद गण • कन्गुकन्दुककोलकु तकु िकलक्रोडााःकु लत्था्िथा • कण्िारी किुिैलकृ ष्ट्रणगलकाःकू मााः कला ाः कणा • ककाारु्चकहिल्लक्चकिकमककोिकम ् कका िी • कालीकाक्ञ्जकमेष काहदकगणाःश्रीकृ ष्ट्रण देिोहदिाः
  94. 94. ककाराहद ननषेध् अपिादाः • क््मन रसे च कण्ठोकत् ा ककाराहद ननषेधधिाः • ित्र ित्र ननषेद्धम ं िदौधचत् मिोन् था
  95. 95. रस म ापहद प्रिीकाराः उद्गारेसनिद् न्नं कृ ष्ट्रणमीनं सजीरकं अभ न्गमननलक्षोभे िैलेरनारा णाहदलभाः अरिौ शीि िो ेन म्िकोपरर सेचनम ् िृष्ट्रणा ां नाररके ला्बु मुद्ग ूषं स शका रम
  96. 96. रस िी ा वििृ् थामुपचार विधध द्राक्षा दाडडम खजूारं कदलीनां फ़लम् भजेि् रस िी ा वििृ् थे दधधक्षीरेक्षु शका रा शीिोपचारमन् ्च
  97. 97. रस त् ाग विधध रस त् ाग विधौ पुनाः भक्ष ेद बृहिीं विल्िं सकृ ि साधारणो विधधाः
  98. 98. Classification of meterial Maharasa • 1 Abhraka-Mica • 2 Vaikrant-flurite/tourmelin • 3 Makshika-copper pyrite • 4 vimala-Iron pyrite • 5 shilajit-Bitumen • 6 sasyaka-copper sulphate • 7 chapala-Bismuth sulphate • 8 Rasaka-calamine
  99. 99. Krishna vjrabhraka
  100. 100. Vaikranta
  101. 101. vimala
  102. 102. Adrija(shilajatu)
  103. 103. Shasyaka
  104. 104. chapala
  105. 105. Rasaka
  106. 106. • Uparasa • 1 Gandhaka-sulpher • 2 Gairika-Red iron oxide • 3 Kasisa-ferrous sulphate • 4 kankshi- ------Allum • 5 Haritala-Arsenic trisulphide • 6 Manahshila-Arsenic di sulphide • 7 Neelanjana-galena • 8 Kankushtha- Gum Gamboj/Malabar Tamrind Garcinia sp
  107. 107. Gandhak
  108. 108. Gairika
  109. 109. Kasheesh
  110. 110. Kankshi(sphatikaa)
  111. 111. Pinda Hartala Arseno sulphide
  112. 112. Orpiment patraHarital
  113. 113. Manahashila Arseno sulphide
  114. 114. Manh shila
  115. 115. Neelanjana
  116. 116. Kankushtha(Gum Gamboj)
  117. 117. • Sadharana Rasa • 1 kampilla-Monkey fresh fruit • 2 GauripashanaArsenic trioxide • 3 Narsara-Ammonium tri chloride • 4 Kapardika-Cowrie shell • 5 Agnijara-Ambergris • 6 Giri sindur-Mercuric oxide • 7 Hingula-cinabar • 8 Mriddarshring-Lead mono oxide
  118. 118. Kampilla MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS
  119. 119. Gauri pashana(Arsenic Trioxide)
  120. 120. Narsar(Ammonium chloride) Sal Amoniac NH4Cl
  121. 121. Kapardika (monetaria monaea&cyprea moneta)
  122. 122. Agnijar(ambergriss)
  123. 123. Hingula(cinnabar)
  124. 124. Mriddarshriga(Litharge) (LeadMonooxide)
  125. 125. Dhatu-Metals • 1 Swarna-Gold • 2 Rajata-silver • 3 Tamra-copper • 4 Loha-Iron • 5 Mandur-Rust of iron/ • 6 vanga-Tin • 7 Naag-lead • 8 Yashad-Zinc • 9 pittala-Brass • 10 kansya-Bronze • 11 Tri loha-3 metals • 12 vartaloha-5metals
  126. 126. Swarna
  127. 127. Rajata
  128. 128. Tamra
  129. 129. Loha
  130. 130. Mandur
  131. 131. vang
  132. 132. Naag
  133. 133. Yashad
  134. 134. Pittala
  135. 135. kansya
  136. 136. • Ratna- precious gem stones • 1 Manikya-Ruby • 2 Mukta-pearl • 3 Pravala-coral • 4 Tarkshya-Emerald • 5 Pushparaga-Topaz • 6 Hiraka-Diamond • 7 Neelam-Sapphire • 8 Gomeda-Garnet • 9 Vaidurya-chrysoberyl
  137. 137. Manikya
  138. 138. Mukta
  139. 139. Praval
  140. 140. Tarkshya
  141. 141. Pushparag
  142. 142. Heeraka
  143. 143. Neelam
  144. 144. Gomeda
  145. 145. Vaidurya
  146. 146. Uparatna-semi precious gemstones • 1 Akika-Agate • 2 suryakant-sun stone • 3 chandrakant-Moon stone • 4 Rajavarta-lapis lazuli • 5 Sangeyasav-Jade • 6 pirojaka-Tarquise • 7 Vaikranta-Tourmeline • 8 kaharuba-Amber
  147. 147. Akika
  148. 148. suryakant
  149. 149. chandrakanta
  150. 150. Rajavarta
  151. 151. Sangeyasav
  152. 152. Pirojaka
  153. 153. Vaikranta
  154. 154. Kaharuba
  155. 155. Sudha varga-calcium carbonate • 1 shankha-conch shell • 2 Mrigshringa-Deer horn • 3 Kukkutanda-Egg shell • 4 Mukta Shukti-Mother shell of pearl • 5 Samudra phena-cuttle fish bone • 6 Ajasthi-Goat bone • 7 Sudha-Limestone • 8 Godanti Haritala-Gypsum • 9 surma safed-Calcite • 10 Dugdha pashana-Soap stone • 11 khatika-chalk
  156. 156. shankha
  157. 157. Mriga shringa
  158. 158. Kukkutanda
  159. 159. Mukta shukti
  160. 160. samudraphena
  161. 161. Ajasthi
  162. 162. Sudha
  163. 163. Godanti
  164. 164. Surma safed
  165. 165. Dugdha Pashana
  166. 166. Khatika
  167. 167. Miscellanious • 1 Kausheyasma-Asbestos • 2 Badarasma-Jews stone/lapis judaicus • 3 kanta pashana-lodestone • 4 Nag pashana-serpentine • 5 Sphatik-Quartz • 6 Naag sindura-Lead tetra oxide • 7 Tankan-Sodium Borate • 8 Abresham-Silk worm cocoon • 9 Kasturi-DeerMusk • 10 Mayur piccha-Peocock feather • 11 Gorochan-Bezoar stone • 12 Kalami shora-salt petre • 13 Sarjikshar –sodium carbonate
  168. 168. Kausheyasma
  169. 169. Badarashma
  170. 170. Kanta pashana
  171. 171. Nag pashan
  172. 172. sphatik
  173. 173. Naag sindura
  174. 174. Tankan
  175. 175. Abresham
  176. 176. Kasturi
  177. 177. Myur pichha
  178. 178. Gorochana
  179. 179. Kalami shora
  180. 180. Sarjika kshar

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