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  1. 1. General Microbiology Difference Between Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Cell By Jamseel.M
  2. 2. Cell The cell Latin cella, meaning "small room. Basic structural, functional and biological unit of all known living organisms. Cells are the smallest unit of life that can replicate independently, "building blocks of life“ There are two types of cells, eukaryotes, which contain a nucleus, and prokaryotes, which do not.
  4. 4. Functions of Cells A boundary that keeps the cellular contents separate from the external environment but allows for the transfer of some substances into and out of the cell. Replication of DNA Synthesis of cellular components The ability to obtain energy through metabolic processes
  5. 5. Appendages are basically involved in movement or adhesion Flagella (singular flagellum) are cellular appendages that consist of three parts: 1. A filament that rotates for movement 2. A hook where the filament attaches 3. A basal body that anchors the hook to the cell The arrangement of the hook/basal body articulation allows the hook with its filament to rotate 360o
  6. 6. Arrangements of Flagella
  7. 7. Axial filaments Modified flagella that occur in spirochetes
  8. 8. Non-locomotor appendages Pili are longer and sparser than fimbriae. fimbriae are involved in adhesion and pili (found only in Gram - bacteria) are involved in conjugation ( a “mating” process).
  9. 9. Cell envelopes differ between taxa but they basically consist of three layers:  The capsule or slime layer (outermost layer) differs greatly in thickness, organization and chemical composition depending on the bacterial species.  Beneath the outer layer lies the cell wall.  The cell membrane is a thin flexible sheet that surrounds the contents of the bacterial cell. Its functions include: transport, energy extraction, nutrient processing, and synthesis
  10. 10. The Gram Stain
  11. 11. The protoplasm or cytoplasm o Dense gelatinous solution within the cell membrane o Primary site for the cell’s biochemical and synthetic processes.
  12. 12. Nuclear region chromatin body or the bacterial chromosome Nucleoid or nuclear region of the cell that is associated with the chromatin body
  13. 13. Plasmids Plasmids are tiny circular extra chromosomal strands of DNA  Ribosomes are small structures consisting of RNA and proteins that are involved in protein synthesis
  14. 14. Inclusions or granules Inclusions or granules are areas where nutrients are concentrated Endospores are dormant structures produced by some species of Bacillus and Clostridium.
  15. 15. Shapes and arrangements of bacteria
  16. 16. FUNGI  Fungi are eukaryotic protista; differ from bacteria and other prokaryotes. 1. Cell walls containing chitin (rigidity & support) ,other polysaccharides 2. Cytoplasmic membrane contains ergosterols 3. Possess true nuclei with nuclear membrane & paired chromosomes. 4. Divide asexually, sexually or by both 5. Unicellular or multicellular
  17. 17. • Simplest fungus :- Unicellular budding yeast • Hypha :- Elongation of apical cell produces a tubular, thread like structure called hypha • Mycelium :- Tangled mass of hyphae is called mycelium. Fungi producing mycelia are called molds or filamentous fungi. • Hyphae may be septate or non-septate
  18. 18. CLASSIFICATION • Depending on cell morphology 1. Yeasts 2. Yeast like fungi 3. Molds 4. Dimorphic fungi
  19. 19. Eukaryotic Cell
  20. 20. CELL MEMBRANE StructureComponents Arrangement Functions Barrier Transport (know diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion and active transport) Recognition (e.g., self vs. non-self) Reception (for protein hormones)
  21. 21. Nucleus Structure and Function – membrane similar to cell membrane (similar function) – Nucleolus (formation of ribosomes) – Chromosomes (gene expression) – Nucleoplasm (matrix)
  22. 22. Ribosomes  Structure – rRNA – Proteins Function – Site of protein formation (translation) Found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes (different structurally)
  23. 23. Endoplasmic Reticulum  Structure membranous system of tunnels and sacs – Rough – with ribosomes on surface – Smooth- no ribosomes on surface  Function – Rough – protein synthesis – Smooth- lipid synthesis
  24. 24. Golgi Apparatus Structure also membranous, kind of like a stack of pancakes Function processing of lipids and proteins
  25. 25. LYSOSOMES Structure Membrane bound sac containing hydrolytic enzymes  Function Digestion
  26. 26. Mitochondria Structure – cigar-shaped, double membrane-bound organelle Function – Energy transfer by ATP synthesis
  27. 27. Chloroplast Structure Also cigar or spindle shaped, double membrane-bound, green Function photosynthesis
  28. 28. Other structure • Cell walls, not in animal cells • Vacuoles • Cytoskeleton • Cytoplasm
  29. 29. Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells
  30. 30. No Features 1. Occurrence Prokaryotic cells are the characteristic of bacteria and blue green algae These are cells are found in all, animals and plants, except blue green algae and bacteria.
  31. 31. 2 . Size Mostly 1-10 μm Mostly 10-100 μm 3 . Multicellular forms Rare Common, with extensive tissue formation
  32. 32. 4. Cell wall Present in most but not in all cells. In Bacteria, cell wall is made up murein,polysaccharides, lipid and proteins. The animal cells lack cell wall, but plants cell wall is made up of cellulose and chitinous cell wall is present in fungi.
  33. 33. 5. Plasma membrane Present PPrreesseenntt Present 6 Nucleus
  34. 34. 7. Nuclear Membranes Absent Present 8. Chromatin with histone Absent Present 9. Number of chromosomes Each cell Has only one chromosome Number of chromosomes per cell depends upon the type of organism.
  35. 35. 10 Chromosome The Chromose is circular ring lacking a centromere. Each chromosome is linear having a centromere 11 . Genetic material Circular or linear, double stranded DNA: only exons are present Linear double stranded DNA: genes frequently interrupted by intron sequences, especially in higher eukaryotes (called as split genes).
  36. 36. 12 Nucleoli and Mitotic apparatus Absent Present 13. Nucleolus Absent Present (for the synthesis and organization of ribosomes)
  37. 37. 14. Plasmid Commonly present Rare 15 Mesosomes Mesosomes perform the function of Golgi bodies and mitochondria, and also help in the separation of chromosomes during cell division. Absent
  38. 38. Mitochondria Absent Present Endoplasmic Reticulum Vacuoles Absent Absent Present Present 16. Cell organelles
  39. 39. Lysosomes Absent Present Chloroplast Absent Present Centrioles Absent Present Ribosomes Only 70S type of ribosomes are present which lie free in cytoplasm, or are engaged in protein synthesis. The cytoplasm has 80S type of ribosomes; and plastid and mitochondria have 70 S
  40. 40. Microtubules Absent Present Flagellae Simple structure Composed of the protein Flagellin. Complex 9+2 Structure of tubulin and other protein.
  41. 41. Respiration Many strict anaerobes All aerobic, but some facultative BAyn aerobes secondary .modifications 17 18 Photosynthetic Enzymes Bound to plasma membrane as composite chromatophore Enzymes packed in plastids bound by membrane
  42. 42. 19 Metabolic Patterns Great Variations All share cytochrome electron transport chains, Krebs cycle oxidation, glycolysis. 20 Sexual System Rare: If present one way (and usually forming partial diploids or merozygotes) Both sexes involved in sexual participation and entire genomes transferred
  43. 43. 21 Cyclosis There are no streaming movements of cytoplasm Cytoplasm shows streaming movements 22 Protein Synthesis Transcription and translation take place in cytoplasm. Transcription occurs in nucleus and translation takes place in cytoplasm. 23 Duration of cell cycle Cell cycle is short, takes 20-60 minutes to complete. Cell cycle is long, takes 12-24 hours to complete.
  44. 44. CONCLUSION  Cell are basic unit of organization or structure of all living matter  There are two types of cell,that are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell  There are are so many difference in between them include occurance,size,cell wall, nucleus ,nuclear membrane, cell organelles respiration, sexual system ,protein synthesis.
  45. 45. REFERENCE Prescott LM Harley JP and Klein DA-Microbiology John Webster-Introduction to fungi Voet and voet Tortora-Microbiology an introduction Pelczar Jr.MJ Chan,Ecs and Kreig- Microbiology Lehninger’s principle of biochemistry