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Healthcare delivery system in india

health care delivery system in india

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Healthcare delivery system in india

  1. 1. Health Care Delivery System in India Dr Utpal Sharma Assistant Professor Department of Community Medicine SMIMS, Gangtok, Sikkim
  2. 2. Introduction Health is….. ……..a state of complete Physical, Mental and Social well being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity…. …..which allows a person to live a socio-economically productive life. Illness is….. …a state in which a person’ s physical, emotional, intellectual, social or spiritual functioning is diminished or impaired.
  3. 3. Cont…. Health care is... …….multitude of services rendered to individuals or communities by the agents of health services or professional for the purpose of Promoting Restoring and Maintaining health Embraces all the goods and services designed for “prevention, promotion and rehabilitation interventions” includes Medical Care
  4. 4. Health Care provider A person or organization that provides services and/or health care personnel…. ….to deliver proper health care in a systematic way to any individual in need of health care services. Could be a government…or… ….the health care industry, ….a health care equipment company, ….an institution such as a hospital or laboratory. Health care professionals may include physicians, dentists, and other support staff.
  5. 5. Cont…. Health services Permanent countrywide system of estabilished institutions with the objective of… ….coping with the various health needs and demands of population… …thereby provide health care to individuals and community with preventive and curative activities ….utilizing health care workers
  6. 6. Cont… System Includes… concepts ( e.g health and diseases) Ideas(e.g equity) Objects(e.g hospitals, health centres) Persons (health care workers viz. physician, nurses) Together these forms a system interacting with each other, supporting and controlling each other
  7. 7. Components of healthcare delivery system
  8. 8. 1. Structure of health system  Aspects of the design of health services that influences the way in which they are delivered Includes….  Number and type of personnel and staff  Way of these personnel organized to work  Nature and extend of facility and equipment  Range of services offered  System of management and amenities  Financing  Enumeration and determination of the eligible population for these services  Governance and decision making
  9. 9. Cont… 2. Process of health care delivery  Consists of two parts  Behavior of professionals  Recognition of the problem i.e diagnosis  Diagnostic procedure  Recommendation of treatment or management  Appropiate follow up  Participation of people  Utilization of services  Understanding the recommendations  Satisfaction with the services  Participation in decision making
  10. 10. Cont… 3. Outcomes of health care  Aspects of health that results from interventions provided by the health system 4. Flow of patients in health care system  Varies from country to country  India harbors a multistage (three tier) system, where majority of health care is delivered by community health care worker  Indian system is more cost effective if health workers are skilled and effectively supervised  Such system could one of the reason to reduced cost of health care in developing countries
  11. 11. Levels of health care Primary Health care Provided at the community level Secondary health care Provided at PHC, CHC, DH etc. Tertiary health care Provided at hospitals Tertiary health care
  12. 12. Alma-Ata international conference  In 1977, World Health Assembly decided to launch a movement called “Health for all by 2000”  Fundamental principle of this concept was equity, an equal health status for all the people in all countries  This is to be ensured by equitable distribution of health resources  In 1978, the note of “Health for all” was reaffirmed and marked as the major social goal for every country.  It was stated in the declaration that the best way to achieve HFA is by providing primary health care…… ……… especially to vast size of underserved rural and urban poor
  13. 13. Alma-Ata conference, 1978
  14. 14. Alma-Ata Declarations  A main social target of governments, international organizations and the whole world community in the coming decades should be the attainment by all peoples of the world by the year 2000 of a level of health that will permit them to lead a socially and economically productive life. - “HEALTH FOR ALL BY 2000”  Primary health care is the key to attaining this target as part of development in the spirit of social justice.  Primary health care is essential health care based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology, made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford.
  15. 15. Alma-Ata Declaration It forms an integral part of the country's health system, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system. All governments should formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action to launch and sustain primary health care as part of a comprehensive national health system and in coordination with other sectors.
  16. 16. Primary health care Primary Health Care as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1978 is… Essential health care; based on practical, scientifically sound, and socially acceptable method and technology….  …….made universally accessible to individuals and families of the community through their full participation….  ……at a cost that community and country can afford to maintain every stage of their development in the spirit of self determination.
  17. 17. Cont… Definition Primary health care is essential health care made universally accessible to individuals and acceptable to them through their full participation and at a cost the community and country can afford
  18. 18. What is there in Primary Health Care..?????  Primary Health Care includes: – Primary Care (physicians, midwives & nurses); – Health promotion, illness prevention; – Health maintenance & home support; – Community rehabilitation; – Pre-hospital emergency medical services… and… – Coordination and referral to other areas of health care.
  19. 19. Cont.…  It is the first level of contact with the health system to promote health, prevent illness, care for common illnesses, and manage ongoing health problems.  Primary Health Care involves concerted effort to provide rural population of developing countries with least bare minimum of health services.  Some services are also provided community and hospitals  Primary Health Care is different in each community depending upon: – Needs of the residents; – Availability of health care providers; – The communities geographic location; & – Proximity to other health care services in the area.
  20. 20. Elements of primary health care 1. Education about prevailing health conditions and methods to prevent and control them 2. Promotion of food supply and proper nutrition 3. Adequate water supply and basic sanitation 4. Maternal and child health care with family planning 5. Immunization against major infectious diseases 6. Prevention and control of locally endemic diseases 7. Appropriate treatment of common diseases and injuries 8. Provision of essential drugs
  21. 21. Principles of primary health care Equitable distribution Community participation Intersectoral coordination Appropriate technology
  22. 22. Health Care Delivery System in India India is a union of 28 states and 7 union territories. States are largely independent in matters relating to the delivery of health care to the people. Each state has developed its own system of health care delivery, independent of the Central Government. The Central Government’s responsibility consists mainly of policy making , planning , guiding, assisting, evaluating and coordinating the work of the State Health Ministries.
  23. 23. Health System in India The health system in India has 3 main links
  24. 24. At the central level The official “organs” of health system at national level are
  25. 25. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
  26. 26. Organization Structure
  27. 27. Functions of MoHFW Union list  International health relations and administration of port quarintine  Administration of Central Institutes  Promotion of research  Regulation and development of medical, pharmaceutical, dental and nursing professions  Establishment and maintenance of drug standards  Census and collection and publication of other statistical data  Coordination with states
  28. 28. cont…. Concurrent List:  Prevention of Communicable disease  Prevention of food adulteration  Control of drug and poison  Vital statistics  Labour welfare  Economic and social planning  Poulation control and family planning
  29. 29. Directorate General of Health Services
  30. 30. Organization chart
  31. 31. Functions of Directorate General of Health services General functions  Surveys  Planning  Coordination  Programming and appraisal of all health matters Specific function  International health relations and quarantine of all major ports in country and international airport.  Control of drug standards  Maintain medical store depots  Administration of post graduate training programmes
  32. 32. Cont…  Administration of certain medical colleges in India  Conducting medical research through Indian Council of Medical Research ( ICMR )  Central Government Health Schemes.  Implementation of national health programmes  Preparation of health education material for creating health awareness through Health Education Bureau  Collection, compilation, analysis, evaluation and dissemination of information  National Medical Library
  33. 33. Central Council of health
  34. 34. Organization chart
  35. 35. Functions To consider and recommend broad outlines of policy related to matters concerning health like environment hygiene, nutrition and health education. To make proposals for legislation relating to medical and public health matters. To make recommendations to the Central Government regarding distribution of grants-in- aid.
  36. 36. State Level
  37. 37. At District level There are 593 ( year 2001 census) districts in India. Within each district, there are 6 types of administrative areas. 1. Sub –division 2. Tehsils ( Talukas ) 3. Community Development Blocks 4. Municipalities and Corporations 5. Villages and 6. Panchayats
  38. 38. Disrtict Level Districts Tehsils /Talukas (200-600 villages) Community Development Blocks (approx 100 Villages & 80,000 - 1.2 Lac Pop) Municipalities & Corporations Municipal Board (10,000- 2 Lac Pop) Corporations (> 2 lac pop) Town Area Committee (5,000-10,000 Pop) Panchayats Villages
  39. 39. Health Services  Out patient services -Patients who don’t require hospitalization can receive health care in a clinic. An out patient setting is designed to be convenient and easily accessible to the patient.  Clinics – Clinics involve a department in a hospital where patients not requiring hospitalization, receive medical care.  Institutions – Hospitals – Hospital have been the major agency of health care system.  In broad sense the health services should be a. Comprehensive b. Accessible c. Acceptable d. Provide scope of community participation and…. e. Available at an affordable cost by country and commuity
  40. 40. Health care systems  Intended to delivery healthcare services and represented by five major sectors different from each other by health technology 1. Public health sector a. Primary health care  Primary health centres  Sub centres b. Hospitals/Health centres  Community health centres  Rural hospitals  District hospitals/health centres  Specialist hospitals  Teaching hospitals c. Health insurance schemes  Employees State Insurance  Central Govt. Health Schemes d. Other agencies Defense services Railways
  41. 41. Cont… 2. Private sector a. Private hospitals, polyclinic, nursing homes and dispensaries b. General practitioners and clinics 3. Indigenous system of medicine a. Ayurveda and Siddha b. Unani and Tibbi c. Homeopathy d. Unregistered practitioners 4. Voluntary health agencies 5. National health programmes
  42. 42. Primary health care in India
  43. 43. Introduction  In 1977, GoI launched Rural Health Scheme based on the principle of “placing people’s health in people’s hand”  Subsequently in the international conference of Alma- Ata(1978)the goal of “Health for all” by 2000 through primary health care approach was set.  Keeping in view WHO “Health for all” by 2000 GoI formulated National health policy 2002
  44. 44. Cont….  More recently GoI formulated NRHM and Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) in this regards  In order to provide quality care in the public health agencies of health care delivery IPHS are being prescribed.  These standards provides basic promotive, preventive and curative primary health care to the community and…… …….achieve and maintain an acceptable quality of care  These standards would help monitor and improve functioning of the health care delivery system
  45. 45. Rural Health care system in India Primary Health Centre (PHC) A Referral unit for 4-6 Subcentres; 4-6 bedded manned with a Medical Officer in-charge and 14 subordinate paramedical staff no. of PHCs with specialized Health Services Community Health Centre (CHC) A 30 bedded Hospital/ Referral unit for 4 no. of PHCs with specialized Health Services Sub Centre (SC) Most peripheral contact point of community with Primary Health Care system; manned with one MPW(M) and MPW(F)
  46. 46. Rural Health care system in India The health care infrastructure in rural areas has been developed as a three tier system and is based on the above population norms. Health Facility Population Norms Plain Area Hilly/Tribal/Difficult Area Sub-Centre 5000 3000 Primary Health Centre 30,000 20,000 Community Health Centre 1,20,000 80,000
  47. 47. Sub Center  The most peripheral and first contact point between the primary health care system and the community.  The Ministry of Health & Family Welfare is providing 100% Central assistance  They are established on the basis of  One SC for every 5,000 pop in general and…  One SC for every 3,000 pop in hilly, tribal and backward areas  Each Sub-Centre is manned by one Male and one female Health Worker.  One Lady Health Worker (LHV) is entrusted with the task of supervision of six Sub-Centers.
  48. 48. Cont…. Sub Centre are assigned tasks relating to interpersonal communication …..in order to bring about behavioral change and provide services in relation to…. Maternal and child health, Family welfare, Nutrition, Immunization, Diarrhea control and Control of communicable diseases programmes. The sub centre are provided with basic drugs for minor ailments.
  49. 49. Primary Health Center PHC is the first contact point between village community and the Medical Officer. The PHCs were envisaged to provide an integrated curative and preventive health care to the rural population with emphasis on preventive and promotive aspects of health care. The PHCs are established and maintained by the State Governments. At present, a PHC is manned by a Medical Officer supported by 14 paramedical and other staff.
  50. 50. Cont…. It acts as a referral unit for 6 SubCentres. It has 4 - 6 beds for patients. The activities of PHC involve curative, preventive, primitive and Family Welfare Services. National Health Plan (1983) proposed reorganization of PHCs on the basis of…. One PHC for every…..30,000 pop in Rural areas One PHC for every…..50,000 pop in Urban areas
  51. 51. PHC Pakyong
  52. 52. Functions of PHCs Medical care Health programmes MCH care and family planning Health education and training Referral services Safe water supply and basic sanitation Prevention and control of locally endemic diseases Collection and reporting of vital events Basic laboratory services
  53. 53. Staffing of PHCs Source: IPHS 2012
  54. 54. Community Health Center (CHC)  These were established by upgrading the primary health centers  CHCs are being established and maintained by the State Government.  centers,each community health center should cover a population of 8000 to 1.2 lakh  It is manned by four medical specialists i.e. Surgeon, Physician, Gynecologist and Pediatrician and…. ……supported by paramedical and other staff.  It has 30 in-door beds with one OT, X-ray, Labour Room and Laboratory facilities.  It serves as a referral centre for 4 PHCs and also provides facilities for obstetric care and specialist consultations.
  55. 55. Functions of CHCs  Care of Routine and Emergency Cases in Surgery  Dressings, I&D, and surgery for Hernia, Hydrocele, Appendicitis etc.  Emergencies like Intestinal Obstruction, Haemorrhage, etc.  Other management including nasal packing, tracheostomy, foreign body removal etc.  Fracture reduction and putting splints/plaster cast.  Conducting daily OPD.  Care of Routine and Emergency Cases in Medicine  Daily OPD  Handling all the emergency and routine cases
  56. 56. Cont…  Maternal Health  Minimum 4 ANC check ups including Registration & associated services 1st visit: Within 12 weeks—preferably as soon as pregnancy 2nd visit: Between 14 and 26 weeks 3rd visit: Between 28 and 34 weeks 4th visit: Between 36 weeks and term  24 hr delivery services including normal and assisted delivery and cesarean section  Managing labour using Partograph.  Minimum 48 hours of stay after delivery, 3-7 days stay post delivery for managing Complications
  57. 57. Cont….  Newborn Care and Child Health  Essential Newborn Care and Resuscitation  Counseling on Infant and young child feeding  Routine and emergency care of sick children  Full Immunization of infants and children against VPDs  Management of Malnutrition cases.  Family Planning  Counseling, provision of Contraceptives, NSV, Laparoscopic Sterilization Services and their follow up.  Safe Abortion Services
  58. 58. Cont…. All National Health Programmes delivered through CHCs School health services Others Blood storage facility Essential laboratory services Referral (transport) services Maternal Death review (MDR)
  59. 59. Staffing of CHCs
  60. 60. Cont…
  61. 61. Cont….
  62. 62. Thank you

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