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Integrating Technology-Enhanced Instruction to Narrow the Academic Achievement Gap

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There is not a universal approach in meeting the learning needs of all students. Students have different learning styles that promote higher success in the classroom compared to other learning styles. Literature has demonstrated African American students’ diverse learning needs and preferred learning styles were not consistently being addressed in the classroom. Hence, some African American students were not learning and began to perform at a lower grade level. The presenter will provide suggestions of various technology-enhanced instructional strategies and its potential impact on African American student achievement. Additionally, the presenter will provide educators with several implications that can be applied to their current classroom setting.

Publicada em: Educação, Tecnologia
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Integrating Technology-Enhanced Instruction to Narrow the Academic Achievement Gap

  1. 1. Integrating Technology-Enhanced Instruction to Narrow the Academic Achievement Gap James M. Thompson, PhD Lancaster County School District The State of the African American Male Conference Third Annual Fall Conference – November 6, 2009 Closing the Achievement Gap: Student Achievement and Success University of South Carolina Lancaster
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Policy and Social Implication </li></ul><ul><li>Research Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Integration Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Q/A Session </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>Not a universal approach or “one size fits all” approach to teaching all students </li></ul><ul><li>No Child Left Behind (2001) - higher accountability and standardized testing </li></ul><ul><li>Equality means for ALL and not some </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiated learning instructional strategies </li></ul>
  4. 4. Policy Implications <ul><li>No excuses for failing students </li></ul><ul><li>Global market and increasing competition </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the number of illiterate students deprived of a quality education </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody must be involved </li></ul>
  5. 5. Social Implications <ul><li>Direct affect on African American </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher unemployment rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot afford health insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substandard housing developments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criminal lifestyles to support living </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African American males (11%) of population and almost half of incarcerated males (US Department of Justice, 2007) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Who’s Problem Is It? <ul><li>A Black problem </li></ul><ul><li>A White problem </li></ul><ul><li>A lower class problem </li></ul><ul><li>A middle class problem </li></ul><ul><li>An upper class problem </li></ul><ul><li>A school system problem </li></ul><ul><li>… or everyone’s problem! </li></ul>
  7. 7. Academic Achievement Gap <ul><li>Not starting on a level “playing field” </li></ul><ul><li>Parents who failed public school </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of zeal for learning </li></ul><ul><li>High rate of absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Overcrowded classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Regardless, someone is still responsible! </li></ul>
  8. 8. According to Research… <ul><li>Teachers failing to provide differentiated instructional strategies (Winther and Volk, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional strategies should be modified to accommodate every student’s learning styles (Ornstein & Levine, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporating culturally responsive instructional strategies for African American students yielded higher success (Ware, 2006) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Multiple Intelligences <ul><li>Verbal/Linguistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Report, interview, listen to tape, read, application </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Musical/Rhythmic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compose a song, listen to music, write a poem, make a cheer, connect learning to music </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Naturalist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct experiment, categorize, look for ideas in nature, investigate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bodily/Kinesthetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role-play, construct a model </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Multiple Intelligences (cont.) <ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work in a group to dialogue and solve problems, class debates, peer mentoring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Logical/Mathematical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a pattern, analyze a situation, interpret evidence, critical thinking skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual/Spatial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw a picture or poster, create a diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about a plan, write in a journal, connect the new with the old, student-centered and ownership </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. According to the Research on Technology… <ul><li>African American students who were exposed to computer-enhanced instruction were quite successful (Ware, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Student-centered learning and ownership of the learning process </li></ul><ul><li>True learning takes place when students are able to teach one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Students continued using technology beyond the classroom. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Technology Exposure <ul><li>Another gap??? Technology exposure among African American students (Hess & Leal, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>School districts with higher number of African American students were less likely to expose these students to technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Some students who were exposed to computers for basic skills level concepts or remediation. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Does It Work? <ul><li>African American students are generally underperformers in mathematics; hence, they do not enter into professions dealing with math. </li></ul><ul><li>90% of students enrolled in Detroit Area Pre-College Engineering Program (DAPCEP) were highly successful in math and entered college. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started in 1976 to increase the number of African American students taking more rigorous courses in math and science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, the program teaches 10,000 African American students with an annual operation budget of $4 million. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Does It Work? (cont.) <ul><li>DAPCEP expose students to technology and computer-enhanced instructions (Mercer, 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>Students are exposed to civil engineering, geometry, and robotics. </li></ul><ul><li>These students embrace learning and are accepting of being intelligent </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ways to Integrate Technology <ul><li>Reinforcement and remediation of learning and to teach higher-order thinking skills (North Central Regional Educational Laboratory) </li></ul><ul><li>Drill-and-practice activities in moderation for lower achieving students </li></ul><ul><li>Class Web site to house </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homework problems and solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students’ finished products </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Ways to Integrate Technology (cont.) <ul><li>Student-centered projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PowerPoint followed by an oral presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasive paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write professional letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic journal or scrapbook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WebQuest - http://sites.google.com/site/jamesmthompsonwebquest/home </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Where to Go From Here? <ul><li>If you are an administrator, you may consider to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish a technology culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide technology professional development workshops for teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for after hour visits to the computer lab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designate a technology coach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage students to enroll into more rigorous courses in mathematics and science that utilize technology-enhanced instruction </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Where to Go From Here? <ul><li>If you are a teacher, you may consider to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting over your fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stepping out of the box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being creative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be technology proficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional development workshops in technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek technical support from the central office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help students gain cognitive and critical thinking skills (less time on remediation activities to avoid adverse affects) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. References <ul><li>Hess, F., & Leal, D. (1999). Computer-assisted learning in urban classrooms: The impact of politics, race, and class. Urban Education , 34 (3), 370. </li></ul><ul><li>Mercer, T. (2002, January 1). Providing students the tools to excel. Black Issues in Higher Education , 19 (10), 18. </li></ul><ul><li>North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (2004). Case studies of high-performing, high-technology schools: Final research report on schools with predominantly low-income, African-American, or Latino student populations. Naperville, IL: Learning Point Associates. </li></ul><ul><li>Ornstein, A. C., & Levine, D. U. (2006). Foundations of education (9th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. </li></ul>
  20. 20. References (cont.) <ul><li>US Department of Justice: Office of Justice Program. (2007). Prison and jail inmates at midyear 2006 (NCJ Publication No. 217675). Washington, DC: Author. </li></ul><ul><li>Ware, F. (2006). Warm demander pedagogy: Culturally responsive teaching that supports a culture of achievement for African American students. Urban Education , 41 (4), 427-456. </li></ul><ul><li>Winther, A. A., & Volk, T. L. (1994). Comparing achievement of inner-city high school students in traditional versus STS-based chemistry courses. Journal of Chemical Education , 71 (6), 501-505. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Question and Answer Session <ul><li>Contact Information </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. James M. Thompson </li></ul><ul><li>Email: jamathompson@hotmail.com </li></ul><ul><li>Web Site: jamathompson.googlepages.com </li></ul>