Qualitative research design

Teaching and Training em BALAJI COLLEGE OF NURSING
24 de May de 2018

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Qualitative research design

  2. INTRODUCTION A qualitative “approach” is a general way of thinking about conducting qualitative research .it describe either explicitly or implicitly, the purpose of the qualitative research the role of the researcher , the stages of research and the method of data analysis. It is often said that qualitative research is any research that does not include numbers. This is not a good definition as it is the approach to the data gathering that is different in the two styles of research rather than the outputs. Qualitative research aims to explore, discover, understand or describe phenomena that have already been identified but are not well understood.
  3. Defining Qualitative Research • Use Words Rather Than Numbers To Describe Findings • Assume A Dynamic Reality • Emphasize Seeing The World From The Perspective Of The Participants • Goal Is Understanding Rather Than Prediction • Emphasize The Subjective Dimensions Of Human Experiences • Holistic Rather Than Reductionistic • Associated With The Interpretive Approach Which Is Discovery Oriented, Explanatory, Descriptive, And Inductive In Nature
  4. TYPES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN 1. Ethnography 2. Phenomenology 3. Grounded theory 4. Historical research 5. Case study 6. Feminist research 7. Action research
  5. 1. Ethnography • Meaning: ethnography (Greek ethnos=folk/people and graphien=writing) is a qualitative research method often used in the social sciences, particularly in anthropology and in sociology. It is often employed for gathering empirical data on human societies/cultures. • Data collection is often done through participant observation, interviews, questions etc. • Ethnography aims to describe the nature of those who studied through writing. • Ethnography focuses on the culture of group of people.
  6. Types of Ethnography 1. Macro-Ethnography:- Ethnography researcher can study broadly defined culture in what is sometimes referred to as a macro- ethnography. E.g.- The British, The English etc.. 2. Micro-ethnography:- Alternatively it may focus on more narrowly defined ones referred to as micro- ethnography. E.g.- the culture of hostel for the homeless, nursing practice in intensive care units.
  7. Approach • Ethnography is a qualitative research method that is used by anthropologist to describe a culture. • Culture has many definitions but usually consists of origin, values, roles and material items associated with a particular group of people. • As previously mentioned there are two basic research approach in anthropology emic and etic. • The emic approach to research involve studying behaviour from within the culture. • The etic approach involve studying behaviour from outside the culture and examining similarities and difference across culture.
  8. Steps Of Ethnographic Research Identification culture to be studied Identifying the significant variables within the culture Literature review Gaining entrance Cultural immersion Acquiring informants Gathering data Analysis of data Description of the culture Theory development
  9. Role of Researcher • Is the primary data collection tool • Enters the world for an extended period of time, asking questions, observing, participating, & collecting whatever data are available • Observe behavior but go beyond it to inquire about the meaning of it • researcher’s role is to make inferences from their observations & then to test these inferences over time with their population until they are confident they have an adequate description of the culture • Must set aside biases & explicate beliefs
  10. Advantages: • Ethnography immerses the project team in participants’ lives and enables a relationship to develop with research participants over the period of study; • Ethnography provides a rich source of visual data and helps to reveal unarticulated needs; • Ethnography captures behavior in the different contexts of everyday life; • Ethnography places a human face on data through real-life stories that teams can relate to and remember; • Ethnography provides understanding behind ‘statistics’; • Ethnography allows emotional behavior to be captured; • By carrying out research in the everyday life environments of participants it helps to identify discrepancies between what people say they do and what they actually do.
  11. Disadvantages • Investigate complex issue • A voice for understanding • Expansive and difficult • Ethics
  12. 2. Phenomenology Phenomenology is s 20th century philosophical movement dedicated to describing the structure of experience as they present themselves to consciousness ,without resources to theory ,deduction, or assumptions from other discipline such as the natural sciences. Describes the meaning of the lived experience about a concept or a phenomenon for several individuals. It has roots in the philosophical perspectives of Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, etc. Seeks to achieve a deep understanding of the phenomenon by rigorous, systematic examination of it. Its purpose is to describe the essences of lived experiences
  13. Philosophical Tenets • Whatever is known must appear in consciousness • Consciousness provides access to the world • All phenomenologists believe in multiple realities constructed by individuals within the social context of their lives
  14. Developing the Question • Focus is to describe the meaning of the lived experience from the perspective of the participant • Broad question: “What is the meaning of one’s lived experience?” • Central overarching question & subquestions
  15. Role of Researcher • Is the instrument for data collection • Establishes good rapport with participants • Explicates beliefs through bracketing • The meaning of the lived experience is interpreted from the participants’ stories
  16. Advantages • in-depth understanding of individual phenomena. • in-depth understanding of individual phenomena. • Reach data • Unique perspective
  17. Disadvantages • The subjectivity of the data leads to difficulties in establishing reliability and validity of approaches and information. • It is difficult to detect or to prevent researcher induced bias. • There can be difficulty in ensuring pure bracketing - this can lead to interference in the interpretation of the data. • The presentation of results - the highly qualitative nature of the results can make them difficult to present in a manner that is usable by practitioners. • Phenomenology does not produce generalizable data. Because the samples are generally very small, can we ever say that the experiences are typical?
  18. 3. Grounded theory • Grounded theory is an inductive technique developed for health –related topics by glaser and strauss (1967). It emerged from the discipline of sociology. • The term grounded means that the theory developed from the research is “grounded” or has it s roots in the data from which it was derived.
  19. G.T. - Philosophy • Symbolic interactionism • humans react to things on the basis of meanings that events have for them in everyday life • meanings are derived from social situations • meanings are shaped by dealings with others
  20. G.T. - Developing the Question • Question may not be explicitly stated but can be implied from the purpose • Question is broad & may change several times as data are analyzed • Basic social process • What is the process of ...
  21. G.T. - Role of Researcher • Studies the behavior & the social setting that influences the interaction • Is a participant & observer • No effort is made by researcher to put aside assumptions. • On the contrary the researcher uses past experiences and assumptions to better understand the processes being observed.
  22. Advantages • The researcher should not predetermine a priori about what he or she will find, and what and how social phenomena should be viewed. Therefore, the value of Grounded Theory is that it avoids making assumptions and instead adopts a more neutral view of human action in a social context. • "Grounded theory provides a methodology to develop an understanding of social phenomena that is not pre-formed or pre- theoretically developed with existing theories and paradigms."
  23. Disadvantages • Grounded theory fails to recognize the embeddedness of the researcher and thus obscures the researcher's considerable agency in data construction and interpretation.
  24. 4. Historical Research Historical research is the systemic collection and objective evaluation of data related to past occurrence in order to test hypothesis concerning causes , effects, or trends of theses events that help to explain present events and anticipate future events. (Gay 1996) This include higher critism and textual criticism. Though items may very depending on the subject matter and researcher the following concepts are usually part of most formal historical research: - identification of origin date - Evidence of location - Recognition of authorship - Analysis of data - Identification of integrity - Attribution of credibility
  25. The Process Of Conducting Historical Research • The process for conducting historical research is the same as for other research. Definition of a problem Formulation of question to be answered or hypothesis to be tested Systemic collection of data Evaluation of data Production of verbal synthesis of finding or confirmation of hypothesis.
  26. Advantages • The research is not physically involved in the situation under study. • No danger of experimenter-subject interaction. • Documents are located by the researcher, data is gathered, and conclusions are drawn out of sight.
  27. 5. Case study • The case study research design have evolved over the past few years as a useful tool for investigating trends and scientific situations in many scientific discipline , especially social sciences, psychology, anthropology, and ecology. • This method of study is useful for trying to test theoretical models by using them in rea world situation. For example, if an anthropologist were to live amongst a remote tribe, whilst their observation might produce no quantitative data, they are still useful to sciences.
  28. Case Study • A case study is an exploration of a “bounded system” or a case (or multiple cases) over time through detailed, in-depth data collection involving multiple sources of information rich in context. • The context of the case involves situating the case within its setting. which may be physical, social, historical and/or economic. 40
  29. Case Study cont. • Data collection strategies include direct observation, interviews, documents, archival records, participant observation, physical artifacts and audiovisual materials. • Analysis of themes, or issues and an interpretation of the case by the researcher. 41
  30. Disadvantages • Inability to Replicate • Hawthorne Effect • Researcher Bias • Time Intensive • Possibility of Errors • Ethical Issues
  31. 6. Feminist Research According to Hester Eisenstein in her text contemporary feminist thought explain that from the perspective the term “feminist” holds an element of “ visionary and futuristic thought”. • Uses feminist theory as the philosophical underpinning of the approach. • Assumes most formal knowledge is generated by men. • Assumes that patriarchy and the use of power is harmful to women. • Some feminists also recognize social class and race as socially generated constructs that are used to oppress others.
  32. Feminist Research is often classified in the “qualitative research” family because: • It is used to generate new knowledge. • It’s purpose is to create social change. • It argues against the “top-down,” hierarchal relationships associated with male-dominated knowledge by minimizing the social distance between researcher and subject. Respondents often participate in the research process. • It focuses on the position in society of research subjects and the researcher. • The perspectives or standpoint of the subject and researcher are central in data collection and analysis. 54
  33. 7. Action Research • Action research “ is a way of doing research and working on solving a problem at the same time” - Cormack 1991. • The method was developed to allow researcher and participants work together to analyze social system with a view to changing them. In other words, to achieve specific goals. • Example: include analysis of peoples health problem in a particular area by health professional with the aim of producing appropriate treatment and health promotion programmes.
  34. According to smith (1986) Action research “is a process containing both investigation and the use of its findings”
  35. Action research:- • Has an educational function. • Deals with individuals as members of social group. • Is problem focused , context specific and future oriented. • Involve a change intervention. • Aims at improvement and involvement. • Involves a cyclic process in which research, action and evaluation are interlinked. • Is found in a research relationship where those involved are participants in the change process.
  36. Cyclic Process of Action Research Action research A cyclic process Identify the problem Discussion of problem Reviewofliterature Redefine the problemSelect method Implementchange
  37. References Bernard, H.R. (2000). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Creswell, J.W. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Munhall, P.L. (2001). Nursing Research: A Qualitative Perspective, 3rd Edition. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods, 3rd Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage 63
  38. THANK YOU…………. 64 Working Together, We Can achieve our goal and expected qualities in higher education