Consequent to the implemented economic liberalisation in India during the 1990s, substantial international investment activity began within the Indian capital markets and through corporate vehicles with an increasingly vibrant fervour. In fact, today, Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) play a crucial role in the liquidity, growth and vitality seen in Indian capital markets. Simultaneously, along with increasing FII activity, as a result of the favourable economic and political climate, India also witnessed an increasing quantum of Foreign Domestic Investment (FDI). The regulation of these investment channels and instruments was at the front and centre of economic policy debate, a part of which revolves around taxation. There is undoubtedly a proximate and intelligible nexus between taxation and the employment of these investment tools. A taxation regime that is favourable can work in effectively attracting more international investment which in turn would enhance market liquidity, activity, and growth.1 While FIIs and FDIs may appear to be similar investment channels, for the most part, they serve entirely different objectives, and operate in substantially different manners and are subject to different regulatory regimes in terms of exchange, economic and taxation policy. In the coming sections of this paper, the authors have attempted to analyse several aspects of FII and FDI taxation in India. The first section delineates the differences in FIIs and FDIs, their market strategy, modus operandi, and objectives, while ascertaining what exactly these investment channels imply and the various investment vehicles that may be employed by foreign actors. The subsequent section of the paper outlines the tax regime applicable to such FDIs and FIIs, depending on the organisational scheme and objective of the business vehicle so employed for the investment. Given that FIIs and FDIs essentially involve a foreign element, the question of double taxation is one which necessarily requires to be addressed. To that end, in the third section of this paper, the authors have looked at Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAAs) (Tax Treaties) in the context of FIIs and FDIs.