IRJET- Secure Online Voting Systems using Block of Chunks

IRJET Journal
IRJET JournalFast Track Publications

https://www.irjet.net/archives/V6/i3/IRJET-V6I3488.pdf

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2509
SECURE ONLINE VOTING SYSTEMS USING BLOCK OF CHUNKS
P. Deepa1, K. Akshaya2, R. Priyadarshini3, H. Saranya4
1Associate Professor, Dept.of Computer Science and Engineering, Panimalar Engineering College,
Chennai, Tamil Nadu
2,3,4U.G.Scholar, Dept.of Computer Science and Engineering, Panimalar Engineering College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
---------------------------------------------------------------------***----------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract - Distributed wireless networks perform critical
network functions such as fault-tolerant data fusion,
cooperative sensing, and reachingconsensusinvotingsystem.
People cast their votes by going directly to voting centreorvia
post. However, the delay overhead of voting can beprohibitive
when numerous participants have to share the post in
sequence, making it impractical for time-critical applications.
In this project we propose a fast and secure Blockchain voting
scheme called Blockchain Voting System BVS, which
significantly reduces the delayforcollectingandtallyingvotes.
In BVS, Voters transmit their votes simultaneously by
exploiting the blocks in online. Votes are realized by injecting
energy to pre-assigned blocks. We show that BVS is secure
against hackers and third parties, that attempt to manipulate
the voting outcome. Security is achieved by employing
cryptography-based authentication and message integrity
schemes. We analytically evaluate the voting robustness as a
function of Block parameters. We extend BVS to operate in a
Block groups. We discuss practical implementationchallenges
related to multi-device frequency and time synchronization
and present a implementation of BVS. The implementation of
this concept in reality can reduce the corruption in vote
counting and achieve secure result in less time.
Key Words: Cryptography, Blockchain, SHA, Integrity,
BVS
1. INTRODUCTION
Blockchain technology allows for fast, secure, and
transparent peer-to-peer transfer of digital goods that
include money and intellectual property. In crypto coin
mining and investing, it's an important topic to understand.
One of the most talked about and misunderstood topics in
recent times, blockchain technology is completely
overhauling the way digital transactions are conducted and
could eventually change the way several industries conduct
their daily business.
Two words that have rapidly become part of the
mainstream vernacular are bitcoin and blockchain. While
they are related, these terms refer to two different things.
Bitcoin is a form of virtual currency, more commonlyknown
as cryptocurrency, which is decentralized and allows users
to exchange money without the need for a third-party. All
bitcoin transactions are logged and made available in a
public ledger to ensure their authenticity and prevent fraud.
The underlying technology that facilitatesthesetransactions
and eliminates the need for an intermediary is the
blockchain.
One of blockchain's main benefits lies in its
transparency, as the ledger functions as a living, breathing
chronicle of all peer-to-peer transactions that occur. Each
time a transaction takes place, such as when onepartysends
bitcoin directly to another, the details of that deal —
including its source, destination, and timestamp — are
added to a block.
The block contains the transaction along with other
similar types of transactions that have occurred recently. In
the case of bitcoin transactions, the recent transactions are
for the previous 10 minutes or so. Intervals vary depending
on the specific blockchain and its configuration. The validity
of the transactions within the cryptographically protected
block is then checked and confirmed by the collective
computing power of miners within the network in question.
On an individual basis, miners are computers thatare
configured to use their GPU or CPU cycles to solve complex
mathematical problems, passing the block's data through a
hashing algorithm until a solution is found. When the
problems are solved, the block and all of its respective
transactions are verified as legitimate.Rewards — bitcoinor
some other currency — are then divvied up among the
computer or computers that contributed to the successful
hash.
When the transactions within a block are deemed valid,they
are attached to the most recently verified block in the chain,
creating a sequential ledger which is viewable by anyone.
This process continues in perpetuity, expanding on the
blockchain's contents and providing a public recordthatcan
be trusted. In addition to being constantlyupdated,thechain
and all of its blocks are distributed across the network to a
large number of machines. This ensures that the latest
version of this decentralized ledger exists virtually
everywhere, making it almost impossible to forge.
2. LITERATURE SURVEY
[1] Secure Physical Layer Voting, by Bocan Hu,Yan
Zhang,Nirnimesh Ghose and Loukas Lazos Distributed
wireless networks perform critical network functions
such as fault-tolerant data fusion, cooperative sensing,
and reaching consensus in voting system. They use
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2510
fusion centre for sending messages which is less secure
and a slow process.
[2] Extreme automation is the latest initiative to have
emerged from several “hands-free”. Innovations like
autonomous Ships and submarines, autonomous
passenger aircraft, drone freight delivery, autonomous
robotic surgery, automated knowledge discovery while
the healthcare industry will need to adapt to the
changing care delivery model as it will save many
billions of dollars.
[3] A large portion of the population in the developing
world can benefit from blockchain technologies. It can
be argued that in many ways, blockchain has a much
higher value proposition for the developing world than
for the developed world but people suffer from
inefficiency, fraud, and gross misallocations of
resources.
[4] Blockchain is a technology that uses community
validation to keep synchronized the content of ledgers
replicated across multiple users. Although blockchain
derives its originsfromtechnologiesintroduceddecades
ago, it has gained popularity with Bitcoin. Bitcoin’s
blockchain is a decentralized peer-validated time-
stamped ledger that chronologically registers all valid
transactions. It is a slow operation with limited
governance.
[5] Blockchain and the Internet of Things (IoT) are key
technologies that will have a huge impact in the next 10
years for companies intheindustrial market.Thisarticle
describes how these two technologies will improve
efficiencies, provide new business opportunities,
address regulatory requirements, and improve
transparency and visibility. Third-party repair partners
could monitor the blockchain for preventive
maintenance and record their work on the blockchain.
3. EXISTING SYSTEM
Voting is done by people through voting booth or via post.
However, the delay overhead of voting can be prohibitive
when numerous participants have to share the post in
sequence, making it impracticalfortime-criticalapplications.
The vote counting had major issues like corruptionandslow
progress
3.1 Disadvantages
 Slow process
 More possibilities for Corruption
 Low security
4. PROPOSED SYSTEM
We propose a fast and secure Blockchain voting scheme
called Blockchain Voting System BVS, which significantly
reduces the delay for collecting and tallying votes.
In BVS, Voters transmit their votes simultaneously by
exploiting the blocks in online. Votes are realized by
injecting energy to pre-assigned blocks.
We show that BVS is secure against hackers and third
parties, that attempt to manipulate the voting outcome.
Security is achieved by employing cryptography-based
authentication and message integrity schemes.
4.1 Advantages
 Blockchain give more security in decentralised
network.
 Results comes transparently and simultaneously.
 Hacking possibility is very low against the
Blockchain and cryptography.
4.2 System Architecture
Fig -1:System Architecture
4.3 System Modules
Block chain
The blockchain is an incorruptible digital ledgerof economic
transactions that can be programmed to record not just
financial transactions but virtually everything of value.
“Picture a spread sheet that is duplicated thousandsoftimes
across a network of computers. Then imagine that this
network is designed to regularly update this spreadsheet
and you have a basic understanding of the blockchain.
Information held on a blockchain exists as a shared — and
continually reconciled — database. This is a wayofusingthe
network that has obvious benefits. The blockchain database
isn’t stored in any single location, meaning the records it
keeps are truly public and easily verifiable. No centralized
version of this information exists for a hacker to corrupt.
Hosted by millions of computers simultaneously, its data is
accessible to anyone on the internet.
Identity Management
Identity management (ID management) is a broad
administrative area that deals with identifyingindividuals in
a system (such as a country, a network,oran enterprise) and
controlling their access to resources within that system by
associating user rights and restrictions with the established
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2511
identity. Identity management (IdM) is the task of
controlling information about users on computers. Such
information includes information that authenticates the
identity of a user, and information that describes
information and actions they are authorized to access
and/or perform. It also includes the management of
descriptive information about the user and how and by
whom that information can be accessed and modified.
Managed entities typically include users, hardware and
network resources and even applications.
Online Voting System
The Online Voting process is in need of a standard and
secure electronic system that voters can rely on and have
trust in. Currently, each state implementsitsownprocessfor
voting; the lack of consistency between polls results in
numerous problems.Variousmodelshavebeendevelopedto
address the issues ofsecurity,privacy,validation,andquality
control. However, these models do not meet all of the
requirements needed for a good system. Exploring online
voting from a systems perspective can demonstrate the
commonalities of the current systems and the possible
Algorithm Used
SHA-256
Overview
SHA-256 operates in the manner of MD4,MD5 and SHA-
1.The message is to be hashed first.
[1] Padded with its length in such a way that the
result is multiple of 512 bits long
[2] Then parsed into 512-bit message blocks M1
,M2,M3,………,Mn
The message blocks are processed one at a
time:Beginning with a fixed initial hash value
H(0),sequentially compute
Hi=H(i-1)+CM
(i)(H(i-1)),
Where C is the SHA-256compressionfunctionand+
means word wise mod 232 addition.H(N)
Is the hash of M.
Steps
Step 1: Pad the message in the usual way.i.e.Append
the bit “1” to the end of the message ,and then k
zero bits,where k is the smallest non-negative
solution to the equation l+1+k=448mod512.Tothis
append 64-bit block which is equal to the number l
written in binary.
Step 2:Parse the message into N 512-bit blocks
M1,M2,M3,……Mn.The first 32 bits of message block I
are denoted M0
i,the next 32 bits are M1
i,and so on
upto M15
i.We use the big-endian convention
throughout,so withineach32-bitword,theleft-most
bit is stored in the most significant bit position.
Step 3:The hash computation proceeds as follows:
For i=1 to N (N=number of blocks in padded
message)
{
 Initialize registers with(i-1)st intermediate
hash value.
 Apply the SHA-256 compression function
to update registers.
 Compute the ith intermediate hash valueHi.
H1
i=a+H1
i-1
.
.
.
H8
i=h+H8
i-1
HN=H1
N,H2
N,….,H8
N is the hash of M.
5. IMPLEMENTATION RESULTS
Fig -2: Home Page
Fig -3: Government Login
Fig -4: Candidate Register
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2512
Fig -5: Candidate List
6. CONCLUSION
Our Online-Voting System is secure because user can only
vote by entering CNIC. No other information is shown to the
user on the polling interface. On the other hand ADMIN has
the only rights to check and count all votesandannouncethe
final result. Although there are many voting apps for this
purpose but their security level is not up to that mark.
REFERENCES
[1] I. F. Akyildiz, B. F. Lo, and R. Balakrishnan.
Cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio
networks: A survey. Physical Comm., 4(1):40– 62,
2011.
[2] N. Al-Nakhala, R. Riley, and T. Elfouly. Distributed
algorithms in wireless sensor networks: an
approach for applying binary consensus in a real
testbed. Comp. Nets., 2015.
[3] J. G. Andrews, A. Ghosh, and R. Muhamed.
FundamentalsofWiMAX:understandingbroadband
wireless networking. Pearson Education, 2007.
[4] D. Barbara and H. Garcia-Molina. The reliability of
voting mechanisms. IEEE Trans. Computers,
36(10):1197–1208, 1987.
[5] M. Barborak, A. Dahbura, and M. Malek. The
consensus problem in fault-tolerant computing.
ACM Comp. Surveys, 25(2):171–220, 1993.
[6] D. Bharadia, E. McMilin, and S. Katti. Full duplex
radios. In Proc. of the SIGCOMM Computer
Communication Review, pages 375–386. ACM,
2013.
[7] S. Capkun, M. Cagalj, R. Rengaswamy, I.
Tsigkogiannis, J.-P. Hubaux, and M. Srivastava.
Integrity codes: Message integrity protection and
authentication over insecure channels. Dependable
and Secure Computing, IEEE Transactions on,
5(4):208–223, 2008.
[8] D. V. Dimarogonas, E. Frazzoli, and K. H. Johansson.
Distributed eventtriggered control for multi-agent
systems. IEEE Trans. on Aut. Cntrl., 57(5):1291–
1297, 2012.
[9] A . Dutta, D. Saha, D. Grunwald and D.Sicker.
SMACK: aSMARTACKnowledgement scheme for
broadcast messages in wireless networks.ACM
SIGCOMM Comp.Comm.Rev.,39(4):15-26,2009.

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IRJET- Secure Online Voting Systems using Block of Chunks

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2509 SECURE ONLINE VOTING SYSTEMS USING BLOCK OF CHUNKS P. Deepa1, K. Akshaya2, R. Priyadarshini3, H. Saranya4 1Associate Professor, Dept.of Computer Science and Engineering, Panimalar Engineering College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 2,3,4U.G.Scholar, Dept.of Computer Science and Engineering, Panimalar Engineering College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu ---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - Distributed wireless networks perform critical network functions such as fault-tolerant data fusion, cooperative sensing, and reachingconsensusinvotingsystem. People cast their votes by going directly to voting centreorvia post. However, the delay overhead of voting can beprohibitive when numerous participants have to share the post in sequence, making it impractical for time-critical applications. In this project we propose a fast and secure Blockchain voting scheme called Blockchain Voting System BVS, which significantly reduces the delayforcollectingandtallyingvotes. In BVS, Voters transmit their votes simultaneously by exploiting the blocks in online. Votes are realized by injecting energy to pre-assigned blocks. We show that BVS is secure against hackers and third parties, that attempt to manipulate the voting outcome. Security is achieved by employing cryptography-based authentication and message integrity schemes. We analytically evaluate the voting robustness as a function of Block parameters. We extend BVS to operate in a Block groups. We discuss practical implementationchallenges related to multi-device frequency and time synchronization and present a implementation of BVS. The implementation of this concept in reality can reduce the corruption in vote counting and achieve secure result in less time. Key Words: Cryptography, Blockchain, SHA, Integrity, BVS 1. INTRODUCTION Blockchain technology allows for fast, secure, and transparent peer-to-peer transfer of digital goods that include money and intellectual property. In crypto coin mining and investing, it's an important topic to understand. One of the most talked about and misunderstood topics in recent times, blockchain technology is completely overhauling the way digital transactions are conducted and could eventually change the way several industries conduct their daily business. Two words that have rapidly become part of the mainstream vernacular are bitcoin and blockchain. While they are related, these terms refer to two different things. Bitcoin is a form of virtual currency, more commonlyknown as cryptocurrency, which is decentralized and allows users to exchange money without the need for a third-party. All bitcoin transactions are logged and made available in a public ledger to ensure their authenticity and prevent fraud. The underlying technology that facilitatesthesetransactions and eliminates the need for an intermediary is the blockchain. One of blockchain's main benefits lies in its transparency, as the ledger functions as a living, breathing chronicle of all peer-to-peer transactions that occur. Each time a transaction takes place, such as when onepartysends bitcoin directly to another, the details of that deal — including its source, destination, and timestamp — are added to a block. The block contains the transaction along with other similar types of transactions that have occurred recently. In the case of bitcoin transactions, the recent transactions are for the previous 10 minutes or so. Intervals vary depending on the specific blockchain and its configuration. The validity of the transactions within the cryptographically protected block is then checked and confirmed by the collective computing power of miners within the network in question. On an individual basis, miners are computers thatare configured to use their GPU or CPU cycles to solve complex mathematical problems, passing the block's data through a hashing algorithm until a solution is found. When the problems are solved, the block and all of its respective transactions are verified as legitimate.Rewards — bitcoinor some other currency — are then divvied up among the computer or computers that contributed to the successful hash. When the transactions within a block are deemed valid,they are attached to the most recently verified block in the chain, creating a sequential ledger which is viewable by anyone. This process continues in perpetuity, expanding on the blockchain's contents and providing a public recordthatcan be trusted. In addition to being constantlyupdated,thechain and all of its blocks are distributed across the network to a large number of machines. This ensures that the latest version of this decentralized ledger exists virtually everywhere, making it almost impossible to forge. 2. LITERATURE SURVEY [1] Secure Physical Layer Voting, by Bocan Hu,Yan Zhang,Nirnimesh Ghose and Loukas Lazos Distributed wireless networks perform critical network functions such as fault-tolerant data fusion, cooperative sensing, and reaching consensus in voting system. They use
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2510 fusion centre for sending messages which is less secure and a slow process. [2] Extreme automation is the latest initiative to have emerged from several “hands-free”. Innovations like autonomous Ships and submarines, autonomous passenger aircraft, drone freight delivery, autonomous robotic surgery, automated knowledge discovery while the healthcare industry will need to adapt to the changing care delivery model as it will save many billions of dollars. [3] A large portion of the population in the developing world can benefit from blockchain technologies. It can be argued that in many ways, blockchain has a much higher value proposition for the developing world than for the developed world but people suffer from inefficiency, fraud, and gross misallocations of resources. [4] Blockchain is a technology that uses community validation to keep synchronized the content of ledgers replicated across multiple users. Although blockchain derives its originsfromtechnologiesintroduceddecades ago, it has gained popularity with Bitcoin. Bitcoin’s blockchain is a decentralized peer-validated time- stamped ledger that chronologically registers all valid transactions. It is a slow operation with limited governance. [5] Blockchain and the Internet of Things (IoT) are key technologies that will have a huge impact in the next 10 years for companies intheindustrial market.Thisarticle describes how these two technologies will improve efficiencies, provide new business opportunities, address regulatory requirements, and improve transparency and visibility. Third-party repair partners could monitor the blockchain for preventive maintenance and record their work on the blockchain. 3. EXISTING SYSTEM Voting is done by people through voting booth or via post. However, the delay overhead of voting can be prohibitive when numerous participants have to share the post in sequence, making it impracticalfortime-criticalapplications. The vote counting had major issues like corruptionandslow progress 3.1 Disadvantages  Slow process  More possibilities for Corruption  Low security 4. PROPOSED SYSTEM We propose a fast and secure Blockchain voting scheme called Blockchain Voting System BVS, which significantly reduces the delay for collecting and tallying votes. In BVS, Voters transmit their votes simultaneously by exploiting the blocks in online. Votes are realized by injecting energy to pre-assigned blocks. We show that BVS is secure against hackers and third parties, that attempt to manipulate the voting outcome. Security is achieved by employing cryptography-based authentication and message integrity schemes. 4.1 Advantages  Blockchain give more security in decentralised network.  Results comes transparently and simultaneously.  Hacking possibility is very low against the Blockchain and cryptography. 4.2 System Architecture Fig -1:System Architecture 4.3 System Modules Block chain The blockchain is an incorruptible digital ledgerof economic transactions that can be programmed to record not just financial transactions but virtually everything of value. “Picture a spread sheet that is duplicated thousandsoftimes across a network of computers. Then imagine that this network is designed to regularly update this spreadsheet and you have a basic understanding of the blockchain. Information held on a blockchain exists as a shared — and continually reconciled — database. This is a wayofusingthe network that has obvious benefits. The blockchain database isn’t stored in any single location, meaning the records it keeps are truly public and easily verifiable. No centralized version of this information exists for a hacker to corrupt. Hosted by millions of computers simultaneously, its data is accessible to anyone on the internet. Identity Management Identity management (ID management) is a broad administrative area that deals with identifyingindividuals in a system (such as a country, a network,oran enterprise) and controlling their access to resources within that system by associating user rights and restrictions with the established
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2511 identity. Identity management (IdM) is the task of controlling information about users on computers. Such information includes information that authenticates the identity of a user, and information that describes information and actions they are authorized to access and/or perform. It also includes the management of descriptive information about the user and how and by whom that information can be accessed and modified. Managed entities typically include users, hardware and network resources and even applications. Online Voting System The Online Voting process is in need of a standard and secure electronic system that voters can rely on and have trust in. Currently, each state implementsitsownprocessfor voting; the lack of consistency between polls results in numerous problems.Variousmodelshavebeendevelopedto address the issues ofsecurity,privacy,validation,andquality control. However, these models do not meet all of the requirements needed for a good system. Exploring online voting from a systems perspective can demonstrate the commonalities of the current systems and the possible Algorithm Used SHA-256 Overview SHA-256 operates in the manner of MD4,MD5 and SHA- 1.The message is to be hashed first. [1] Padded with its length in such a way that the result is multiple of 512 bits long [2] Then parsed into 512-bit message blocks M1 ,M2,M3,………,Mn The message blocks are processed one at a time:Beginning with a fixed initial hash value H(0),sequentially compute Hi=H(i-1)+CM (i)(H(i-1)), Where C is the SHA-256compressionfunctionand+ means word wise mod 232 addition.H(N) Is the hash of M. Steps Step 1: Pad the message in the usual way.i.e.Append the bit “1” to the end of the message ,and then k zero bits,where k is the smallest non-negative solution to the equation l+1+k=448mod512.Tothis append 64-bit block which is equal to the number l written in binary. Step 2:Parse the message into N 512-bit blocks M1,M2,M3,……Mn.The first 32 bits of message block I are denoted M0 i,the next 32 bits are M1 i,and so on upto M15 i.We use the big-endian convention throughout,so withineach32-bitword,theleft-most bit is stored in the most significant bit position. Step 3:The hash computation proceeds as follows: For i=1 to N (N=number of blocks in padded message) {  Initialize registers with(i-1)st intermediate hash value.  Apply the SHA-256 compression function to update registers.  Compute the ith intermediate hash valueHi. H1 i=a+H1 i-1 . . . H8 i=h+H8 i-1 HN=H1 N,H2 N,….,H8 N is the hash of M. 5. IMPLEMENTATION RESULTS Fig -2: Home Page Fig -3: Government Login Fig -4: Candidate Register
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2512 Fig -5: Candidate List 6. CONCLUSION Our Online-Voting System is secure because user can only vote by entering CNIC. No other information is shown to the user on the polling interface. On the other hand ADMIN has the only rights to check and count all votesandannouncethe final result. Although there are many voting apps for this purpose but their security level is not up to that mark. REFERENCES [1] I. F. Akyildiz, B. F. Lo, and R. Balakrishnan. Cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks: A survey. Physical Comm., 4(1):40– 62, 2011. [2] N. Al-Nakhala, R. Riley, and T. Elfouly. Distributed algorithms in wireless sensor networks: an approach for applying binary consensus in a real testbed. Comp. Nets., 2015. [3] J. G. Andrews, A. Ghosh, and R. Muhamed. FundamentalsofWiMAX:understandingbroadband wireless networking. Pearson Education, 2007. [4] D. Barbara and H. Garcia-Molina. The reliability of voting mechanisms. IEEE Trans. Computers, 36(10):1197–1208, 1987. [5] M. Barborak, A. Dahbura, and M. Malek. The consensus problem in fault-tolerant computing. ACM Comp. Surveys, 25(2):171–220, 1993. [6] D. Bharadia, E. McMilin, and S. Katti. Full duplex radios. In Proc. of the SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, pages 375–386. ACM, 2013. [7] S. Capkun, M. Cagalj, R. Rengaswamy, I. Tsigkogiannis, J.-P. Hubaux, and M. Srivastava. Integrity codes: Message integrity protection and authentication over insecure channels. Dependable and Secure Computing, IEEE Transactions on, 5(4):208–223, 2008. [8] D. V. Dimarogonas, E. Frazzoli, and K. H. Johansson. Distributed eventtriggered control for multi-agent systems. IEEE Trans. on Aut. Cntrl., 57(5):1291– 1297, 2012. [9] A . Dutta, D. Saha, D. Grunwald and D.Sicker. SMACK: aSMARTACKnowledgement scheme for broadcast messages in wireless networks.ACM SIGCOMM Comp.Comm.Rev.,39(4):15-26,2009.