Green Concrete- A need for the future

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Green Concrete- A need for the future
Sneha J P1, Rakshaa V2
1,2 B. Tech Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Vellore Institute Of Technology, Chennai, India
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Abstract - Concrete has been themostpopularconstruction
material and it is the second most devoured entityafterwater.
Though concrete has contributed much to our built
environment, it has a massive carbon footprint and consumes
huge amount of non-renewable resourceswhichtakesatoll on
our environment. The conventional cement contributes about
8-10% of world’s total CO2 emissions, and the non-renewable
resources are almost exhausted. The optimal solution to
mitigate this effect and to attain sustainable development is
‘Green Concrete’. Green concrete is the green innovation that
uses renewable resources and other substitutes thatemitsless
co2. This paper will give us a brief description about green
concrete along with its merits and demerits.
Key Words: Green concrete, Conventional cement,
Carbon footprint, Recycled aggregate.
1. INTRODUCTION
The world is facing multiple challenges every minute,
climatic change is the predominant one. Over the past
century, the surface temperature of the earth has increased
at a rate of 0.60C/century. This is due to the emission of
greenhouse gaseslikecarbondioxide,methane, etc.Concrete
was found to contribute a significant amount of these gases
into the atmosphere.Constructionsectorcontributesa major
part in economically developing nations. This industry uses
concrete at large amount as it is the most dominant building
material. Concrete consists of cement, natural aggregates
and water. Cement is the prominent ingredient in concrete,
during the manufacturingstageofcement,fewrawmaterials
like limestone, clay are crumbled and heated at a
temperature of 15000C, and this leads to the emission of CO2
at large amount [1]. Also natural resources are getting
exhausted at an alarming rate. Likewise, this industry
produces a large amount of wastes.
Construction and demolition wastes are produced around 2
to 3 billion tons/year in which 30-40% of wastes consist of
concrete [2]. The majority of the wastes are simply dumped
in the landfills whereas onlya small percentageofwastes are
recycled or reused. As each day passes by, it is difficult to
find the perfect area to dump all the wastes. It is necessary
to find a way to dispose the wastes and make use of the
potential ones.
The predominant way for a sustainable development is to
find an alternative: Green concrete. Green concrete was
invented in Denmark in 1998 by Dr WG. Greenconcreteuses
waste material as its constituents in its production process
that leads to zero depredation. It is possible to achieve
sustainable developmentthroughgreenconcrete.Itcontains
3Rs (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) in its technology. Studies
show that green concrete emits 80% less CO2 than that of
normal concrete. Green concrete uses renewable resources
as its components, hence depleting of fossil fuels is also
controlled.
2. OBJECTIVES OF GREEN CONCRETE
The key objectives of green concrete is to
 Lower the emission of greenhouse gases like CO2,
methane.
 Reduce the energy consumption in its
manufacturing, utilization and disposal processes.
 Reduce the usage of non-renewable resources and
to use renewable resources to the maximumextent.
 Use the construction and other suitable wastes as
replacement materials for cement and aggregates.
 Counterpart the physical and mechanical properties
of the conventional concrete.
3. SCOPE IN INDIA
Construction industry plays a major role in India’s economic
development. India with a population of 1 billion people
requires more built-up structures like buildings, roadways,
bridges. At present cement still remains as the main
constituent of the concrete and the conventional concrete is
used in large amount, which leads to a number of harmful
effects on the environment. The construction waste
generated during the process poses great threat to the
environment. In order to establish new structures, old and
damaged buildings are demolished. There are no proper
guidelines to dispose these wastes. The imperative solution
to all these issues is Green concrete. Inadequate technology,
lack of researches and poor awareness leads to minimal use
of green concrete in India. If proper guidelines werecreated,
green concrete would become an active material in India in
the mere future.
4. ADVANTAGES /SUITABILITY OF GREEN
CONCRETE IN STRUCTURES
a) Using eco-friendly concrete in fresh phase has many
advantages such as it improves the flow of matter in themix,
making the concretereadyto pump,workabilityandabsence
of cold joints.
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b) On the other hand, using Green concrete in hardened
phase also has benefits such as the cover quality used for
reinforcement is improved, corrosion can be highly reduced
by shielding the penetration of chloride ions into concrete,
Alkali-Silica reaction can be sheltered, and due tolowerheat
of hydration thermal cracks will be dwindled.
c) It cuts down the dead weight of the façade from 4535 kg
to approximately 3175 kg [31].
d) Green concrete has good heat and fire resistance
compared to conventional concrete.
e) Overall construction time is decreased and it improves
damping properties of the building.
f) It assists the country in energy conservationbydecreasing
the emission of CO2 and by creatinganenvironmentfriendly
atmosphere. If green concrete is used, then the disposing of
waste in the ground will be reduced, thus reducing the risks
to the environment and clearing many hectares of land used
for disposal.
5. TYPES OF GREEN CONCRETE
5.1 Fly ash concrete
Fly ash is a by-product of coal power plants. Heating of
pulverized coal emits 80% fly ash. Fly ash particles are
smooth and spherical in shape. Grey to black indicates the
increase in the percentage of CO2 in the fly ash particles. Fly
ash is an industrial waste capable of polluting air and water.
It lowers the yield of agricultural crops/leaves when it
settles on them. Fly ash can be used as a replacement
material in concrete [3]. Flyashisa pozzolan,whichcontains
aluminium and siliceous material that forms cementwhenit
is mixed with water. On the other hand, When the Fly ash is
mixed with Ca(OH)2 and H2O, a compound similar to
Portland cement is formed. Fly ash can be used in 2 ways, by
blending it with cement clinker and gypsum during the
process of manufacturing of Ordinary Portland Cement
(OPC) or by adding it to OPC in construction site. In 1980,
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
developed the standards for using Fly ash in concrete. Fly
ash is classified into 3 classes – N, F and C [4] based on the
chemical composition.
Generally, fly ash is used in minimal amounts (15-20% of
cementitious material) in concrete.Itisalsofoundthatwhen
fly ash is used in fewer amounts, the resultant concrete has
good durability and workability. The rate of substitution
specified is 0.45 to 0.68 kg of fly ash to 0.45kg of cement. For
high sulphate resistance, 25-35% of fly ash isused[5].When
more than 50% fly ash is used, the concreteisknownasHigh
Volume Fly Ash Concrete (HVFAC). Chemical activators and
Super Plasticizers (SP) are required when fly ash is used in
larger amounts.
HVFAC performs better at a later stage, its strength and
other properties are enhanced at later stages. Resistance
towards corrosion is higher when comparedtoconventional
concrete. HVFAC is a futuristic material. HVFAC can be used
in mat foundations, retaining walls, road pavements, dam
structures, L columns and walls. There are certain
limitations in using HVFAC, It cannotbeusedincoldweather
concreting and it acquires strength slowly during the early
stage.
Smaller buildersandhousingcontractorsareunfamiliarwith
fly ash concrete and it is difficult for them to replace the
standard concrete.
5.2 Geopolymer concrete
Geopolymer concreteisaninorganicpolymerthatconsistsof
alkali activated Alumino Silicates (SiO2, Al2O3) and
industrial wastes. The polymerization process contains a
chemical reaction that takes place under a highly alkaline
medium in which Al-Si minerals produce polymeric Si-O-Al-
O bonds. When compared to the conventional concrete, it
emits 80% less CO2 [6]. Curing time of Geopolymer is less
than PC. Geopolymer has high Resistance to fire and
corrosion. The tensile and compressive strength of this
concrete is comparativelyhigherthanthestandardconcrete.
Reaction between the chemical compounds plays a major
role during the production process of Geopolymer concrete.
It is necessary to understand the alkali-activatedtechnology
for the production of this concrete. Strength of Geopolymer
concrete depends upon the molarities of the alkaline liquid
(NaOH or KOH) and ratios of SiO2and Na2O, H2O and Na2O,
Si and Al, water to Geopolymer solids by mass in the total
alkaline solution [40].
The compressive strength of drycuredGeopolymerconcrete
is found to be 15% more than the steam cured Geopolymer
concrete. Geopolymer concrete has excellent properties as
discussed earlier so it can be very useful for rehabilitation
and retrofitting works. Lack of technology and researches
related to this area is the major obstacle that restraints
countries from using the Geopolymer concrete.
5.3 Recycled aggregate concrete
Construction waste constitutesa largefractionofsolidwaste
disposal problem. 48 million tons of solid wastes are
annually produced in which 25% is contributed by the
construction industry. Concrete debris and construction
wastes can be used as an aggregate in the new concrete [7].
Demolished concrete can be made into specific size and
quality for reuse purposes. Before using the recycled
aggregate, it is necessary to first treat them to remove the
impurities on the surface. USA, Australia and Japan are the
countries that use Recycled Aggregate Concrete (RAC)
frequently. China, Germany and Japan published standards
for the use of recycled aggregate concrete.Manyresearchers
claimed that the RA has low workability and compressive
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strength. Recycled aggregates are finer than the natural
aggregates and have low specific gravity.Thesmoothtexture
of the aggregates, round shape, and high water absorption
are the main reasons for this drawback.
One researcher proved that if the recycled aggregate with a
rough surface and angular shape is used in concrete, it leads
to increase in compressivestrengthofthenewconcrete. This
is because the rough surface and the angular shape increase
the bond strength between the aggregates and the other
constituents in the concrete. RA is oven dried to achieve this
property (Poon CS 2004).
RAC has been used since World War II (for stabilizing the
base in the construction of roadways). RA has high water-
cement ratio when compared to the normal cement. RA can
only be used in certain limit replacing the natural aggregate.
If it is used in larger amounts, the compressive strength of
the resulting concrete will be affected. Properties of the new
concrete depend upon the properties of the parentconcrete.
6. REPLACEMENT MATERIALS USED IN GREEN
CONCRETE
6.1 Silica fume and fly ash
Researchers conducted experiments using fly ash and silica
fume with fractional replacement of cement and fine
aggregate. A M40 grade concrete was cast as a cube, beam,
and cylinder. After casting those for 7 and 28 days with
different water-cement ratio the final ratio was opted as 0.4
[25]. Then mix design for partially replaced sample was
designed. Then again the cubes, beam, cylinder werecastfor
7 days and 28 days (Here 7 days and 28 days are curing
period time). Replacement of the cement and fine aggregate
with the silica fume and fly ash, respectively with different
percentages were done.
From the obtained result, they concluded that with a 15%
substitution the result was good, although much lower than
normal cubes strength, but with the increase in the time the
strength of cubes also increased [25]. In addition, the
chloride resistance of concrete is also upgraded.
6.2 Quarry rock dust and marble sludge powder
Quarry rock dust can replace natural sand by 100%.It is
known as manufactured sand (m-sand). It has zero silt and
impurities. Quarry rock dust used for concrete must be
completely inorganic; it should not contain any organic
impurities. Quarry rock dust is obtained after extractionand
treating of rocks. Quarry rock dust particles with size less
than 4.75mm are used in green concrete [8]. Studies have
proven that the concrete that contains quarry rock dust has
more compressive strength than the standard (about 14%).
When quarry rock dust is used below 50% by volume, the
resultant concrete has less permeability and high water
absorption. They are used as surface finisher, and in hollow
blocks, and lightweight concrete prefabricated elements.
Marble sludge powder is an manufacturing waste that
contains heavyweight metals. The marble sludge powder is
used as a fine aggregate that has high CaO content. It is
initially obtained in the wet form from marble factories and
then dried up. It is used as a filler, to fill void content in the
concrete. The resultant concretehasmorecompressive,split
tensile strength and durability than the normal concrete
(about 14%) [9].
TheSiO2 present in the marble powder reactswithCa(OH)2
present on the concrete to form secondary calcium silicate
hydrates which makes it stable, structurally dense and
increases the impermeability of concrete. Also the sulphate
resistance of concrete has been increased since calcium
aluminates in the cementitious material are reduced.
The collective use of marble sludge powder and quarry rock
dust as substitutes exhibits brilliant performance due to
efficient micro filling ability and pozzolanic activity. If the
volume of these substitutes exceeds 50%, the compressive
and split tensile strength decreases [10].
6.3 Glass as a cementitious material
When glass a non-decomposer is turned into waste it is
disposed as landfills, which create a problem to the
environment.
Glass is primarily made of silica. Waste glass is crushed
down to micro size particles; they are exposed to pozzolanic
activity with hydrate products resulting in calcium silicate
hydrate (C–S–H).
A laboratory examination was carried out to find the pros
and cons of LCD glass in concrete. Cement was substituted
with LCD waste by 10% to 50% in rates. In addition, glass
sand was considered rather than natural sand by rates of
10% to 30%. Experimental outcomesprojectedthattheglass
enhances the compressive strength of the cement.
Furthermore, cement containing glass improves concrete
structures by age [26]. The advantage of glass in concrete is
that the use of cement and sand is reduced, which helps in
conserving the natural resources and carbon emissions is
also highly decreased.
Aesthetic appeal of concrete will beenhancedwhenrecycled
glass is used as an aggregate.
Powdered glass could be utilized as a cement substitution
material of size beneath 75µm to avert concrete cancer aka
Alkali-silica reaction [28].
The percentage of replacement is a key factor; the flexural
and tensile strength will decrease if 30% of glass waste is
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added as an aggregate when compared to normal concrete
(Seung Bum Park and Bong Chum Lee, 2004).
Glass debris in the form of a cylinder averts the spread of
cracks in concrete structures.
Few merits of using glass in concrete are it is economic, and
it provides additional strength when it is in powdered form.
Demerits are:
 When powdered glass size decreases, the strength
of concrete increases, but below the 50-micronsize,
glass powder affects the strength of the concrete
[37].
 Converting glass into its powder is a challenging
task for this process machines and manpower are
required.
 While converting glass into its powdered form the
workers should be careful as it can affect eyes,
hands and even the respiration system.
6.4 Glass powder and silica fume
Silica Fume is a pozzolanic material, and it upgrades the
concrete’s durability by filling the voids of cement particle
and enhances the strength of concrete by reacting with
slaked lime which is obtained during the process of
hydration of cement.
Experimental investigation was conducted in two phases to
determine the measurement. PHASE-I contains different
concentrations of glass powder and silica fume. The PHASE-
II comprises of a fixed proportion of glass powder with
varying percentage of silica fume. It can be observed that
when silica fume and glass powder are used in certain
percentages they exhibit more compressive strength than
the control concrete in Phase I & Phase II and with further
increase in Silica Fume the strength decreases.
It is then concluded that flexural strength has a 100%
increase compared to normal 28-day concrete and 27%
more than 56-day concrete. The split tensile strength has a
rise of 35% when compared to conventional concrete for 56
days [29].
The glass powder should be finely ground to less than 75µm
in order to avoid the use of the mineral admixture. Concrete
containing powdered glass has more benefits than normal
concrete, which includes the increment of compressive,
tensile and flexural strength.
6.5 Rice hush ash
Husk is a by-product of rice milling. The husk consists of
75% volatile matter and 25% ash. The ash produced during
the firing procedure is known as rice husk ash (RHA).RHAis
also known as silpozz and consists of amorphous silica (85-
90%). One of the best reason to replace cement, Closer the
Chemical Composition of substitute tothecement,betterthe
replacement. When RHA is in the range of 20-25 microns, it
increases the compressive strength by 10-20%, decreases
the heat of hydration by 30%, and decreases the water
penetration by 60% [11]. Sulphate resistance decreases
when the volume of RHA increases in the concrete. It is
advisable to use RHA in smaller amountsasa replacement to
cement.
6.6 Carbon nanotubes
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are summarized as the
arrangement of carbon atoms in hexagonal arrayingraphite
sheet rolls. This arrangement of atoms is of key importance
in denoting the mechanical properties of the nanotubes.
CNTs improve the features of the concrete and steel which
helps in endorsing the mechanical properties for a good
building material. The CNTs canbeeighttimesmore efficient
than copper in conductivity [1]. CNTs can be used as a
sensing concrete as it possess a currentdensityattainable by
any conventional metal-wire.Crack resistantconcretewhich
is durable is feasible if the distribution of the CNT in
concrete is uniform and a strong bond should be exhibited.
Yu, Kwon and Han [1] conducted an experiment to find the
strength of 10 and 20 micrometre CNTs in cements.
Experimental outcomes indicate that compressive and
flexural strength is higher in cement composites which have
CNTs than the conventional cement particularly at 7 and 28
days. It is also observed via scanning electron microscope
that CNTs fill the voids in composites. Outcomes conclude
that the electrical resistivity is directly proportional to the
compressive stress of the cementitious composite.
It could be easily assumed that the distribution of CNTs in a
cement concrete mix would increase the overall strength of
concrete (since the interlock between aggregates and the
binder is made stronger after adding CNTs to the mix). In
contrast to macro or microfibers, CNTs interrupt the
creation of cracks at the Nano-level and inhibit their growth
and spread to the micro-stage.
For example, if CNT reinforcement is made along with
traditional steel reinforcement, and given that the concrete
will not crack under the designed load, then we are talking
about almost no corrosion to steel.
After reinforcing concrete with CNTs, an exceptional
characteristic in the hardened concrete was detected:
piezoresistivity [38]. This featuremeansthatCNTreinforced
concretes possess an electric resistance to some extent, to
the compressive load applied on them.
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Few applications of CNTs-ReinforcedConcretearetheyhave
been successfully utilized as self-sensing materials, in order
to thoroughly monitor the health of structural membersand
measuring stresses in concrete under load, to detect
unnoticeable flaws in concrete, and identifying vehicle flow
in roads and highways [47].
6.7 Coconut shell
Coconut shell is a lightweight aggregate. Dried coconut shell
can be utilized as coarse aggregate in concrete in partial
amounts.
As per the experiment conducted by research scholars, they
determined that the strength of the concrete is inversely
proportional to amount of coconut shell replaced. As the
number of coconut shell rises, the surface area also
upsurges; therefore additional cements are needed to bond.
Meanwhile the percentage of cement should be same, hence
there can be no further bonding and thus strength is
diminished.
If coconut shell replacement percentage increases,
workability of concrete also increases [43]. Compared to
crushed granite, coconut shell shows greater abrasion
resistance.
7. POTENTIAL BARRIER TO USE GREEN CONCRETE
(a) The mind-set of the consumer who is afraid totakea new
innovative step.
(b) The industries are reluctant to follow a new method for
production of concrete. The fast-growing and established
concrete industries need to change due to environmental
problems which are majorly caused by concrete
construction, defining, manufacturing, transport, printing,
demolition, and recycling.
(c) Out-dated building codes don’t explain about the green
materials so a new code should be established considering
the recycled materials.
(d) Buildings made of green concrete have comparatively
less mechanical strength to normal concrete when an
uncertain amount is used.
(e)Water absorption is high in particular substituteproduct.
(f) Shrinkage value of green concrete is higher than the
normal concrete in some casesorwhenanuncertainamount
is used.
8. CONCLUSION
It is significant to note that the amountofwaste replacement
plays an important role in deciding the final properties of
concrete. Moreover the substituting product should be
selected in such a way it attains the properties of concrete.
Concrete containing green cement or aggregates had
improved mechanical and durability properties. It was
clinched that sorptivity rates for few green concrete was
decreasing, this implies that Green concrete requires less
water content compared to the standard concrete. Green
concrete is cost effective and eco-friendly. Utilizing green
concrete helps in reducing the extraction of river sand.
Furthermore, carbon emissions that are generated during
the manufacturing process ofcement,crushingofaggregates
and other similar processes can be reduced. Green concrete
has a wide range of applications. It can be utilized in both
structural and non-structural aspects considering their rate
of strength. Henceforth it can be concluded that green
concrete helps in the advancement of a sustainable
environment by minimizing the carbon emission rate and
the waste disposal rate.
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Volume: 09 Issue: 06 | Jun 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2975
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Green Concrete- A need for the future

  • 1. © 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2969 Green Concrete- A need for the future Sneha J P1, Rakshaa V2 1,2 B. Tech Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Vellore Institute Of Technology, Chennai, India ---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - Concrete has been themostpopularconstruction material and it is the second most devoured entityafterwater. Though concrete has contributed much to our built environment, it has a massive carbon footprint and consumes huge amount of non-renewable resourceswhichtakesatoll on our environment. The conventional cement contributes about 8-10% of world’s total CO2 emissions, and the non-renewable resources are almost exhausted. The optimal solution to mitigate this effect and to attain sustainable development is ‘Green Concrete’. Green concrete is the green innovation that uses renewable resources and other substitutes thatemitsless co2. This paper will give us a brief description about green concrete along with its merits and demerits. Key Words: Green concrete, Conventional cement, Carbon footprint, Recycled aggregate. 1. INTRODUCTION The world is facing multiple challenges every minute, climatic change is the predominant one. Over the past century, the surface temperature of the earth has increased at a rate of 0.60C/century. This is due to the emission of greenhouse gaseslikecarbondioxide,methane, etc.Concrete was found to contribute a significant amount of these gases into the atmosphere.Constructionsectorcontributesa major part in economically developing nations. This industry uses concrete at large amount as it is the most dominant building material. Concrete consists of cement, natural aggregates and water. Cement is the prominent ingredient in concrete, during the manufacturingstageofcement,fewrawmaterials like limestone, clay are crumbled and heated at a temperature of 15000C, and this leads to the emission of CO2 at large amount [1]. Also natural resources are getting exhausted at an alarming rate. Likewise, this industry produces a large amount of wastes. Construction and demolition wastes are produced around 2 to 3 billion tons/year in which 30-40% of wastes consist of concrete [2]. The majority of the wastes are simply dumped in the landfills whereas onlya small percentageofwastes are recycled or reused. As each day passes by, it is difficult to find the perfect area to dump all the wastes. It is necessary to find a way to dispose the wastes and make use of the potential ones. The predominant way for a sustainable development is to find an alternative: Green concrete. Green concrete was invented in Denmark in 1998 by Dr WG. Greenconcreteuses waste material as its constituents in its production process that leads to zero depredation. It is possible to achieve sustainable developmentthroughgreenconcrete.Itcontains 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) in its technology. Studies show that green concrete emits 80% less CO2 than that of normal concrete. Green concrete uses renewable resources as its components, hence depleting of fossil fuels is also controlled. 2. OBJECTIVES OF GREEN CONCRETE The key objectives of green concrete is to  Lower the emission of greenhouse gases like CO2, methane.  Reduce the energy consumption in its manufacturing, utilization and disposal processes.  Reduce the usage of non-renewable resources and to use renewable resources to the maximumextent.  Use the construction and other suitable wastes as replacement materials for cement and aggregates.  Counterpart the physical and mechanical properties of the conventional concrete. 3. SCOPE IN INDIA Construction industry plays a major role in India’s economic development. India with a population of 1 billion people requires more built-up structures like buildings, roadways, bridges. At present cement still remains as the main constituent of the concrete and the conventional concrete is used in large amount, which leads to a number of harmful effects on the environment. The construction waste generated during the process poses great threat to the environment. In order to establish new structures, old and damaged buildings are demolished. There are no proper guidelines to dispose these wastes. The imperative solution to all these issues is Green concrete. Inadequate technology, lack of researches and poor awareness leads to minimal use of green concrete in India. If proper guidelines werecreated, green concrete would become an active material in India in the mere future. 4. ADVANTAGES /SUITABILITY OF GREEN CONCRETE IN STRUCTURES a) Using eco-friendly concrete in fresh phase has many advantages such as it improves the flow of matter in themix, making the concretereadyto pump,workabilityandabsence of cold joints. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 09 Issue: 06 | Jun 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 09 Issue: 06 | Jun 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2970 b) On the other hand, using Green concrete in hardened phase also has benefits such as the cover quality used for reinforcement is improved, corrosion can be highly reduced by shielding the penetration of chloride ions into concrete, Alkali-Silica reaction can be sheltered, and due tolowerheat of hydration thermal cracks will be dwindled. c) It cuts down the dead weight of the façade from 4535 kg to approximately 3175 kg [31]. d) Green concrete has good heat and fire resistance compared to conventional concrete. e) Overall construction time is decreased and it improves damping properties of the building. f) It assists the country in energy conservationbydecreasing the emission of CO2 and by creatinganenvironmentfriendly atmosphere. If green concrete is used, then the disposing of waste in the ground will be reduced, thus reducing the risks to the environment and clearing many hectares of land used for disposal. 5. TYPES OF GREEN CONCRETE 5.1 Fly ash concrete Fly ash is a by-product of coal power plants. Heating of pulverized coal emits 80% fly ash. Fly ash particles are smooth and spherical in shape. Grey to black indicates the increase in the percentage of CO2 in the fly ash particles. Fly ash is an industrial waste capable of polluting air and water. It lowers the yield of agricultural crops/leaves when it settles on them. Fly ash can be used as a replacement material in concrete [3]. Flyashisa pozzolan,whichcontains aluminium and siliceous material that forms cementwhenit is mixed with water. On the other hand, When the Fly ash is mixed with Ca(OH)2 and H2O, a compound similar to Portland cement is formed. Fly ash can be used in 2 ways, by blending it with cement clinker and gypsum during the process of manufacturing of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) or by adding it to OPC in construction site. In 1980, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) developed the standards for using Fly ash in concrete. Fly ash is classified into 3 classes – N, F and C [4] based on the chemical composition. Generally, fly ash is used in minimal amounts (15-20% of cementitious material) in concrete.Itisalsofoundthatwhen fly ash is used in fewer amounts, the resultant concrete has good durability and workability. The rate of substitution specified is 0.45 to 0.68 kg of fly ash to 0.45kg of cement. For high sulphate resistance, 25-35% of fly ash isused[5].When more than 50% fly ash is used, the concreteisknownasHigh Volume Fly Ash Concrete (HVFAC). Chemical activators and Super Plasticizers (SP) are required when fly ash is used in larger amounts. HVFAC performs better at a later stage, its strength and other properties are enhanced at later stages. Resistance towards corrosion is higher when comparedtoconventional concrete. HVFAC is a futuristic material. HVFAC can be used in mat foundations, retaining walls, road pavements, dam structures, L columns and walls. There are certain limitations in using HVFAC, It cannotbeusedincoldweather concreting and it acquires strength slowly during the early stage. Smaller buildersandhousingcontractorsareunfamiliarwith fly ash concrete and it is difficult for them to replace the standard concrete. 5.2 Geopolymer concrete Geopolymer concreteisaninorganicpolymerthatconsistsof alkali activated Alumino Silicates (SiO2, Al2O3) and industrial wastes. The polymerization process contains a chemical reaction that takes place under a highly alkaline medium in which Al-Si minerals produce polymeric Si-O-Al- O bonds. When compared to the conventional concrete, it emits 80% less CO2 [6]. Curing time of Geopolymer is less than PC. Geopolymer has high Resistance to fire and corrosion. The tensile and compressive strength of this concrete is comparativelyhigherthanthestandardconcrete. Reaction between the chemical compounds plays a major role during the production process of Geopolymer concrete. It is necessary to understand the alkali-activatedtechnology for the production of this concrete. Strength of Geopolymer concrete depends upon the molarities of the alkaline liquid (NaOH or KOH) and ratios of SiO2and Na2O, H2O and Na2O, Si and Al, water to Geopolymer solids by mass in the total alkaline solution [40]. The compressive strength of drycuredGeopolymerconcrete is found to be 15% more than the steam cured Geopolymer concrete. Geopolymer concrete has excellent properties as discussed earlier so it can be very useful for rehabilitation and retrofitting works. Lack of technology and researches related to this area is the major obstacle that restraints countries from using the Geopolymer concrete. 5.3 Recycled aggregate concrete Construction waste constitutesa largefractionofsolidwaste disposal problem. 48 million tons of solid wastes are annually produced in which 25% is contributed by the construction industry. Concrete debris and construction wastes can be used as an aggregate in the new concrete [7]. Demolished concrete can be made into specific size and quality for reuse purposes. Before using the recycled aggregate, it is necessary to first treat them to remove the impurities on the surface. USA, Australia and Japan are the countries that use Recycled Aggregate Concrete (RAC) frequently. China, Germany and Japan published standards for the use of recycled aggregate concrete.Manyresearchers claimed that the RA has low workability and compressive
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 09 Issue: 06 | Jun 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2971 strength. Recycled aggregates are finer than the natural aggregates and have low specific gravity.Thesmoothtexture of the aggregates, round shape, and high water absorption are the main reasons for this drawback. One researcher proved that if the recycled aggregate with a rough surface and angular shape is used in concrete, it leads to increase in compressivestrengthofthenewconcrete. This is because the rough surface and the angular shape increase the bond strength between the aggregates and the other constituents in the concrete. RA is oven dried to achieve this property (Poon CS 2004). RAC has been used since World War II (for stabilizing the base in the construction of roadways). RA has high water- cement ratio when compared to the normal cement. RA can only be used in certain limit replacing the natural aggregate. If it is used in larger amounts, the compressive strength of the resulting concrete will be affected. Properties of the new concrete depend upon the properties of the parentconcrete. 6. REPLACEMENT MATERIALS USED IN GREEN CONCRETE 6.1 Silica fume and fly ash Researchers conducted experiments using fly ash and silica fume with fractional replacement of cement and fine aggregate. A M40 grade concrete was cast as a cube, beam, and cylinder. After casting those for 7 and 28 days with different water-cement ratio the final ratio was opted as 0.4 [25]. Then mix design for partially replaced sample was designed. Then again the cubes, beam, cylinder werecastfor 7 days and 28 days (Here 7 days and 28 days are curing period time). Replacement of the cement and fine aggregate with the silica fume and fly ash, respectively with different percentages were done. From the obtained result, they concluded that with a 15% substitution the result was good, although much lower than normal cubes strength, but with the increase in the time the strength of cubes also increased [25]. In addition, the chloride resistance of concrete is also upgraded. 6.2 Quarry rock dust and marble sludge powder Quarry rock dust can replace natural sand by 100%.It is known as manufactured sand (m-sand). It has zero silt and impurities. Quarry rock dust used for concrete must be completely inorganic; it should not contain any organic impurities. Quarry rock dust is obtained after extractionand treating of rocks. Quarry rock dust particles with size less than 4.75mm are used in green concrete [8]. Studies have proven that the concrete that contains quarry rock dust has more compressive strength than the standard (about 14%). When quarry rock dust is used below 50% by volume, the resultant concrete has less permeability and high water absorption. They are used as surface finisher, and in hollow blocks, and lightweight concrete prefabricated elements. Marble sludge powder is an manufacturing waste that contains heavyweight metals. The marble sludge powder is used as a fine aggregate that has high CaO content. It is initially obtained in the wet form from marble factories and then dried up. It is used as a filler, to fill void content in the concrete. The resultant concretehasmorecompressive,split tensile strength and durability than the normal concrete (about 14%) [9]. TheSiO2 present in the marble powder reactswithCa(OH)2 present on the concrete to form secondary calcium silicate hydrates which makes it stable, structurally dense and increases the impermeability of concrete. Also the sulphate resistance of concrete has been increased since calcium aluminates in the cementitious material are reduced. The collective use of marble sludge powder and quarry rock dust as substitutes exhibits brilliant performance due to efficient micro filling ability and pozzolanic activity. If the volume of these substitutes exceeds 50%, the compressive and split tensile strength decreases [10]. 6.3 Glass as a cementitious material When glass a non-decomposer is turned into waste it is disposed as landfills, which create a problem to the environment. Glass is primarily made of silica. Waste glass is crushed down to micro size particles; they are exposed to pozzolanic activity with hydrate products resulting in calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). A laboratory examination was carried out to find the pros and cons of LCD glass in concrete. Cement was substituted with LCD waste by 10% to 50% in rates. In addition, glass sand was considered rather than natural sand by rates of 10% to 30%. Experimental outcomesprojectedthattheglass enhances the compressive strength of the cement. Furthermore, cement containing glass improves concrete structures by age [26]. The advantage of glass in concrete is that the use of cement and sand is reduced, which helps in conserving the natural resources and carbon emissions is also highly decreased. Aesthetic appeal of concrete will beenhancedwhenrecycled glass is used as an aggregate. Powdered glass could be utilized as a cement substitution material of size beneath 75µm to avert concrete cancer aka Alkali-silica reaction [28]. The percentage of replacement is a key factor; the flexural and tensile strength will decrease if 30% of glass waste is
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 09 Issue: 06 | Jun 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2972 added as an aggregate when compared to normal concrete (Seung Bum Park and Bong Chum Lee, 2004). Glass debris in the form of a cylinder averts the spread of cracks in concrete structures. Few merits of using glass in concrete are it is economic, and it provides additional strength when it is in powdered form. Demerits are:  When powdered glass size decreases, the strength of concrete increases, but below the 50-micronsize, glass powder affects the strength of the concrete [37].  Converting glass into its powder is a challenging task for this process machines and manpower are required.  While converting glass into its powdered form the workers should be careful as it can affect eyes, hands and even the respiration system. 6.4 Glass powder and silica fume Silica Fume is a pozzolanic material, and it upgrades the concrete’s durability by filling the voids of cement particle and enhances the strength of concrete by reacting with slaked lime which is obtained during the process of hydration of cement. Experimental investigation was conducted in two phases to determine the measurement. PHASE-I contains different concentrations of glass powder and silica fume. The PHASE- II comprises of a fixed proportion of glass powder with varying percentage of silica fume. It can be observed that when silica fume and glass powder are used in certain percentages they exhibit more compressive strength than the control concrete in Phase I & Phase II and with further increase in Silica Fume the strength decreases. It is then concluded that flexural strength has a 100% increase compared to normal 28-day concrete and 27% more than 56-day concrete. The split tensile strength has a rise of 35% when compared to conventional concrete for 56 days [29]. The glass powder should be finely ground to less than 75µm in order to avoid the use of the mineral admixture. Concrete containing powdered glass has more benefits than normal concrete, which includes the increment of compressive, tensile and flexural strength. 6.5 Rice hush ash Husk is a by-product of rice milling. The husk consists of 75% volatile matter and 25% ash. The ash produced during the firing procedure is known as rice husk ash (RHA).RHAis also known as silpozz and consists of amorphous silica (85- 90%). One of the best reason to replace cement, Closer the Chemical Composition of substitute tothecement,betterthe replacement. When RHA is in the range of 20-25 microns, it increases the compressive strength by 10-20%, decreases the heat of hydration by 30%, and decreases the water penetration by 60% [11]. Sulphate resistance decreases when the volume of RHA increases in the concrete. It is advisable to use RHA in smaller amountsasa replacement to cement. 6.6 Carbon nanotubes Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are summarized as the arrangement of carbon atoms in hexagonal arrayingraphite sheet rolls. This arrangement of atoms is of key importance in denoting the mechanical properties of the nanotubes. CNTs improve the features of the concrete and steel which helps in endorsing the mechanical properties for a good building material. The CNTs canbeeighttimesmore efficient than copper in conductivity [1]. CNTs can be used as a sensing concrete as it possess a currentdensityattainable by any conventional metal-wire.Crack resistantconcretewhich is durable is feasible if the distribution of the CNT in concrete is uniform and a strong bond should be exhibited. Yu, Kwon and Han [1] conducted an experiment to find the strength of 10 and 20 micrometre CNTs in cements. Experimental outcomes indicate that compressive and flexural strength is higher in cement composites which have CNTs than the conventional cement particularly at 7 and 28 days. It is also observed via scanning electron microscope that CNTs fill the voids in composites. Outcomes conclude that the electrical resistivity is directly proportional to the compressive stress of the cementitious composite. It could be easily assumed that the distribution of CNTs in a cement concrete mix would increase the overall strength of concrete (since the interlock between aggregates and the binder is made stronger after adding CNTs to the mix). In contrast to macro or microfibers, CNTs interrupt the creation of cracks at the Nano-level and inhibit their growth and spread to the micro-stage. For example, if CNT reinforcement is made along with traditional steel reinforcement, and given that the concrete will not crack under the designed load, then we are talking about almost no corrosion to steel. After reinforcing concrete with CNTs, an exceptional characteristic in the hardened concrete was detected: piezoresistivity [38]. This featuremeansthatCNTreinforced concretes possess an electric resistance to some extent, to the compressive load applied on them.
  • 5. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 09 Issue: 06 | Jun 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2973 Few applications of CNTs-ReinforcedConcretearetheyhave been successfully utilized as self-sensing materials, in order to thoroughly monitor the health of structural membersand measuring stresses in concrete under load, to detect unnoticeable flaws in concrete, and identifying vehicle flow in roads and highways [47]. 6.7 Coconut shell Coconut shell is a lightweight aggregate. Dried coconut shell can be utilized as coarse aggregate in concrete in partial amounts. As per the experiment conducted by research scholars, they determined that the strength of the concrete is inversely proportional to amount of coconut shell replaced. As the number of coconut shell rises, the surface area also upsurges; therefore additional cements are needed to bond. Meanwhile the percentage of cement should be same, hence there can be no further bonding and thus strength is diminished. If coconut shell replacement percentage increases, workability of concrete also increases [43]. Compared to crushed granite, coconut shell shows greater abrasion resistance. 7. POTENTIAL BARRIER TO USE GREEN CONCRETE (a) The mind-set of the consumer who is afraid totakea new innovative step. (b) The industries are reluctant to follow a new method for production of concrete. The fast-growing and established concrete industries need to change due to environmental problems which are majorly caused by concrete construction, defining, manufacturing, transport, printing, demolition, and recycling. (c) Out-dated building codes don’t explain about the green materials so a new code should be established considering the recycled materials. (d) Buildings made of green concrete have comparatively less mechanical strength to normal concrete when an uncertain amount is used. (e)Water absorption is high in particular substituteproduct. (f) Shrinkage value of green concrete is higher than the normal concrete in some casesorwhenanuncertainamount is used. 8. CONCLUSION It is significant to note that the amountofwaste replacement plays an important role in deciding the final properties of concrete. Moreover the substituting product should be selected in such a way it attains the properties of concrete. Concrete containing green cement or aggregates had improved mechanical and durability properties. It was clinched that sorptivity rates for few green concrete was decreasing, this implies that Green concrete requires less water content compared to the standard concrete. Green concrete is cost effective and eco-friendly. Utilizing green concrete helps in reducing the extraction of river sand. Furthermore, carbon emissions that are generated during the manufacturing process ofcement,crushingofaggregates and other similar processes can be reduced. Green concrete has a wide range of applications. It can be utilized in both structural and non-structural aspects considering their rate of strength. Henceforth it can be concluded that green concrete helps in the advancement of a sustainable environment by minimizing the carbon emission rate and the waste disposal rate. REFERENCES [1] BambangSuhendro,” Toward green concrete for better sustainable environment”,2ndInternational Conference on Sustainable Civil Engineering Structures and Construction Materials (SCESCM), 2014. [2] Sandeep Shrivastava, Abdol Chini,”Construction Materials and C&D Waste in India”, 2010. [3] DR. ARUP SAHA CHAUDHURI,“High Volume Fly Ash Mixed Green Concrete For CivilEngineering Purposes”,Techno india main college,Kolkata,2019 . [4] Ahmed Al-Mansour Cheuk Lun Chow,“Green Concrete: By-Products Utilization and Advanced Approaches”,Structural Upgrading Systems for Sustainable and Resilient Concrete Infrastructure, special Issue,2019. [5] AnanthKamath K & Mohammad Suhail Khan,” Green Concrete”, Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) Vol-3, Issue-1, 2017. [6] PeterDuxson,John L.Provis,Grant C.Lukey “The role of inorganic polymer technology in the development of ‘green concrete”, Cement, Volume, December 2007, Pages 1590-1597. [7] Neeraj Jain, MridulGarg, and A. K. Minocha,” Green Concrete from Sustainable Recycled Coarse Aggregates: Mechanical and Durability Properties”, Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Waste Management Volume 2015. [8] Nikhil Chhipa, Divyank Jain, Jeeya Ram,“AReviewPaper on Green Concrete”,International Journal ofEngineering Research,Volume.7, Issue 4,March 2018.
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