Influences Of Islam

John Peter  @InvasiveNotes Thompson
John Peter @InvasiveNotes ThompsonConsultant Invasive Species & Sustainability; Agricultural Research Advocate em independent contractor
Influences of Islam on the West; Occidental Impacts,[object Object],John Peter Thompson,[object Object],September 2009,[object Object]
Bandar Seri Bagawan Mosque in Brunei, Courtesy of IslamiCity,[object Object],FAITH  THAT BRINGS:,[object Object],[object Object]
CULTURE,[object Object]
George Bernard Shaw,[object Object],“It is the only religion which appears to me to possess that assimilating capacity to the changing phase of existence which can make itself appeal to every age.  I have studied him - the wonderful man and in my opinion far from being an anti-Christ, he must be called the Savior of Humanity.”,[object Object],“I believe that if a man like him were to assume the dictatorship of the modern world he would succeed in solving its problems in a way that would bring it the much needed peace and happiness: I have prophesied about the faith of Muhammad that it would be acceptable to the Europe of tomorrow as it is beginning to be acceptable to the Europe of today.”,[object Object],‘The Genuine Islam,’ Vol. 1, No. 8, 1936.,[object Object]
Growth Rate – Washington Post,[object Object],IslamGrowth rate*: 1.84 percent adherents: 1.3 billion,[object Object],Hinduism  Growth rate: 1.52 percent Adherents: 870 m,[object Object],Christianity  Growth rate: 1.38 percent Adherents: 2.2 b  ,[object Object]
Golden Age,[object Object]
Napoleonic Code,[object Object],“I hope the time is not far off when I shall be able to unite all the wise and educated men of all the countries and establish a uniform regime based on the principles of Quran which alone are true and which alone can lead men to happiness.” ,[object Object],“Correspondance de Napoléon Ier Tome V pièce n° 4287 du 17/07/1799...”,[object Object]
Education & Fairness – Hallmarks,[object Object],The library  of Cordova was reputed to have over 600,000 books.,[object Object],Over 1400 years ago Islamic Law guaranteed rights to women that women in Europe and America only obtained in the 1900s. According to Islamic Law women have the right to:,[object Object],1.own property, operate a business and receive equal pay for equal work2.have total control of their wealth 3.marry whom they want4.keep their own name when married5.inherit property 6.have their marriage dissolved in the case of neglect or mistreatment,[object Object]
Inheritance  generates Algebra,[object Object], When a person dies there are four rights that need to be performed his property:,[object Object],Pay his/her funeral and burial expenses ,[object Object],Pay his/her debts ,[object Object],Execute his Will/bequest (max 1/3 of his/her property) ,[object Object],Distribute remainder of his/her estate/property according to Shariah Law ,[object Object],In relation to inheritance, Mohammad said:,[object Object], "Give the Fara'id (the shares of the inheritance that are prescribed in the Qur'an) to those who are entitled to receive it. Then whatever remains, should be given to the closest male relative of the deceased.“,[object Object],AL-KHWĀRIZMĪ's Hisab al-jabrw’al-muqabaladevoted a chapter on the solution to the Islamic law of inheritance using algebra. He  formulated the rules of inheritance as linear equations   y = mx + b,[object Object]
Enlightened influence,[object Object],In his autobiography, Jefferson recounted with satisfaction that in the struggle to pass his landmark Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786), the Virginia legislature "rejected by a great majority" an effort to limit the bill's scope "in proof that they meant to comprehend, within the mantle of its protection, the Jew and the Gentile, the Christian and Mahometan." ,[object Object]
Learning from the beginning,[object Object],Within one and a half centuries of the appearance of Islam, Baghdad came under the rule of the Abbassids and Cordova under the Umayyads, and these became world centers for learning and particularly for medicine.,[object Object],Translation into Arabic began under the rule of the Umayyads in the time of Prince Khalid ibnYazid. Prince Khalid was interested in alchemy, and so he employed the services of Greek philosophers who were living in Egypt. He rewarded them lavishly, and they translated Greek and Egyptian books on chemistry, medicine and the stars.,[object Object]
Ideas that sound familiar,[object Object],The first written constitution of a State ever promulgated by a sovereign in human history emanated from the Prophet of Islam. It was enacted from the first year of Hijrah (622 CE). The treaty stipulated a city state in Medina, allowing wide autonomy to communities. Private justice was to be banished. The head of the State had the prerogative to decide who should participate in an expedition, the war and peace being indivisible. Social insurance was to be instituted. ,[object Object],The Book of the Law of Nations compiled by AL-SHAYBANI is a precursor to international law that provides many details on the legality, typology, and rules of military engagement, truces, and relations between Muslims and the enemy groups or states that surrounded them in the earliest period of Muslim  ,[object Object]
A long line of firsts,[object Object],A contemporary of prince Khalid was the great Arab chemist ABU MUSA JĀBIR IBN HAYYĀN AL AZDI (Arabic: جابر بن حيان) ) (Geber), who was born in 705 and died 769. He became expert in chemical and al-chemical procedures, and was the first to discover mercury.,[object Object]
Modern before the West & Compassionate,[object Object],Another medical achievement during the rule of the Umayyads was the hospital for lepers which was built in Damascus. This was the first of its kind and enjoyed many endowments. This should be contrasted with European practice which, even six centuries later, condemned lepers to be burnt to death by royal decree.,[object Object]
 The Idea of Public Assistance,[object Object],Hospital Damascus:,[object Object]
Technologically advanced,[object Object],The Abbassid Caliphs were not only concerned with translation. They were also interested in public health, and it was an Abbassid minister, Ali ibn Isa, who requested the court physician, SINAN IBN THABIT, to organize regular visiting of prisons by medical officers. ,[object Object],The first hospital in the Muslim empire was built in the ninth century in Baghdad, by the Abbassid Caliph Haroun al-Rashid; after that many other hospitals were built in the Muslim world. The first hospital to be built in Cairo was at the time of the governor of Egypt, IbnTulun, in 872. ,[object Object],These hospitals were remarkably advanced in design, for they contained pharmacies, libraries, lecture-rooms for medical students, and separate wards for men and women.,[object Object]
Beauty of the Language,[object Object],The Umayyad Caliphate lasted for about ninety years, and during that time Islam spread from China in the east to Spain in the west. Translation of scientific books into Arabic had already begun, but under the Abbassids, who succeeded the Umayyads, it was greatly accelerated. An important factor which facilitated the work of translation was the flexibility of the Arabic language, the richness of its terminology, and its capacity for expression.,[object Object]
Role call of modern medicine,[object Object],ISA IBN YUSUF, physician to Caliph Al-Abbas,  prepared an examination of medical competence.  ,[object Object],YUHANNAH IBN MASAWAYH was a physician at the time of Haroun al-Rashid; he translated Greek medical books purchased in Byzantium and was the author of books on fevers, nutrition, headache, and sterility in women,[object Object],HUNAIN IBN ISHAQ (Johanitius), was probably the greatest translator in Arab history. He had a superlative knowledge of Syriac, Greek, and Arabic, and carried out a large number of translations from Greek scientific and philosophical manu-scripts into Arabic. These included most of the works of Hippo-crates and Galen. After his death, much of this work was continued by his pupils and by his nephew Hubaish. This man Hubaish also wrote books on medicine, among which was a treatise on nutrition.,[object Object]
Doorway for European learning,[object Object],AL-KHAZI (Rhazes),  865 to 925, was a Persian and the pupil of Al-Tabari. He was one of the greatest of Muslim physicians and a most prolific writer. He took a great interest in chemistry and is said to have prepared absolute alcohol from fermented sugars, and to have invented a scale for measuring the specific gravity of fluids. But his great fame rests on his supreme abilities as a clinician, and his descriptions of the clinical signs of many illnesses were unsurpassed. He investigated women's diseases and midwifery, hereditary diseases, and eye diseases. He wrote an account of smallpox and measles, and books on chemistry and pharmacy, but the most famous of his books is Al-Hawi, "The Continence", a large encyclopedia on medicine in 24 volumes. It was translated into Latin by Sicilian Jews where it made a great mark on the European thinking in medicine.,[object Object]
The idea of modern medicine,[object Object],IBN SINA (Avicenna) was born in 980  He wrote  The Canon of Medicine. This is an encyclopedic work in fourteen volumes, and embodies the combination of Greek and Arabic medical systems, with the addition of IbnSina's personal experience. It deals with diseases, their classification, description, and causes; with therapeutics and the classification of simple and compound medicines; with hygiene, the functions of parts of the body, and with many other topics. In particular, IbnSina noted the fact that pulmonary tuberculosis was contagious, and he thought that it spread through soil and water. He also described accurately the symptoms of diabetes mellitus and some of its complications. He was very interested in the effect of the mind on the body, and wrote a great deal on psychological disturbance.  It had the most fundamental influence in Europe during the Middle Ages, and was a standard reference book in universities right up until the seventeenth century.,[object Object]
Foundations of Pharmacy & Dentistry,[object Object],ABU AL-QASIM AL-ZAHRAWI (Albucasis ). He is regarded as the most famous of the Arab surgeons, but he was also skilled in the use of simple and compound remedies, and was thus sometimes described as "the pharmacist surgeon". He wrote the famous manual on surgery, called Al-Tasrif, although it also includes sections on the preparation and dosage of drugs, nutrition, public health, and anatomical dissection. The celebrated sections on surgery are illustrated with drawings of about one hundred surgical instruments. There are descriptions of techniques for operating to relieve various conditions, including the amputation of limbs, the removal of foreign bodies, and the crushing of bladder stones. He invented many of the instruments in his book, and in particular he devised a pair of forceps for use in midwifery. Al-Zahrawi was no mean dentist either; it is said that he per-formed cosmetic operations to correct dental irregularities. His book became famous in the universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. It was translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in 1187, and it was the chief reference work for surgery in the universities of Italy and France.,[object Object]
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Influences Of Islam