WoŵeŶ͛s IdeŶtity, SoĐial PƌoteĐtioŶ 
and Entrepreneurship 
Dev Nathan 
Institute for Human Development, India and Duke 
Un...
Identity in Development 
• Identity – ƌeƋuiƌed foƌ aŶ iŶdiǀidual͛s ƌight to aĐĐess foƌŵal iŶstitutioŶs, 
such as governmen...
Why Identity ? 
• To access state and formal services – food, subsidies, 
elections, property, credit 
• Consequences of B...
Benefits of Identity For Poor 
• A pavement-dweller, [on how Aadhaar helps] 
͚The poliĐe ǁoŶ͛t haƌass us.͛ 
• 
• Foundatio...
Women and Identity 
• Women, traditionally, have only had a relational 
identity (daughter/wife/mother) 
• 
• For matters ...
Benefit: Enhance WoŵeŶ’s AgeŶcy 
• Receive transfers in own name 
• AĐt oŶ oŶe͛s oǁŶ ĐhoiĐes 
– E.g. widows using their pe...
Aadhaar - Direct Benefits Transfer 
• [Cash Transfer] 
• 
• Aadhaar plus micro-ATMs (point-of-sale 
instruments) 
• 
• Wom...
Formalization 
• Can support formalization – e.g. of rights as 
street vendors 
• 
• Portability of rights – importance in...
Reducing Cost of Service Delivery 
• Problem of ghost and duplicate cards 
• E.g. in AP more BPL cards than state 
househo...
Women and Entrepreneurship 
• Do not own assets, e.g. land, for collateral 
• 
• Need support from male members to access ...
Social Protection 
• Income / consumption support to poor and 
non-poor 
• Financial access to health care 
• Non-contribu...
Social Protection and 
Entrepreneurship 
• Additional income can e nable investment and 
increase productivity 
• Assured ...
Providers of Social Protection 
• Usually the State 
• Also the Community (in traditional 
communities) 
• What about Grou...
Individual identity of women 
• MFI clients are 95% women 
• Services delivered to women 
• Use within household affected ...
Consumption Stipend 
• For ultra-poor till they can arrange staple food 
on their own 
– In 18 months become regular MFI c...
Sickness Allowance 
– ͚WheŶ a ŵeŵďeƌ falls siĐk, ǁe pay ‘s.ϳϱ as siĐk 
allowance per day. If she is not a member, mere 
lo...
Savings or loan for distress 
– SaǀiŶgs aŶd haǀiŶg ͚ŵoŶey at haŶd͛ ƌeasoŶ foƌ 
feeling secure 
– Members are able to use b...
Savings and insurance 
• Then move on to micro credit (BASIX) 
• Provide consumption loans, as against 
Grameen Bank model...
Impact 
• Enable women, over time, to reduce share of 
consumption loans and increase share of income-generating 
activiti...
Conclusion 
Group-based social protection 
Can provide consumption and healthcare 
support 
And enable women to access wor...
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Dev nathan grovin kelkar women’s identity, social protection and entrepreneurship

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This presentation is part of the programme of the International Seminar "Social Protection, Entrepreneurship and Labour Market Activation: Evidence for Better Policies", organized by the International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG/UNDP) together with Canada’s International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and the Colombian Think Tank Fedesarrollo held on September 10-11 at the Ipea Auditorium in Brasilia.




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Dev nathan grovin kelkar women’s identity, social protection and entrepreneurship

  1. 1. WoŵeŶ͛s IdeŶtity, SoĐial PƌoteĐtioŶ and Entrepreneurship Dev Nathan Institute for Human Development, India and Duke University, USA Govind Kelkar Landesa, Rural Development Institute, India & Seattle,USA
  2. 2. Identity in Development • Identity – ƌeƋuiƌed foƌ aŶ iŶdiǀidual͛s ƌight to aĐĐess foƌŵal iŶstitutioŶs, such as government entities, employers, banks • • Industrialized countries – official identity established at birth • • South Asia had highest proportion of children not registered at birth – 63% against 55% in Sub-Saharan Africa • • India – non-registration of 45% of 26 million births p.a.; Urban-rural variation • • BioŵetƌiĐ ideŶtifiĐatioŶ ĐaŶ eliŵiŶate ͚ideŶtity gap͛ • China, India, Brazil, Iran, Israel, Indonesia – and many others using it • • Aadhaar – IŶdia͛s ďioŵetƌiĐ ideŶtifiĐatioŶ systeŵ has ƌeaĐhed ϲϱ0ŵillioŶ
  3. 3. Why Identity ? • To access state and formal services – food, subsidies, elections, property, credit • Consequences of Being Marginalized and Invisible – – Forced to pay bribes, subject to extortions (e.g. homeless in cities) • – Higher transaction costs • – Reinforces inequality
  4. 4. Benefits of Identity For Poor • A pavement-dweller, [on how Aadhaar helps] ͚The poliĐe ǁoŶ͛t haƌass us.͛ • • Foundational identity – does not itself confer any benefits, but can be used for anything requiring establishing identity – Bank account, etc.
  5. 5. Women and Identity • Women, traditionally, have only had a relational identity (daughter/wife/mother) • • For matters related to the state, need a personal identification, which can be verified by a third party • • This is Aadhaaƌ͛s first rupture with tradition • • Can allow move from household-based entitlements to individual-based entitlements
  6. 6. Benefit: Enhance WoŵeŶ’s AgeŶcy • Receive transfers in own name • AĐt oŶ oŶe͛s oǁŶ ĐhoiĐes – E.g. widows using their pensions to buy medicines • Many steps to empowerment- plus overcoming resistance of men
  7. 7. Aadhaar - Direct Benefits Transfer • [Cash Transfer] • • Aadhaar plus micro-ATMs (point-of-sale instruments) • • Woman will get the full household entitlement
  8. 8. Formalization • Can support formalization – e.g. of rights as street vendors • • Portability of rights – importance in context of migration • • Last-mile for financial inclusion (Only 25% households have bank accounts) – Can be linked to private data bases (pay a fee for use)
  9. 9. Reducing Cost of Service Delivery • Problem of ghost and duplicate cards • E.g. in AP more BPL cards than state households in Census • Biometric identification – can eliminate ghost and duplicate cards – More than 25% saving
  10. 10. Women and Entrepreneurship • Do not own assets, e.g. land, for collateral • • Need support from male members to access bank loans • Restricted to home-based, self-employment with low working capital requirements • • Can social protection deal with this problem?
  11. 11. Social Protection • Income / consumption support to poor and non-poor • Financial access to health care • Non-contributory and contributory systems • But social protection is loaded with patriarchal Ŷoƌŵs of ͚head of the household͛
  12. 12. Social Protection and Entrepreneurship • Additional income can e nable investment and increase productivity • Assured minimum can increase risk-taking ability • Manage trade-off between immediate needs and future livelihoods • Manage disasters without asset sale
  13. 13. Providers of Social Protection • Usually the State • Also the Community (in traditional communities) • What about Group Social Protection, as in IŶdia͛s SHGs aŶd soŵe MFI gƌoups?
  14. 14. Individual identity of women • MFI clients are 95% women • Services delivered to women • Use within household affected by patriarchal norms – But evidence shows – over loan cycles women assert their decision-making on use of credit • Plus benefits of being organized – Able to get better public services
  15. 15. Consumption Stipend • For ultra-poor till they can arrange staple food on their own – In 18 months become regular MFI clients • BRAC (Bangladesh) • Combines government-subsidised food and asset transfer with micro-finance • Later become regular MFI clients
  16. 16. Sickness Allowance – ͚WheŶ a ŵeŵďeƌ falls siĐk, ǁe pay ‘s.ϳϱ as siĐk allowance per day. If she is not a member, mere loan will be given͛ – ͚If the member is genuine, she will be supported by the cluster fund for any such immediate needs like shelteƌ daŵage oƌ siĐkŶess.͛ • Sickness is major reason for non-poor to become poor – cost of treatment, income loss
  17. 17. Savings or loan for distress – SaǀiŶgs aŶd haǀiŶg ͚ŵoŶey at haŶd͛ ƌeasoŶ foƌ feeling secure – Members are able to use borrowing or savings rather than sale of assets in distress
  18. 18. Savings and insurance • Then move on to micro credit (BASIX) • Provide consumption loans, as against Grameen Bank model where consumption loans are not allowed
  19. 19. Impact • Enable women, over time, to reduce share of consumption loans and increase share of income-generating activities • Reduce share of income from agricultural labour to self-employment • The share of NREGA income that is saved is much less than the investment from the MFI. Why? • MFI money has to be returned, unlike NREGA money; that would induce some investment in income-generating activities
  20. 20. Conclusion Group-based social protection Can provide consumption and healthcare support And enable women to access working capital and become entrepreneurs.

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