Air Programming on Sunspot with use of Wireless Networks

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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) provides us an effective means to monitor physical environments. The computing nodes in a WSN are resource constrained devices whose resources need to be used sparingly. The main requirement of a WSN is to operate unattended in remote locations for extended periods of time. Physical conditions, environmental conditions, upgrades, user preferences, and errors within the code can all contribute to the need to modify currently running applications. Therefore, reprogramming of sensor nodes is required. One of the important terminologies that are associated with WSN network is that of OVER THE AIR PROGRAMMING. This concept has been utilized so far as for Imote2 sensors that has been relatively utilized for the processing of the Deluge port (DP). They have so far been able to successfully reboot each application. But this rebooting is still not reliable and secure as there are certain security features that are affected in the processing. I will provide a more reliable, robust and secure system that would have enriched functionalities of that of OTA programming on SUNSPOT. Some important features of the SUN SPOT that I will be utilizing in this practical approach is that it supports isolated application models such as sensor networks, it allows running multiple applications in one. It does not create overhead on the entire system node as it provides lower level asynchronous for proper message delivery. It also supports migration from one device to another. This paper focuses on developing a multi-hop routing protocol for communication among Sun SPOT sensor nodes and a user front-end (i.e. visualizer) to visualise the collected values from all the nodes. To test the routing protocol before deploying it to sensor nodes, a simulation using J-Sim is created.

IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol. 1, Issue 8, 2013 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613
All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 1542
Air Programming on Sunspot with use of Wireless Networks
Vimal Adodariya1
Dhaval Shingala2
Darshak Sojitra3
Rajnik Vaishnav4
Nirav Kansagra5
1
HOD(CE) 2
Vice Principal 3, 4, 5
Sr. Lecturer
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Aarsh Mahavidhyalaya Diploma Engineering College, Rajkot-Bhavnagar Highway-360020 (Gujarat)
Abstract— Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) provides us
an effective means to monitor physical environments. The
computing nodes in a WSN are resource constrained devices
whose resources need to be used sparingly. The main
requirement of a WSN is to operate unattended in remote
locations for extended periods of time. Physical conditions,
environmental conditions, upgrades, user preferences, and
errors within the code can all contribute to the need to
modify currently running applications. Therefore,
reprogramming of sensor nodes is required. One of the
important terminologies that are associated with WSN
network is that of OVER THE AIR PROGRAMMING. This
concept has been utilized so far as for Imote2 sensors that
has been relatively utilized for the processing of the Deluge
port (DP). They have so far been able to successfully reboot
each application. But this rebooting is still not reliable and
secure as there are certain security features that are affected
in the processing. I will provide a more reliable, robust and
secure system that would have enriched functionalities of
that of OTA programming on SUNSPOT. Some important
features of the SUN SPOT that I will be utilizing in this
practical approach is that it supports isolated application
models such as sensor networks, it allows running multiple
applications in one. It does not create overhead on the entire
system node as it provides lower level asynchronous for
proper message delivery. It also supports migration from
one device to another. This paper focuses on developing a
multi-hop routing protocol for communication among Sun
SPOT sensor nodes and a user front-end (i.e. visualizer) to
visualise the collected values from all the nodes. To test the
routing protocol before deploying it to sensor nodes, a
simulation using J-Sim is created.
I. INTRODUCTION
Over-the-air programming (OTA) refers to various methods
of distributing new software updates or configuration
settings to devices like cell phones and set-top boxes. In the
mobile world these include over-the-air service
provisioning (OTASP) over-the-air provisioning (OTAP)
or over-the-air parameter administration (OTAPA), or
provisioning handsets with the necessary settings with
which to access services such as WAP or MMS. Some
phones with this capability are labelled as being "OTA
capable. “As mobile phones accumulate new applications
and become more advanced, OTA configuration has become
increasingly important as new updates and services come on
stream. OTA via SMS optimizes the configuration data
updates in SIM cards and handsets and enables the
distribution of new software updates to mobile phones or
provisioning handsets with the necessary settings with
which to access services such as WAP or MMS. OTA
messaging provides remote control of mobile phones for
service and subscription activation, personalization and
programming of a new service for mobile operators and
Telco third parties. When OTA is used to update a phone's
operating firmware, it is sometimes called Firmware Over
The Air (FOTA). For service settings, the technology is
often known as Device Configuration.
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is composed of small
and highly resource-constrained sensor nodes that monitor
some measurable phenomenon in the environment, e.g.,
light, humidity, or temperature. WSNs are deployed in a
steadily growing plethora of application areas. These range
from military (e.g., security perimeter surveillance) over
civilian (e.g., disaster area monitoring) to industrial (e.g.,
industrial process control). Application scenarios of WSNs
typically involve monitoring or surveillance of animals or
humans, infrastructure, or territories. Their long-life and
large-scale design, various deployment fields, and changing
environments necessitate the feasibility of remote
maintenance and in-situ reprogramming of sensor nodes
using a so-called Over-The- Air Programming (OTAP)
protocol. In particular, if sensor nodes are inaccessible after
deployment, a reliable OTAP is crucial. I believe that in a
plurality of WSNs, the network-wide dissemination of
program code is not appropriate. Within a single WSN, the
heterogeneity of sensor hardware, the deployment of
manifold sensor technologies, the diversity of sensing and
communication tasks, and possibly the event and location
dependency of software require a flexible, group-wise
selective OTAP approach in order to be able to efficiently
reprogram a subset of nodes. Furthermore, securing the
OTAP protocol is imperative in order to protect the OTAP
from unauthorized reprogramming attempts, i.e., to prevent
reprogram node attacks.
I believe that running Java technology on a
wireless sensor device will simplify application and device
driver prototyping, thereby increasing the number of
developers able to build applications, as well as their
productivity; resulting in more interesting applications
sooner. The Java platform brings with it garbage collection,
pointer safety, exception handling, and a mature thread
library with facilities for thread sleep, yield, and
synchronization. Standard Java development and debugging
tools can be used to write wireless sensor applications.
Further, I provide tools for managing, deploying and
monitoring these devices in a graphical user interface called
SPOT World. This paper concentrates on the ways in which
development of sensor applications in such an environment
is simplified.
Air Programming on Sunspot with Use of Wireless Networks
(IJSRD/Vol. 1/Issue 8/2013/0005)
All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 1543
What are Java Sun SPOTs?
Sun SPOTS are wireless sensor networks that run MIDP-
based applications (Mildest) on a "Squawk VM" (a small
Java ME virtual machine), which provides the ability to run
these wireless transducer applications "on the metal". These
Mildest have access to the sensor capabilities of the Sun
SPOTS and can migrate (along with state information) from
one Sun SPOT to another.
II. RELATED WORK
Commercial Sensor NodesA.
Wireless Sensor Network has emerged as a very hot topic in
the networking area recently due to its widespread
applications in industry, military, environment as well as
real life. There are many commercial Wireless Sensor nodes
available nowadays, and some of the most popular ones
such as: TMote Sky, MICA Mote, Intel Mote, or Sun SPOT.
The first three are described below.
1) TMote Sky:
TMote Sky is one of the most popular Wireless Sensor Node
today. It is the next-generation mote platform for extremely
low power, high data rate sensor network applications. It has
integrated sensors, radio, antenna, microcontroller and
programming capabilities. With 1MB Memory, 10 KB
RAM, 48KB Memory Flash and 250 kbps Radio bandwidth,
TMote Sky can offer a robust solution for many wireless
sensor applications in industry, environment and so on.
TMote Sky supports TinyOS as the operating system for
each sensor node and applications can be wirelessly
programmed to the TMote Sky module.
2) MICA Mote:
MICA is a second generation mote module used for research
and development of lowpower, wireless sensor networks. It
was developed by UC Berkeley’s research group on wireless
sensors. MICA Mote has 4KB RAM, 4 Mb Memory Flash
and the Radio bandwidth of 40kbps. In comparison with
TMote Sky, MICA Mote is less powerful and its memory
has less capacity. MICA Mote also uses TinyOS as the
operating system.
3) Intel Mote:
Intel Mote hardware is a modular, stackable design that
includes 64MB RAM, 512KB Flash and a very high Radio
bandwidth of 600kbps. Like TMote Sky and MICA Mote,
Intel Mote software is based on TinyOS and in the future it
will be supposed to incorporate security features such as
authentication and encryption.
Table. 1: Compare sensor nodes' hardware
As we can see from the table, Sun SPOT has much larger
Ram and Flash memory capacity than MICA Mote, Intel
Mote or TMote Sky has. With the capacity of 512MB, Sun
SPOT’s RAM is 8 times more powerful than TMote Sky’s
RAM (64KB); meanwhile, Sun SPOT’s Flash Memory
(4MB) is 8 times larger than Intel Mote’s Flash Memory
(512K). In addition, Sun SPOT is based on a 32-bit RAM
CPU and 11 channels 2.4GHz, IEEE 8.15.4 radio chip
which are among the latest Wireless Sensor Network
technologies. It is obvious that Sun SPOT nodes are the
most powerful commercial WSN nodes at this moment.
With large memory on-device, high speed CPU and many
other advantages, Sun SPOT has a great ability to perform
complex process and control operations; it also radically
simplifies the process of developing wireless sensor and
transducer applications. Furthermore, Sun SPOT is very
promising in solving several technical challenges in the
Wireless Sensor Network area such as:
 Current development tools for creating and investigating
wireless sensor are difficult to use and unproductive.
 Within tight resource constraints of sensor nodes and
affordable cost, effective security mechanisms are really
difficult to be implemented.
 Current sensor nodes have limited processing capability,
which restricts signal analysis and control processes.
 Unique characteristics of these new small devices
present challenges for networking. New protocols and
standards must be created for sensor nodes to
communicate with each other.
III. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
The main tools that were used during the project included
Java and its libraries, Squawk SDK and J-Sim. The
hardware involved in the project included Sun SPOT nodes
and a basic PC with the packages mentioned above installed.
Since my project requires my code to be written in Java to
run on the Sun SPOT nodes, I have chosen java and its
related packages to develop the entire system. For the user
interface an open source java graphing library (J2D) was
used to present line graphs of the temperature and light
recorded for selected nodes. This library was used for two
key reasons, an external graphing library was needed since
java's library's doesn't provide an easy way to develop
graphs, and it did exactly what I needed, while still being
simple to learn and use.
The Sun SPOTs SDK was essential to the project
as I needed to use its libraries to develop code for the Sun
SPOT nodes. By reading simple examples found with the
SDK resource i will able to develop the needed code for the
system. J-Sim, a simulation tool was used for the first task
of the project which was to simulate the path taken from
each node to the sink and ensure it was the shortest. J-Sim
was chosen over other possible candidates such as bSpots
for a number of reasons such as ease of use, ability to do
what is required and familiarity with the tool.
The use of Sun SPOT Nodes was essential for the
successful completion of the project. As mentioned in
section one of this document, the code that I developed in
the earlier stages of the project needed to be migrated to the
Squawk environment and then run on Sun SPOT nodes,
hence showing the necessity of the nodes.
Coding and Design Methods
A small concern that played a part during coding was to
ensure that each class I developed had low
dependency/coupling between other classes. Initially some
of the user interface classes showed to have high coupling as
Air Programming on Sunspot with Use of Wireless Networks
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many of the classes depended heavily on the Visualiser GUI
class. Quickly fixed by dividing the Visualier GUI class into
many classes. I chose to ensure my code had low coupling
because this is a key sign of a well-structured computer
system and makes code a lot easier to understand and
maintain. Due to the nature of the project I felt there were no
common design patterns that I could make use of, except
those forced upon us, i.e. Java's swing library follows a
structured way to add components to a window.
To improve the look and readability of code in
general, I decided to implement a standard coding strategy,
on how I code should be written, in terms of spacing
between braces etc.
Algorithms
In this project, I need an algorithm to build the multi-hop
routing protocol. Among several available routing
algorithms I chose Bellman-Ford, a distance-vector
algorithm, to find the shortest path from each sensor node to
the sink. The routing algorithm should be simple to avoid
overhead since each sensor node has only a limited memory
capacity. Using Bellman-Ford, each node estimates distance
to every other node in the network (distance vectors) and
transmits the information to its neighbours, then it receives
similar distance-vectors from its neighbors. Bellman-Ford
algorithm can adapt to traffic changes and link failures as
well as is suitable for networks with multiple administrative
entities. Hence, Bellman-Ford was a good choice for
building a multi-hop routing protocol in my project.
IV. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
There are four main layers to my application as a whole, the
database layer, visualiser (GUI Layer), J-Sim(Simulation
Layer) and Sensor nodes. Each layer can function
separately, but only when placed together will the complete
application work as desired.
The GUI Layer:A.
It is used to present the user with statistical data that has
been retrieved by each node. This includes the name, id,
status, temperature, light and location of each node. All this
data is presented in tables, but only the most current
temperature and light data for each node is shown. To show
how temperature and light performs over time, the visualiser
also presents the user with two line graphs. The temperature
graph clearly indicates how the temperature of selected
nodes varies over time. Similarly the Light Line graph
performs the same function with light over time.
The Database Layer:B.
It essentially allows other layers to store and retrieve data
from the database. The database used is MySQL, and it was
chosen due to its light weight nature and it being open
source. There are 3 tables in the database, Node, Data Node
and Neighbor Node. As each name suggests, Node stores all
data referring to each node such as each the node's id, name,
location, power and data rate. The Data Node table keeps
the statistical data gathered by each node such as the
temperature, light, status and the time the data was gathered.
The Neighbor Node table is used to keep track of each nodes
closest neighbor, so it simply stores two node ids, one of the
node and the other of its neighbor.
The Simulation LayerC.
It is built using J-Sim is used to simulate a many-to-one data
collection system of wireless sensor networks. The main
purpose of developing the simulation is to test the simple
many-to-one routing protocol before migrating all the codes
to J2ME/Squawk environment. To support simulating
Wireless Sensor Networks, J-Sim provides object-oriented
definitions of (i) target, sensor and sink nodes,(ii) sensor and
wireless communication channels, mobility model and
power model. Input data such as network’s configuration
that includes network’s size, locations of all the nodes in the
area and the range of each sensor node is written in the form
of a Tcl/Java file. The output of the simulation will be stored
into the database which is connected to the visualiser so that
the simulation’s results could be visualised.
The Sensor Nodes LayerD.
It involves working with Sun SPOT sensor nodes. There are
two main types of hardware that are involved in this layer:
the base station and target sensor node. Each type of
hardware requires a specific type of code to run. The base
station's code allows it to receive data from target nodes and
to store that data into the database. The target sensor node's
code allows it to read data(temperature/light) from the
sensor node through an interface (provided in Sun SPOT
SDK) and send that data to the base station.
Fig. 1: Diagram showing Relationships between the Main
Modules
Air Programming on Sunspot with Use of Wireless Networks
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The following sequence diagrams and the layers diagram
seen above, clearly show the interaction between
components/modules in my application. The first diagram
shows how the simulation and the visualise work together to
report the necessary data to the user. As you can see the J-
Sim module, goes through each node, generates random
temperature and Light data, sends it to the sink (via the
shortest path through other nodes in the network) and then
stores it in the database. This is repeated every 10 seconds
until the simulation is stopped by a user. At the same time
the visualiser is running and it gathers temperature, light and
other data from the database for each node and displays it to
the user. This is also repeated every 10seconds.
V. MODULES AND THEIR INTERFACES
Visualiser ModulesA.
See class diagram below.
.
Fig. 2: Class diagram of Visualiser tools
1) DataNodeGui:
This module handles all the components that are placed in
the data tab. The main method used to gather the
information required from the database is get Table Data
,and is called every time a user clicks the refresh button to
update the details.
2) LineGraphGui:
This module handles all the components that are placed in
the Temp Line graph and Light Line graph tabs. Add New
Trace is the key method used, as it is called every time a
user selects a checkbox next to a node in the node table
3) NodeGui:
This module handles all the components that are placed in
the node table located to the left of the screen. The method
get Table Data is used to retrieve all necessary node details
from the database.
4) TopologyGui:
This module is the most complex as it handles all the
components that are placed in the topology tab. There are
three key methods used, make Nodes ,make Node
Neighbors and paint Component. As there name suggests
make Node creates the circles which represent nodes, make
Node Neighbors create lines which represent links between
a node and its neighbors and paint Component draws both of
these sets of objects to the screen. Paint Component also
draws, delete's, moves and resizes the selected areas
(rectangles) to the screen based on users mouse clicks.
Database ModulesB.
See class diagram in fig. 2.
1) Database Connection:
This module gives database access to other classes through
its setup Connection method.
2) NodeTable/DataNodeTable/Neighbour Node Table:
Each of these modules provides access to their respective
table in the database. Each of these classes contains a get
TableById and getAllTable method which do as each name
suggests. DataNodeTable however contains a method which
gets a node’s data when given the nodes name, called
getNodeDataByName. This method contains multiple
queries to achieve the required result.
Simulation ModulesC.
See class diagram below in fig. 3.
Fig. 3: Simulation’s class diagram.
1) Sensor node:
This module represents a sensor node which is equipped
with (1) a Sensor Protocol Stack which allows it to capture
signals generated by target nodes through a sensor channel,
Air Programming on Sunspot with Use of Wireless Networks
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and (2) a Wireless Protocol Stack which enables it to send
reports to the sink nodes through a wireless channel.
2) Target node:
Each target node will generate signals which are then sent to
sensor nodes through the sensor channel. A target node
includes (1) Target Agent Layer and (2) Sensor Physical
Layer.
3) Sink node:
A sink node is built in a plug-and-play fashion using a
Sensor Application Layer(SensorApp), an Interface Layer
(Wireless Agent) with the Wireless Protocol stack: network
layer (AODV protocol (drcl.inet.protocol.aodv.AODV)),
MAC layer (MAC 802.11(drcl.inet.mac.Mac_802_11)), and
physical layer (drcl.inet.mac.WirelessPhy)
4) Sensor channel:
The Sensor Channel receives a signal from a target node and
sends a copy of that signal to all sensor nodes within the
transmission radius of that target node.
5) Wireless channel:
Through the Wireless Channel, data from sensor is
forwarded to the sink. In addition, the simulation also
contains a Battery model, CPU model and Radio model.
Sensor Node ModulesD.
See the class diagram below.
Fig. 4: Class diagram of Sensor nodes Module
1) Bellman-Ford:
The module contains the implementation of a multi-hop
routing protocol, finding the shortest path using a distance-
vector algorithm (Bellman-Ford)
2) Spot's code:
The code is deployed in each sensor node so that each node
can communicate with each other as long as with the base
station.
Sender: open connection to another node; read data from
hardware and send that data through the opened connection.
Start-up: initialize and start the sender.
3) Base station's code:
The code is deployed in each sensor node so that each node
can communicate with each other as long as with the base
station.
Display: open connection to another node; read data through
the opened connection and process that data.
Startup: initialize and start the sender.
VI. USER OPERATIONS
User Interaction with the SystemA.
The main way that users interact with the system is through
the use of the visualiser, as it displays all the important data
such as temperature and light retrieved from each node.
Viewing Statistical DataB.
The visualiser separates the main statistical data into page
tabs, so it is easy for a user to view large amounts of data
without being overwhelmed.
The visualiser tabs include:
1) Data:
Which shows the most current data (temp, light, location
etc) retrieved from the database for each node? This is
placed inside an adjustable table.
2) Topology:
This tab shows graphically the location of each node on a
given map. Each node is represented by a red circle, with its
id in the middle. A node’s neighbors are represented by
direct lines drawn from the node to each neighbor node.
This tab is talked about further in the User interactions
section, showing other ways a user can interact it.
3) Temperature Line graph:
This tab shows selected nodes in a line graph and how there
temperature varies over time.
4) Light Line graph:
This tab shows selected nodes in a line graph and how there
light varies over time. Further interactions with the line
graph are talked about in the User interactions section.
VII. CONCLUSION
I feel that the Sun SPOT platform is ideally suited for the
prototyping and developing of applications for wireless
sensor networks.
First, there is enough memory, processing power,
etc. on each SPOT that one can do interesting things locally;
it is much easier to prototype when not constrained by tight
resources.
Second, it is easy to extend the functionality of a
SPOT by connecting sensors or actuators to the demo sensor
board or by creating custom sensor boards.
Third, writing applications in the Java
programming language is easier than using lower-level
languages as C. Programming in the Java language also
makes it possible to share code between applications on the
device and on the desktop, and also makes it easier to
integrate the wireless devices with the desktop.
Fourth, a program development environment that
enables over-the-air deployment and debugging greatly
simplifies the task of developing wireless network
Air Programming on Sunspot with Use of Wireless Networks
(IJSRD/Vol. 1/Issue 8/2013/0005)
All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 1547
applications. The Sun SPOT is a mid-level sensor device
that enables exploratory programming of sensor
applications. The software architecture is designed to be a
framework for experimentation, encouraging the
replacement and addition of new components, such as a
mesh-radio stack.
REFERENCES
[1] Crossbow Technology, Inc., “Mote In-Network
Programming User Reference” and “Mica2 Wireless
Measurement System Datasheet,” 2003.
[2] P. Levis et al., “Trickle: A Self-Regulating Algorithm
for Code Propagation and Maintenance in Wireless
Sensor Networks,” Proc. 1st Symp. Networked sys.
Design and
[3] Implementation, 2004, pp. 15–28.
[4] T. Stathopoulos, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, “A
Remote Code Update Mechanism for Wireless Sensor
Networks,” Tech. rep. CENS-TR-30, UCLA, Center for
Embedded Networked Computing, Nov. 2003.
[5] J. W. Hui and D. Culler. “The Dynamic Behavior of a
Data Dissemination Protocol for Network Programming
at Scale,” Proc. ACM SenSys 2004, pp. 81–94.
[6] S. S. Kulkarni, and L. Wang, “MNP: Multihop Network
Reprogramming Service for Sensor Networks,” Proc.
IEEEICDCS 2005, pp. 7–16.
[7] P. Levis and D. Culler, “The Firecracker Protocol”
Proc. 11th ACM SIGOPS Euro. Wksp., Leuven,
Belgium, Sept. 2004.
[8] A SunSpot Simulator for Datagrams (bSPOTs), URL:
http://www.cs.usyd.edu.au/~scholz/projects/Simulator/
[9] Bellman-Ford Algorithm, URL:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bellman-Ford
[10]J-Sim Home Page, URL:http://www.j-sim.org/
[11]MoteView Monitoring Software, URL:
http://www.xbow.com/Products/productsdetails.aspx?si
d=88
[12]Research – Research Areas – Sensor Nets / RFID -
Intel®Mote, URL:
http://www.intel.com/research/exploratory/motes.htm
[13]Sun Microsystems, URL: http://www.sun.com/
[14]Sun Microsystems Laboratories, URL:
http://research.sun.com/
[15]SunSpotWorld – Home of Project Sun SPOT, URL:
http://www.sunspotworld.com/
[16]Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia, Wireless Sensor
Network, URL:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_sensor_network.

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I believe that in a plurality of WSNs, the network-wide dissemination of program code is not appropriate. Within a single WSN, the heterogeneity of sensor hardware, the deployment of manifold sensor technologies, the diversity of sensing and communication tasks, and possibly the event and location dependency of software require a flexible, group-wise selective OTAP approach in order to be able to efficiently reprogram a subset of nodes. Furthermore, securing the OTAP protocol is imperative in order to protect the OTAP from unauthorized reprogramming attempts, i.e., to prevent reprogram node attacks. I believe that running Java technology on a wireless sensor device will simplify application and device driver prototyping, thereby increasing the number of developers able to build applications, as well as their productivity; resulting in more interesting applications sooner. The Java platform brings with it garbage collection, pointer safety, exception handling, and a mature thread library with facilities for thread sleep, yield, and synchronization. Standard Java development and debugging tools can be used to write wireless sensor applications. Further, I provide tools for managing, deploying and monitoring these devices in a graphical user interface called SPOT World. This paper concentrates on the ways in which development of sensor applications in such an environment is simplified.
  • 2. Air Programming on Sunspot with Use of Wireless Networks (IJSRD/Vol. 1/Issue 8/2013/0005) All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 1543 What are Java Sun SPOTs? Sun SPOTS are wireless sensor networks that run MIDP- based applications (Mildest) on a "Squawk VM" (a small Java ME virtual machine), which provides the ability to run these wireless transducer applications "on the metal". These Mildest have access to the sensor capabilities of the Sun SPOTS and can migrate (along with state information) from one Sun SPOT to another. II. RELATED WORK Commercial Sensor NodesA. Wireless Sensor Network has emerged as a very hot topic in the networking area recently due to its widespread applications in industry, military, environment as well as real life. There are many commercial Wireless Sensor nodes available nowadays, and some of the most popular ones such as: TMote Sky, MICA Mote, Intel Mote, or Sun SPOT. The first three are described below. 1) TMote Sky: TMote Sky is one of the most popular Wireless Sensor Node today. It is the next-generation mote platform for extremely low power, high data rate sensor network applications. It has integrated sensors, radio, antenna, microcontroller and programming capabilities. With 1MB Memory, 10 KB RAM, 48KB Memory Flash and 250 kbps Radio bandwidth, TMote Sky can offer a robust solution for many wireless sensor applications in industry, environment and so on. TMote Sky supports TinyOS as the operating system for each sensor node and applications can be wirelessly programmed to the TMote Sky module. 2) MICA Mote: MICA is a second generation mote module used for research and development of lowpower, wireless sensor networks. It was developed by UC Berkeley’s research group on wireless sensors. MICA Mote has 4KB RAM, 4 Mb Memory Flash and the Radio bandwidth of 40kbps. In comparison with TMote Sky, MICA Mote is less powerful and its memory has less capacity. MICA Mote also uses TinyOS as the operating system. 3) Intel Mote: Intel Mote hardware is a modular, stackable design that includes 64MB RAM, 512KB Flash and a very high Radio bandwidth of 600kbps. Like TMote Sky and MICA Mote, Intel Mote software is based on TinyOS and in the future it will be supposed to incorporate security features such as authentication and encryption. Table. 1: Compare sensor nodes' hardware As we can see from the table, Sun SPOT has much larger Ram and Flash memory capacity than MICA Mote, Intel Mote or TMote Sky has. With the capacity of 512MB, Sun SPOT’s RAM is 8 times more powerful than TMote Sky’s RAM (64KB); meanwhile, Sun SPOT’s Flash Memory (4MB) is 8 times larger than Intel Mote’s Flash Memory (512K). In addition, Sun SPOT is based on a 32-bit RAM CPU and 11 channels 2.4GHz, IEEE 8.15.4 radio chip which are among the latest Wireless Sensor Network technologies. It is obvious that Sun SPOT nodes are the most powerful commercial WSN nodes at this moment. With large memory on-device, high speed CPU and many other advantages, Sun SPOT has a great ability to perform complex process and control operations; it also radically simplifies the process of developing wireless sensor and transducer applications. Furthermore, Sun SPOT is very promising in solving several technical challenges in the Wireless Sensor Network area such as:  Current development tools for creating and investigating wireless sensor are difficult to use and unproductive.  Within tight resource constraints of sensor nodes and affordable cost, effective security mechanisms are really difficult to be implemented.  Current sensor nodes have limited processing capability, which restricts signal analysis and control processes.  Unique characteristics of these new small devices present challenges for networking. New protocols and standards must be created for sensor nodes to communicate with each other. III. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The main tools that were used during the project included Java and its libraries, Squawk SDK and J-Sim. The hardware involved in the project included Sun SPOT nodes and a basic PC with the packages mentioned above installed. Since my project requires my code to be written in Java to run on the Sun SPOT nodes, I have chosen java and its related packages to develop the entire system. For the user interface an open source java graphing library (J2D) was used to present line graphs of the temperature and light recorded for selected nodes. This library was used for two key reasons, an external graphing library was needed since java's library's doesn't provide an easy way to develop graphs, and it did exactly what I needed, while still being simple to learn and use. The Sun SPOTs SDK was essential to the project as I needed to use its libraries to develop code for the Sun SPOT nodes. By reading simple examples found with the SDK resource i will able to develop the needed code for the system. J-Sim, a simulation tool was used for the first task of the project which was to simulate the path taken from each node to the sink and ensure it was the shortest. J-Sim was chosen over other possible candidates such as bSpots for a number of reasons such as ease of use, ability to do what is required and familiarity with the tool. The use of Sun SPOT Nodes was essential for the successful completion of the project. As mentioned in section one of this document, the code that I developed in the earlier stages of the project needed to be migrated to the Squawk environment and then run on Sun SPOT nodes, hence showing the necessity of the nodes. Coding and Design Methods A small concern that played a part during coding was to ensure that each class I developed had low dependency/coupling between other classes. Initially some of the user interface classes showed to have high coupling as
  • 3. Air Programming on Sunspot with Use of Wireless Networks (IJSRD/Vol. 1/Issue 8/2013/0005) All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 1544 many of the classes depended heavily on the Visualiser GUI class. Quickly fixed by dividing the Visualier GUI class into many classes. I chose to ensure my code had low coupling because this is a key sign of a well-structured computer system and makes code a lot easier to understand and maintain. Due to the nature of the project I felt there were no common design patterns that I could make use of, except those forced upon us, i.e. Java's swing library follows a structured way to add components to a window. To improve the look and readability of code in general, I decided to implement a standard coding strategy, on how I code should be written, in terms of spacing between braces etc. Algorithms In this project, I need an algorithm to build the multi-hop routing protocol. Among several available routing algorithms I chose Bellman-Ford, a distance-vector algorithm, to find the shortest path from each sensor node to the sink. The routing algorithm should be simple to avoid overhead since each sensor node has only a limited memory capacity. Using Bellman-Ford, each node estimates distance to every other node in the network (distance vectors) and transmits the information to its neighbours, then it receives similar distance-vectors from its neighbors. Bellman-Ford algorithm can adapt to traffic changes and link failures as well as is suitable for networks with multiple administrative entities. Hence, Bellman-Ford was a good choice for building a multi-hop routing protocol in my project. IV. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE There are four main layers to my application as a whole, the database layer, visualiser (GUI Layer), J-Sim(Simulation Layer) and Sensor nodes. Each layer can function separately, but only when placed together will the complete application work as desired. The GUI Layer:A. It is used to present the user with statistical data that has been retrieved by each node. This includes the name, id, status, temperature, light and location of each node. All this data is presented in tables, but only the most current temperature and light data for each node is shown. To show how temperature and light performs over time, the visualiser also presents the user with two line graphs. The temperature graph clearly indicates how the temperature of selected nodes varies over time. Similarly the Light Line graph performs the same function with light over time. The Database Layer:B. It essentially allows other layers to store and retrieve data from the database. The database used is MySQL, and it was chosen due to its light weight nature and it being open source. There are 3 tables in the database, Node, Data Node and Neighbor Node. As each name suggests, Node stores all data referring to each node such as each the node's id, name, location, power and data rate. The Data Node table keeps the statistical data gathered by each node such as the temperature, light, status and the time the data was gathered. The Neighbor Node table is used to keep track of each nodes closest neighbor, so it simply stores two node ids, one of the node and the other of its neighbor. The Simulation LayerC. It is built using J-Sim is used to simulate a many-to-one data collection system of wireless sensor networks. The main purpose of developing the simulation is to test the simple many-to-one routing protocol before migrating all the codes to J2ME/Squawk environment. To support simulating Wireless Sensor Networks, J-Sim provides object-oriented definitions of (i) target, sensor and sink nodes,(ii) sensor and wireless communication channels, mobility model and power model. Input data such as network’s configuration that includes network’s size, locations of all the nodes in the area and the range of each sensor node is written in the form of a Tcl/Java file. The output of the simulation will be stored into the database which is connected to the visualiser so that the simulation’s results could be visualised. The Sensor Nodes LayerD. It involves working with Sun SPOT sensor nodes. There are two main types of hardware that are involved in this layer: the base station and target sensor node. Each type of hardware requires a specific type of code to run. The base station's code allows it to receive data from target nodes and to store that data into the database. The target sensor node's code allows it to read data(temperature/light) from the sensor node through an interface (provided in Sun SPOT SDK) and send that data to the base station. Fig. 1: Diagram showing Relationships between the Main Modules
  • 4. Air Programming on Sunspot with Use of Wireless Networks (IJSRD/Vol. 1/Issue 8/2013/0005) All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 1545 The following sequence diagrams and the layers diagram seen above, clearly show the interaction between components/modules in my application. The first diagram shows how the simulation and the visualise work together to report the necessary data to the user. As you can see the J- Sim module, goes through each node, generates random temperature and Light data, sends it to the sink (via the shortest path through other nodes in the network) and then stores it in the database. This is repeated every 10 seconds until the simulation is stopped by a user. At the same time the visualiser is running and it gathers temperature, light and other data from the database for each node and displays it to the user. This is also repeated every 10seconds. V. MODULES AND THEIR INTERFACES Visualiser ModulesA. See class diagram below. . Fig. 2: Class diagram of Visualiser tools 1) DataNodeGui: This module handles all the components that are placed in the data tab. The main method used to gather the information required from the database is get Table Data ,and is called every time a user clicks the refresh button to update the details. 2) LineGraphGui: This module handles all the components that are placed in the Temp Line graph and Light Line graph tabs. Add New Trace is the key method used, as it is called every time a user selects a checkbox next to a node in the node table 3) NodeGui: This module handles all the components that are placed in the node table located to the left of the screen. The method get Table Data is used to retrieve all necessary node details from the database. 4) TopologyGui: This module is the most complex as it handles all the components that are placed in the topology tab. There are three key methods used, make Nodes ,make Node Neighbors and paint Component. As there name suggests make Node creates the circles which represent nodes, make Node Neighbors create lines which represent links between a node and its neighbors and paint Component draws both of these sets of objects to the screen. Paint Component also draws, delete's, moves and resizes the selected areas (rectangles) to the screen based on users mouse clicks. Database ModulesB. See class diagram in fig. 2. 1) Database Connection: This module gives database access to other classes through its setup Connection method. 2) NodeTable/DataNodeTable/Neighbour Node Table: Each of these modules provides access to their respective table in the database. Each of these classes contains a get TableById and getAllTable method which do as each name suggests. DataNodeTable however contains a method which gets a node’s data when given the nodes name, called getNodeDataByName. This method contains multiple queries to achieve the required result. Simulation ModulesC. See class diagram below in fig. 3. Fig. 3: Simulation’s class diagram. 1) Sensor node: This module represents a sensor node which is equipped with (1) a Sensor Protocol Stack which allows it to capture signals generated by target nodes through a sensor channel,
  • 5. Air Programming on Sunspot with Use of Wireless Networks (IJSRD/Vol. 1/Issue 8/2013/0005) All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 1546 and (2) a Wireless Protocol Stack which enables it to send reports to the sink nodes through a wireless channel. 2) Target node: Each target node will generate signals which are then sent to sensor nodes through the sensor channel. A target node includes (1) Target Agent Layer and (2) Sensor Physical Layer. 3) Sink node: A sink node is built in a plug-and-play fashion using a Sensor Application Layer(SensorApp), an Interface Layer (Wireless Agent) with the Wireless Protocol stack: network layer (AODV protocol (drcl.inet.protocol.aodv.AODV)), MAC layer (MAC 802.11(drcl.inet.mac.Mac_802_11)), and physical layer (drcl.inet.mac.WirelessPhy) 4) Sensor channel: The Sensor Channel receives a signal from a target node and sends a copy of that signal to all sensor nodes within the transmission radius of that target node. 5) Wireless channel: Through the Wireless Channel, data from sensor is forwarded to the sink. In addition, the simulation also contains a Battery model, CPU model and Radio model. Sensor Node ModulesD. See the class diagram below. Fig. 4: Class diagram of Sensor nodes Module 1) Bellman-Ford: The module contains the implementation of a multi-hop routing protocol, finding the shortest path using a distance- vector algorithm (Bellman-Ford) 2) Spot's code: The code is deployed in each sensor node so that each node can communicate with each other as long as with the base station. Sender: open connection to another node; read data from hardware and send that data through the opened connection. Start-up: initialize and start the sender. 3) Base station's code: The code is deployed in each sensor node so that each node can communicate with each other as long as with the base station. Display: open connection to another node; read data through the opened connection and process that data. Startup: initialize and start the sender. VI. USER OPERATIONS User Interaction with the SystemA. The main way that users interact with the system is through the use of the visualiser, as it displays all the important data such as temperature and light retrieved from each node. Viewing Statistical DataB. The visualiser separates the main statistical data into page tabs, so it is easy for a user to view large amounts of data without being overwhelmed. The visualiser tabs include: 1) Data: Which shows the most current data (temp, light, location etc) retrieved from the database for each node? This is placed inside an adjustable table. 2) Topology: This tab shows graphically the location of each node on a given map. Each node is represented by a red circle, with its id in the middle. A node’s neighbors are represented by direct lines drawn from the node to each neighbor node. This tab is talked about further in the User interactions section, showing other ways a user can interact it. 3) Temperature Line graph: This tab shows selected nodes in a line graph and how there temperature varies over time. 4) Light Line graph: This tab shows selected nodes in a line graph and how there light varies over time. Further interactions with the line graph are talked about in the User interactions section. VII. CONCLUSION I feel that the Sun SPOT platform is ideally suited for the prototyping and developing of applications for wireless sensor networks. First, there is enough memory, processing power, etc. on each SPOT that one can do interesting things locally; it is much easier to prototype when not constrained by tight resources. Second, it is easy to extend the functionality of a SPOT by connecting sensors or actuators to the demo sensor board or by creating custom sensor boards. Third, writing applications in the Java programming language is easier than using lower-level languages as C. Programming in the Java language also makes it possible to share code between applications on the device and on the desktop, and also makes it easier to integrate the wireless devices with the desktop. Fourth, a program development environment that enables over-the-air deployment and debugging greatly simplifies the task of developing wireless network
  • 6. Air Programming on Sunspot with Use of Wireless Networks (IJSRD/Vol. 1/Issue 8/2013/0005) All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 1547 applications. The Sun SPOT is a mid-level sensor device that enables exploratory programming of sensor applications. The software architecture is designed to be a framework for experimentation, encouraging the replacement and addition of new components, such as a mesh-radio stack. REFERENCES [1] Crossbow Technology, Inc., “Mote In-Network Programming User Reference” and “Mica2 Wireless Measurement System Datasheet,” 2003. [2] P. Levis et al., “Trickle: A Self-Regulating Algorithm for Code Propagation and Maintenance in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. 1st Symp. Networked sys. Design and [3] Implementation, 2004, pp. 15–28. [4] T. Stathopoulos, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, “A Remote Code Update Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Tech. rep. CENS-TR-30, UCLA, Center for Embedded Networked Computing, Nov. 2003. [5] J. W. Hui and D. Culler. “The Dynamic Behavior of a Data Dissemination Protocol for Network Programming at Scale,” Proc. ACM SenSys 2004, pp. 81–94. [6] S. S. Kulkarni, and L. Wang, “MNP: Multihop Network Reprogramming Service for Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEEICDCS 2005, pp. 7–16. [7] P. Levis and D. Culler, “The Firecracker Protocol” Proc. 11th ACM SIGOPS Euro. Wksp., Leuven, Belgium, Sept. 2004. [8] A SunSpot Simulator for Datagrams (bSPOTs), URL: http://www.cs.usyd.edu.au/~scholz/projects/Simulator/ [9] Bellman-Ford Algorithm, URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bellman-Ford [10]J-Sim Home Page, URL:http://www.j-sim.org/ [11]MoteView Monitoring Software, URL: http://www.xbow.com/Products/productsdetails.aspx?si d=88 [12]Research – Research Areas – Sensor Nets / RFID - Intel®Mote, URL: http://www.intel.com/research/exploratory/motes.htm [13]Sun Microsystems, URL: http://www.sun.com/ [14]Sun Microsystems Laboratories, URL: http://research.sun.com/ [15]SunSpotWorld – Home of Project Sun SPOT, URL: http://www.sunspotworld.com/ [16]Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia, Wireless Sensor Network, URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_sensor_network.