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Total Physical Response

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Total Physical Response

  1. 2. ‘ Babies don't learn by memorizing lists;
  2. 3. why should children or adults?’ from a lecture by Dr. Asher at Cambridge University, England
  3. 4. TPR is… a method of teaching language using physical movement to react to verbal input in order to reduce student inhibitions and lower their affective filter (stress).
  4. 5. The Origins <ul><li>TPR was originated by Dr. James J. Asher who is a professor emeritus of psychology at San José State University. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Asher observed that the dropout rate of second language students in a traditional program is often as high as 95%. </li></ul><ul><li>He wondered why so many people have a hard time learning a second language although almost no one has no trouble while learning their first language. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Dr. Asher came up with a couple of explanations: <ul><li>Many teachers use methods that were not used while learning the first language. </li></ul><ul><li>There is often found stress in the second language learning environment. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Therefore, Asher decided </li></ul><ul><li>to create a stress-free </li></ul><ul><li>approach to </li></ul><ul><li>learning a second </li></ul><ul><li>language that used </li></ul><ul><li>many methods </li></ul><ul><li>found in the first </li></ul><ul><li>language </li></ul><ul><li>learning experience . </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>According to Asher, TPR is based on the premise that the human brain has a biological program for acquiring any natural language on earth - including the sign language of the deaf. The process is visible when we observe how infants internalize their first language. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>TPR is offered as an example of a general approach called ‘comprehension approach’. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension approach places the value on the student’s understanding of the target language, and thus it emphasizes the listening skills. </li></ul><ul><li>The Natural Approach, like TPR, is regarded as a comprehension-based approach because of its emphasis on initial silent period in the production of language. </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Natural Approach <ul><li>The NA was developed by Tracy Terrell and Stephen Krashen in 1977. It came to have a wide influence in language teaching in the United States and around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The most striking proposal of the NA theory is that adults can still acquire second languages and that the ability to 'pick up' languages does not disappear at puberty. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>The theory behind the NA implies that adults can acquire all but the phonological aspect of any foreign language . </li></ul><ul><li>While learning adults have two paths to follow: Acquisition and learning. However, children have only one: Acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>For Krashen, even Grammar Translation Method is not as old and traditional as the method of acquiring a language in its natural environment, a method which has been used for hundreds of thousands of years. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition Hypotheses <ul><li>The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The Natural Order Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The Monitor Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The Input Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The Affective Filter Hypothesis </li></ul>
  12. 13. The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis <ul><li>The Acquired System vs. The Learned System </li></ul><ul><li>Learned competence functions (LC) as a monitor or editor. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Learning does not become acquisition.’ Stephen Krashen </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar study (learning) is less effective than simple exposure (acquisition).   </li></ul>
  13. 14. The Monitor Hypothesis <ul><li>The relationship between acquisition and learning and the influence of the latter on the former. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Fluency’ in second language performance is due to 'what we have acquired', not ‘what we have learned’. </li></ul><ul><li>Three conditions :(1)Having enough time; (2) focusing on form; (3) knowing the rule. </li></ul>
  14. 15. The Natural Order Hypothesis <ul><li>Language rules are acquired in a predictable order and certain rules tend to be acquired before others. </li></ul><ul><li>The implication of natural order is not that second or foreign language teaching materials should be arranged in accordance with this sequence but that acquisition is subconscious and free from conscious intervention. </li></ul>
  15. 16. The Input Hypothesis <ul><li>Explains how successful “acquisition” occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with 'acquisition' not 'learning‘ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Comprehensible input' should be provided. </li></ul><ul><li>(Krashen defined the present “level” as i and the ideal level of input as i +1.) </li></ul>
  16. 17. The Affective Filter Hypothesis <ul><li>A number of 'affective variables' play a facilitative, but non-causal, role in second language acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>These variables : Motivation, Self-Confidence and Anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>People acquire a second language only if their affective filters are low enough to allow them to receive adequate input. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Brain Lateralization Asher -> Right Brain Learning Language acqusition happens through motor movement.
  18. 19. Sufficient amount of right hemisphere learning Language production & other abstract language processes
  19. 20. Reduction of Stress
  20. 21. <ul><li>Stress-free environment </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxed and pleasurable experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on the meaning interpreted by movement </li></ul>In order to reduce stress;
  21. 22. Design
  22. 23. <ul><li>Ultimate Aim: To teach basic speaking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Major Classroom Activity : Imperative Drills </li></ul><ul><li>Syllabus: Sentence-based </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Roles: Listener – Performer </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback: Parent – Children example </li></ul><ul><li>Plan: No basic text. Concrete materials and realia is used instead. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Objectives <ul><li>To teach oral proficiency at a beginning level and the ultimate aim is to teach basic speaking skills. </li></ul><ul><li>To produce learners who are capable of free communication, which is understandable to a native speaker. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Syllabus The syllabus is predictable from the exercises used in the class: A sentence-based syllabus with grammatical & lexical criteria being primary in selecting teaching items. TPR requires initial attention to meaning rather than to the form of items. Grammar is thus taught inductively.
  25. 26. Learning Activities Imperative drills are the major classroom activity in TPR. Other class activities include role plays and slide presentations. Conversational dialogues are delayed until after almost 120 hours of instruction.
  26. 27. Roles of Learners & Teacher <ul><li>Learners have the primary roles </li></ul><ul><li>of listener & performer. They </li></ul><ul><li>listen attentively and respond </li></ul><ul><li>physically to the commands </li></ul><ul><li>given. The teacher who has a </li></ul><ul><li>direct and active role has the </li></ul><ul><li>responsibility of providing the </li></ul><ul><li>best kind of exposure to </li></ul><ul><li>language. </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>“ It is wise to write out the exact utterances </li></ul><ul><li>you will be using and especially the novel </li></ul><ul><li>commands because the action is so fast </li></ul><ul><li>moving, there is usually not time for create spontenaously.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Asher (1977:42) </li></ul>
  28. 29. Materials For absolute beginners lessons may not require the use of materials since the teacher’s voice, actions and gestures may be sufficient. The teacher can use basic classroom objects such as books, pens etc. As the course develops, the teacher will need to collect new materials. These may include pictures, realia, slides, word charts.
  29. 30. TPR Student Kit - Supermarket
  30. 31. Procedure
  31. 32. <ul><li>Review </li></ul><ul><li>New Commands </li></ul><ul><li>Role Reversal </li></ul><ul><li>Reading and Writing </li></ul>
  32. 33. Review <ul><li>Teacher gives a summary of the last lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher repeats the </li></ul><ul><li>verbs/items etc. that </li></ul><ul><li>were learned in </li></ul><ul><li>the previous lesson. </li></ul>
  33. 34. New commands <ul><li>Giving the commands. </li></ul><ul><li>Three commands at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Varying the sequence of commands. </li></ul>
  34. 35. How much of a language can be taught through the use of imperatives
  35. 36. An Advanced Lesson of TPR <ul><li>Teacher: Rachel, walk to the blackboard. </li></ul><ul><li>(Rachel gets up and walks to the blackboard.)    </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher: Class, if Rachel walked to the blackboard, stand up. </li></ul><ul><li>     (The class stands up.) </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher: Rachel, write your name on the blackboard. </li></ul><ul><li>(Rachel writes her name on the blackboard.) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher: Class, if Rachel wrote her name on the blackboard, sit down. </li></ul><ul><li>       (The class sits down.)  </li></ul>
  36. 37. Role Reversal <ul><li>Students commanding their teacher and classmates. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading and Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Writing the new items on the board. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Some Characteristics of TPR <ul><li>Focusing on meaning and comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>Seated in a semi-circle. </li></ul><ul><li>Great deal of listening and acting. </li></ul><ul><li>Directing a performance in which the students are actors. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal response is not necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Humor is easy to introduce. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher always uses the target language. </li></ul><ul><li>Overcoming the fear of speaking </li></ul>
  38. 39. Advantages of TPR <ul><li>Students enjoying moving around the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Not preparing long hours </li></ul><ul><li>before the lessons. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective for both adult and young learners. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Disadvantages of TPR <ul><li>Best suitable for beginners. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging for shy students. </li></ul><ul><li>Rude and inappropriate language of the learner. </li></ul>
  40. 41. References <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>T.Diaz-Rico, L. (2004). Teaching English Learners Strategies and Methods . Pearson Education, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Herrell, A., & Jordan, M. (2004) Fifty Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners . Pearson Education, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>D.Moore, K. (2005). Effective Instructional Strategies . Sage Publications, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Gonzalez, V., & Yawkey, T., & Minaya-Rowe, L. (2006). English-As-A-Second-Language (ESL) Teaching and Learning . Pearson Education, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>C.Richards, J., & S.Rodgers, T. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching . Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Web Sites </li></ul><ul><li>http://faculty.ucmerced.edu/khakuta/LAU/ICLangLit/NaturalApproach.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://naturalway.awardspace.com/articles/article002.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.tpr-world.com </li></ul><ul><li>Articles </li></ul><ul><li>The Learning Strategy of the Total Physical Response: A Review </li></ul><ul><li>James J. Asher http://www.jstor.org/stable/323182 </li></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>Thank You For Listening </li></ul>