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The Shape of Food Security – A Presentation on the Creation, Life, and Publications of Food Security

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Serge Savary and Richard Strange
The Shape of Food Security – A Presentation on the Creation, Life, and Publications of Food Security
JUN 4, 2019 - 12:15 PM TO 01:30 PM EDT

Publicada em: Governo e ONGs
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The Shape of Food Security – A Presentation on the Creation, Life, and Publications of Food Security

  1. 1. The Shape of Food Security a presentation on the creation, life, and publications of Food Security Serge Savary 1*, Stephen Waddington 2 and Richard Strange 3* * speakers (1) INRA, UMR Agir, Centre INRA Toulouse-Occitanie, France (2) Cuernavaca, Mexico (3) Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, UK
  2. 2. Norman Borlaug 1914-2009
  3. 3. Stem Rust of Wheat Caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici
  4. 4. Peter Scott
  5. 5. Strange RN and Scott PR (2005) Plant Disease: a Threat to Global Food Security. Annual Review of Phytopathology 43: 83-116
  6. 6. Distribution of ‘Food Security’ Articles Among Journals 2005-2008 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
  7. 7. Reasons for Starting a Journal Devoted to Food Security 1. Norman Borlaug’s gauntlet 2. Support by distinguished scientists 3. Food Security papers were widely distributed in the literature 4. and the importance of plant health for global food security
  8. 8. Problem of Title Wide scope • Physical Environment • Biological Environment • Socio-Economic and Political Environment
  9. 9. Solution to the Problem of the Title Food Security: the science, sociology and economics of food production and access to food
  10. 10. Celebrating the Launch of Food Security in Torino 2008
  11. 11. What Sort of Papers Do We Publish? • Physical environment – Soil, Water, Climate • Biological Environment – Disease, Insects, Weeds • Sociological Environment • Nutritional Environment • Political and Economic Environment
  12. 12. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Growth of Food Security as a journalPages
  13. 13. Necessity for an Editorial Board Senior Editors • Physical environment – Reimund Rötter: Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany • Biological Environment – Stephen Waddington (and Deputy Editor in Chief): Cuernavaca, Mexico • Sociological Environment – Connie Almekinders: WUR, Wageningen, The Netherlands • Nutritional Environment – Michael Dibley: The University of Sydney, School of Public Health, Australia • Political and Economic Environment – Derrill Watson: Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, USA
  14. 14. Paper Flow EiC alerted to new submission Appoints SE Appoints AE Appoints 2 Reviewers AE’s Decision SE’s Decision EiC’s Decision Appoints AE Appoints 2 Reviewers AE’s Decision Appoints 2 Reviewers
  15. 15. Analysing Food Security publications • Which topics have been most addressed? • Are all aspects of Food Security addressed? • Any heterogeneity? • How inter-disciplinary is the journal? • What is the shape of the food security problem, through the lens of Food Security as a journal? Objectives
  16. 16. Analysis of Food Security publications • sample: articles published in Food Security since January 2009 till June 2018 • use of the web of knowledge • use of Title, Abstract, Keywords to characterise each article and encode variables • phrases or key words searched within (1) Title, (2) Abstract, and (3) Keywords, in this order • each article classified using non-overlapping typologies of categories for each variable • 552 articles processed and involved in the analysis • statistical methods distribution frequencies, contingency tables, chi-square tests, and (multiple) correspondence analysis Methods
  17. 17. Analysis of Food Security publications Variables Codes Values FoodSecComp Production; Stability; Availability-Stocks; PhysicalAccess; EconAccess; Util-Safe-Nut Target - Scale Global; Country-Region; Household; Individuals (children or women) Article type FEX: field or experimental study, survey, or case-study; COP: commentary or opinion; REV: review; MOD: methods and models StudyRegion (different regions of the world) System agrosystem; forest; freshw; marine; cities; garden; socsys: social and economic system(s); market-loc: local market system(s); trade-glob: global trade system(s); foodsys: food and nutritional system(s); value chains; policy-env FoodSecFactor The many factors that may influence Systems. Many values, from “Belief-Rituals” to “Water”
  18. 18. Distributions: type of articles • Large number of empirical (field, experiment, survey, etc.) studies • Many reviews • Fewer papers with commentaries and opinions, or on methods and models COP FEX MOD REV article type 0 100 200 300 400 numberofarticles
  19. 19. Distributions: components of food security • Production is the component most frequently addressed • The (production) stability, availability- stocks, economic access, and nutritional components equivalently represented • Quite a few studies on multiple components • Very few (4) studies addressing the physical access Production Stability Availability-Stocks PhysicalAccess EconAccess U til-Safe-N ut M ultiple N A components of food security 0 100 200 300 numberofarticles
  20. 20. Distributions: scales • Studies at the household scale dominate • Followed by country-region and global • Fewer papers on individual scales, including children and women G lobal C ountry-R egion H ousehold W om en C hildren Individuals scale or target of study 0 50 100 150 200 250 numberofarticles
  21. 21. Distributions: systems considered • Articles dealing with agrosystems dominate • The food, social, (local) market, global trade, and policy systems however collectively represent about half the publications • Fewer papers on production systems that are not (or not strictly speaking) agrosystems: cities, forest, fresh water, marine, and gardens agrosystem forestfreshw m arinegardens citiesfoodsyssocsys m arket-loc trade-glob policy-env N A system considered 0 100 200 300numberofarticles
  22. 22. Distributions: factors of food security • Very many factors of food security considered • Policies and R&D are dominant • Adoption (of technologies), better diets, inadequate diets, markets & prices, pathogens and pests, are frequent • Seemingly under-represented: animal health, beliefs and rituals, biodiversity, conflicts, migrations Adoption Anim alH ealth Beliefs-R ituals BetterD iets Biodiversity Biofuels C lim ate C hange C onflicts D ietary transition Education Fuel G ender G overnance Inadequate diet Land U se M arket& Prices M igrations Pathogens & Pests Pesticides Policies Post-H arvest Poverty R &D -Food SecuritySoils ToxicantsW ater factors of food security 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 numberofarticles
  23. 23. Distributions: Geographic origin of articles • SSA strongly dominant • South Asia well represented • Other regions in the developing world less represented • A few studies in North America, Western Europe • Sizable representation of global studies Am ericaC entral Am ericaN orth Am ericaSouth AsiaC entral AsiaEast AsiaSouth AsiaSouthEast EuropeEast EuropeW estO ceania SSA TropicalW orldW AN A W orld N .A. studied world region 0 100 200 300numberofarticles
  24. 24. Multiple correspondence analysis: [Components x Scale] -2 -1 0 1 2 -1.5-1.0- Dim 1 (16.62%) Dim2(14.59%) Availability-Stocks EconAccess Multiple Production Stability Util-Safe-Nut Country-Region Global Household Indiv-Person • There is a strong association between Components and Scales • χ2 = 80.325 (15 df, P < 0.000) • Individuals associated with nutrition (Util-Safe-Nut) • Household associated with Economic access • Country -Region scale associated with Stocks and Production • Global scale weakly associated with several components
  25. 25. -2 -1 0 1 2 -1.5-1.0- Dim 1 (16.62%) Dim2(14.59%) Availability-Stocks EconAccess Multiple Production Stability Util-Safe-Nut Country-Region Global Household Indiv-Person agrosystem cities foodsys OtherSystem policy-env socsys trade-glob Multiple correspondence analysis: [Components x Scale] + Systems • The food system is associated with the individual scale, and Nutrition • Cities and the social system are associated with the household scale • Trade (global) is associated with country and region
  26. 26. -2 -1 0 1 2 -1.5-1.0- Dim 1 (16.62%) Dim2(14.59%) Availability-Stocks EconAccess Multiple Production Stability Util-Safe-Nut Country-Region Global Household Indiv-Person AmericaCentralAmericaNorth AmericaSouth AsiaCentral AsiaEast AsiaSouth AsiaSouthEast EuropeEast EuropeWest N.A. Oceania SSA TropicalWorld WANA World Multiple correspondence analysis: [Components x Scale] + Regions • South Asia, North America are associated with the household scale • Central Asia, WANA, East Europe, (East Asia) are associated with country and region
  27. 27. Production systems Natural resources Social & economic systems collapsing biodiversity climate change global population
  28. 28. Some (tentative) conclusions • (we’re still working on these) • success of the journal in being interdisciplinary • challenges of being so • Some (cautious) directions: – Components: look more into the physical access – Scales: more on the individual (women, children, the elderly) – Factors: animal health, beliefs & rituals, biodiversity, conflicts, migrations – Systems: look at systems other than “agrosystems”: forests (and agroforests); freshwater; marine; cities; gardens
  29. 29. Webpage of Food Security: www.springer.com/life+sci/agriculture/journal/12571 Online submission via Editorial Manager: http://www.editorialmanager.com/fose To receive alerts of new articles, subscribe at: www.springer.com/alerting Impact Factor 2.970 In partnership with the International Society for Plant Pathology www.isppweb.org ISPP Task Force on Global Food Security www.isppweb.org/foodsecurity_background.asp Special rate for Members of ISPP and Associated Societies Read more at: http://www.isppweb.org/foodsecurity_journal.asp Available through Springer Developing Countries Initiatives such as AGORA, HINARI and OARE. 2009-2012, 4 volumes (4 issues each) and one supplement 2013-2017 5 volumes (6 issues each) ISSN: 1876-4517 (print version)
  30. 30. Distribution frequencies of articles