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Hydrodrive electronic catalytic convertor cum synthesizer mechanism adopted
COMBUSTION KINETICS CHANGE!.
HOW DO WE ACHIEVE
EMISSION REDUCTION AND FUEL SAVING IN THE
ELECTRONIC CATALYTIC CONVERTOR?.
Plasma is usually obtained when sufficient energy, higher than the
ionization energy, is added to atoms of a gas, causing ionization and
production of ions and electrons. Parallel and concomitant to the
ionization occur the opposite process of recombination of electrons
with ions to form neutral atoms or molecules. Though we could also
make a plasma by heating a gas to very high temperatures, it would
not be a good way to do so as the container itself would heat up and
vaporize and ionize. Due to this reason we usually make plasma by
heating a gas to moderate temperatures and driving a current through
it or using radio frequency waves to energize it. Although plasmas
are commonly produced by electric discharges in gases, plasma can
also be obtained when sufficient energy is provided to a liquid or a
solid to cause its vaporization and ionization.
The most commonly used method of generating and sustaining a
low-temperature plasma for technological and technical application
is by applying an electric field to a neutral gas. Any volume of a
neutral gas always contains a few electrons and ions that are formed,
for example, as the result of the interaction of cosmic rays or
radioactive radiation with the gas. These free charge carriers are
accelerated by the electric field and new charged particles may be
created when these charge carriers collide with atoms and molecules
in the gas or with the surfaces of the electrodes. This leads to an
avalanche of charged particles that is eventually balanced by charge
carrier losses, so that a steady-state plasma develops.
There are various other ways to supply the necessary energy for
plasma generation to a neutral gas. One possibility is to supply
thermal energy, for example in flames, where exothermic chemical
reactions of the molecules are used as the prime energy source.
Adiabatic compression of the gas is also capable of gas heating up to
the point of plasma generation.
Particle physics in space: basic particle motion
If the magnetic field is nonuniform in a direction perpendicular to the
local magnetic field, a drift results:
S. Elkington, Feb 22, 2009
On the other hand, a magnetic field that is nonuniform in a
direction parallel to the magnetic field will cause a particle to
experience a force away from the regions of strong magnetic
Fm = -mÑ||B
Particle physics in space: basic particle motion
A charged particle will move at constant velocity in a straight
line unless acted on by a force. In space, the most important
forces for charged particles arise from electric and magnetic
•Electric fields (E) will accelerate particles in the direction of the field.
•Magnetic fields (B) will accelerate particles in a direction
perpendicular to the both the B field and the particles motion.
Thus a magnetic field will cause a particle to execute some kind
r = ^ = ^ “Gyroradius”
S. Elkington, Feb 22, 2009
F = E+ v´ B
c mv L
L w =
LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY
ENHANCES COMBUSTION IN PROPANE
BUT ADMITS -YET TO APPLY SAME IN
DIESEL OR BIO-DIESEL
HYDRODRIVE’S- SRINIVASAN GOPALAKRISHNAN
HAVING FILED PATENTS ,CONFIRMING MUCH EARLIER
THE PROCESS AND THE SYNTHESIZER
INSTALLED IN THE FIELD,PROVED FOR THE VARIOUS BENEFITS
IN SEVERAL COUNTRIES !.
ELECTRONIC CATALYTIC CONVERTOR
CHANGES THE COMBUSTION KINETICS
Which plays vital role in emission control, engine performance
improvements and fuel economy.
To achieve the stringent emission norms and low emission vehicle standards, exhaust gas
treatment alone is not sufficient and fuel quality improvement has become a necessity to alter
the KINETICS OF COMBUSTION to result in different mass fraction of the combustion
products namely the emissions.
Kinetics of Combustion is influenced by :
1.Fuel quality modified by refinery processes such as change in sulfur level,
aromatics,fuel composition,additive volume,viscosity,density,cetane /octane changes
2.Fuel quality modified by fuel adulteration or mixing with ethanol,methanol,any
oxidants or external additives sold at the gas pumps.
3.Intake air temperature, it’s humidity content and air pressure into the engine.
4.Air to Fuel Ratio with which the engine is operated.
5.Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR) into engine intake and it’s
6.CRDI-Common Rail Diesel Injection with HIGH PRESSURE injection.
7.ONBOARD FUEL SYNTHESIS through EXCITATIONS and PLASMA
CATALYSIS of the fuels resulting in hydrogen ions,free radicals
generation leading to fuel property changes in REAL TIME such as
decreased ignition delay,reduction of ignition threshold,change in the
activation energy to facilitate fuel injection timing advance/spark ignition
advance or change of Air to Fuel Ratio for lean combustion resulting in
enhancement of the efficiency of chemical energy release during
combustion for higher engine efficiency with less heat, knock free engine
with smoothness,enhanced power,improved fuel economy with lowest
WHY COMBUSTION CONTROL THROUGH
COMBUSTION KINETICS CHANGE IS THE
NEED OF THE HOUR?.
1.EXHAUST GAS TREATMENT HAS LIMITATIONS.
2.NO x REDUCTION THROUGH EXHAUST TREATMENT IS
COSTLIER AND COMPLICATED.
3.EXHAUST GAS RE-CIRCULATION (EGR) FOR NO x REDUCTION
INCREASES PARTICULATE MATTER AND BECOMES
INEFFECTIVE WITH SLIGHT EGR TEMPERATURE INCREASE
AND LESS SUITABLE FOR PLACES WITH HIGH AMBIENT
TEMPERATURE WITH LESS HUMIDITY.
4.EXHAUST GAS RE-CIRCULATION (EGR) REDUCES ENGINE LIFE.
5.EXHAUST GAS RE-CIRCULATION (EGR) NECESSIATES FUEL INJECTION
TIME RETARD DUE TO DILUTION AND TEMPERATURE INCREASE OF
INTAKE FUEL MIXTURE AND A RETARDED TIMING WILL INCREASE
6.EXHAUST NO x REDUCING CATALYST MANDATORILY REQUIRE
STOICHIOMETRIC FUEL, COSTLIER ULTRA LOW SULFUR DIESEL FOR
SATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE AND THUS DEPRIVE THE ENGINE
BEING OPERATED AT HIGHER EFFICIENCIES WITH LOWER FUEL
CONSUMPTION UNDER LEAN BURN CONDITIONS FOR ENHANCED
7. EXHAUST TREATMENT PURELY DEPENDS UPON NOBLE METALS AND
ULTRA LOW SULFUR DIESEL.
8. WITH THE COST OF NOBEL METAL PRICES SOARING DUE TO HEAVY
DEMAND,IT WILL INCREASE THE COST OF EMISSION CONTROL.
9. SIMILARLY,WITH WORLD OIL PRICES RISING DUE TO DEPLETION
OF CRUDE RESERVES ULSD WILL BECOME COSTLIER THEREBY
MAKING ENGINE RUNNING COSTS HIGHER.
The KNOCK LIMIT SHIFT calls for LAMBDA(AIR-FUEL RATIO) CHANGE
through ECU/FUEL MAP REPROGRAMMING facilitating LEAN BURN
COMBUSTION to take advantages of LESSER EMISSION,IMPROVED
ENGINE EFFICIENCY,LESS FUEL CONSUMPTION,SMOOTHEST ENGINE
that we have never experienced.
BENEFITS FORVEHICLE USERS,OIL
AND THE NATION
1.VEHICLE USERS GET BENEFITED WITH LESS FUEL PRICE HIKE
BURDEN,LESS POLLUTION ,BETTER ENGINE PERFORMANCE.
2.NATION IS BENEFITED WITH Rs.30,000 CRORES OF LESS OIL IMPORT
BILL ANNUALLY AND SAME AMOUNT FOREIGN EXCHANGE
3.FOR VEHICLE MANUFACTURERS,CLEAN COMBUSTION WITH
HYDRODRIVE ECC HELP TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY AND LIFE OF
EXHAUST GAS TREATMENT SYSTEMS
4.NATION WILL SAVE ON LESS OIL IMPORT BILL.OTHER BENEFITS ARE
MORE EXCISE AND SALES TAX REVENUE THROUGH SALES OF
HYDRODRIVE WITH EMPLOYMENT FACILITIES THROUGH RETROFITS
AND VOLUME PRODUCTION.