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Organizational Learning in Practice

Knowledge management processes allow enterprises to improve outcomes and make better decisions faster. It fosters service expansion, and customized service, yet is often considered optional, and either skipped-over or poorly executed. Knowledge management is more than simply creating a knowledge-base and the use of a KM tool—it’s a critical inline process for capturing and leveraging essential assets of an organization. This presentation was given at a workshop that discussed the challenges of implementing knowledge management in service oriented organizations, and how you can successfully get others to support this initiative. You will also learn how a Fortune Global 500 company, exercises KM processes worldwide to generate competitive advantages, and yield profit while improving outcomes. Presented September 17, 2015 to KM Chicago and HDI Chicagoland

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Organizational Learning in Practice

  1. 1. Organizational Learning in Practice Valeria L. Hunter, Independent Information Service Advisor September 17, 2015
  2. 2. Personal Context • Experience: 30+ years in the energy industry, 8 years in KM/OL • Seventeen years: Amoco Pipelines, BP Pipelines, BP Alternative Fuels (Hydrogen Refueling), and BP Refining Technology • Eight years: Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory • Four years: Westinghouse Hanford Company, Rockwell International • Two years: Detroit Edison
  3. 3. Discussion Context • Business Segments using these practices • Downstream businesses (Refining) • Upstream businesses (Exploration and Production) • Organizational Learning vs. Knowledge Management Capital Projects !
  4. 4. Simple questions - only one right answer: Best practice Question example: What safety inspection should be conducted on “x” piece of equipment? Response example: Create Q+A (expert) database or checklist or new Standard Operating Procedure 1 Complicated questions - better or worse answers: Better Practice Question example: What is the best way to stop duplication of effort on technical projects? Response example: Create a lessons learned portal or decision map or “expert search” 2 Complex questions - no apparent right answer: Emergent Practice Question example: Why is demand dropping in “x” and “y” markets? Response example: Engage a Community of Practice or Action Learning event 3 Fundamentally Undefined Questions: Novel Practice Question example: What disruptions will this organization need to respond to in 2025 and what do we need to do in order to be prepared? Response example: Convene a Knowledge Hacking event 4 © K3Cubed Ltd. 2014 www.k3cubed.com Developed by D. Griffiths, PhD © K3Cubed Ltd. 2015 Questions drive knowledge acquisition, storage, sharing and development KC Questioning Gap-Response
  5. 5. Knowledge Management System Solutions Technology systems available to practitioners Document Repository Local Lessons Repository Q&A Forum Self-service library of tools, templates and examples Lessons from organization events. Locally validated. Lessons of enterprise significance. Promoted from local organizations. Q&A Discussion Forum – Ask questions, provide responses. Supported by virtual community membership. Expertise Locator – Individual profiles and virtual community memberships. SME Locator Shared Learning Repository
  6. 6. Simple questions - only one right answer: Best practice Question example: What safety inspection should be conducted on “x” piece of equipment? Response example: Create Q+A (expert) database or checklist or new Standard Operating Procedure 1 Complicated questions - better or worse answers: Better Practice Question example: What is the best way to stop duplication of effort on technical projects? Response example: Create a lessons learned portal or decision map or “expert search” 2 Complex questions - no apparent right answer: Emergent Practice Question example: Why is demand dropping in “x” and “y” markets? Response example: Engage a Community of Practice or Action Learning event 3 Fundamentally Undefined Questions: Novel Practice Question example: What disruptions will this organization need to respond to in 2025 and what do we need to do in order to be prepared? Response example: Convene a Knowledge Hacking event 4 © K3Cubed Ltd. 2014 www.k3cubed.com Developed by D. Griffiths, PhD © K3Cubed Ltd. 2015 Questions drive knowledge acquisition, storage, sharing and development KC Questioning Gap-Response
  7. 7. DOCUMENT TOOLKIT REPOSITORY
  8. 8. Toolkit Repository • Find tools, templates, and examples in the toolkit repository • Submit the tools, templates, and examples that you find useful at your site to share with colleagues.
  9. 9. Simple questions - only one right answer: Best practice Question example: What safety inspection should be conducted on “x” piece of equipment? Response example: Create Q+A (expert) database or checklist or new Standard Operating Procedure 1 Complicated questions - better or worse answers: Better Practice Question example: What is the best way to stop duplication of effort on technical projects? Response example: Create a lessons learned portal or decision map or “expert search” 2 Complex questions - no apparent right answer: Emergent Practice Question example: Why is demand dropping in “x” and “y” markets? Response example: Engage a Community of Practice or Action Learning event 3 Fundamentally Undefined Questions: Novel Practice Question example: What disruptions will this organization need to respond to in 2025 and what do we need to do in order to be prepared? Response example: Convene a Knowledge Hacking event 4 © K3Cubed Ltd. 2014 www.k3cubed.com Developed by D. Griffiths, PhD © K3Cubed Ltd. 2015 Questions drive knowledge acquisition, storage, sharing and development KC Questioning Gap-Response
  10. 10. LOCAL LESSONS REPOSITORY
  11. 11. Local Lessons Repository Q&A Discussion Forum
  12. 12. . . . sharing and searching • Lessons are searchable locally • Lessons may be searched globally • Global searches also reach into the discussion forum
  13. 13. Shared Learning Repository
  14. 14. Content: Quality Lessons A Quality Lesson . . . includes . . . is NOT . . . has structure • a factual statement / factual description of a set of events • a specific recommended action / set of actions • a reference to the relevant existing Standard, Practice, or process so it can be updated • an emotive or subjective view or opinion related to an event • what results from failure to follow an existing standard practice or process • a set of opinions or feedback on vendor performance • Expectation • Actual Event • Difference • Learning • Recommendation(s) Lessons follow the Quality Lesson format
  15. 15. Q&A DISCUSSION FORUM
  16. 16. Question and Answer Forum Question and Answer Forums • Tool that allows access to employee and contractor voluntary knowledge and expertise through threaded discussions • Has searching capability to all previously asked questions • Also searches the Shared Learning Repository as well as the Document Library which contains information already validated by subject matter experts.
  17. 17. Introduction to Q&A Forum • The Q&A Forum is a web-based collaboration tool for the enterprise that allows individuals to access peoples' voluntary knowledge and expertise through threaded discussions • Participation in a Q&A Forum provides you with access to the knowledge and experience of others and also allows other members to benefit from your experiences. It provides a powerful mechanism to proactively seek early input into potential issues or opportunities, and to improve planning and execution activities in our Operations • Although the distribution lists for categories have SMEs as members it is important to remember that you have the responsibility to ensure the responses are appropriate before acting on them • Not only do the Q&A Forums provide you with the capability to search all previously asked questions it also searches the Shared Learning System as well as document libraries which contains information already validated by SME’s. Forum leadership is continually looking at ways to improve these linkages and thereby increase technical knowledge
  18. 18. Questions vs Information Questions and Answers • The Q&A database is searched before the user can ask a question. The search function performs an “Exact Phrase” search to limit the number of articles/documents found. • If the user didn’t find a satisfactory response: • Refine Your Search, or • Ask the Community • Ask the Community: a form is displayed into which the user can enter a question and attach documents, images and or websites. • The user may attach as many websites and documents/images as you wish. • When complete, the user clicks Send and the system sends an email notification to the distribution list. Add Information • Information is when the user wants to inform and not receive a response. • Information can be HSSE alerts, conference notices, electronic job postings etc. that are posted on the Q&A Forum for information purposes only. • An expiration date is required. • Information is deleted on the expiration date which defaults to 4 weeks.
  19. 19. Receiving Email • Each Category and Sub-Category within Q&A Forum is associated with one or more email distribution lists. In order to receive emails about new questions you must be a member of the relevant distribution list. • Distribution list membership is by request. • To view which distribution lists are attached to each Category within a Forum click on ‘view distribution list’ under the Category Heading. To view the distribution list for the sub-categories you are required to click on the Category to open the list and then scroll over the sub-category and click on ‘view distribution list’. From here you can request to join. Membership may also be requested via Subscribe/Unsubscribe to the Q&R Forum of your interest.
  20. 20. Providing Feedback • The questioner can provide feedback on how they applied the help they received from the responses. • An email will automatically be sent to the question originator after three weeks requesting their feedback on the Q&A tool. This is to enable Forum leadership to assess the value of Q&A Forums. • Additionally, it would also be appreciated if the question originator could update everyone with a Final Word! (located beneath the question in the Forum). How did the information help? This will help others in the future. • SMEs can add a response and in particular are useful to steer if responses are going in an unexpected direction.
  21. 21. Recent Activity • View Recent Posts directly on the home page to see new questions and answers across all Forums. • Click More… to see personalized Recent Activity. New questions that have been asked since your Last Visit, Last Week, Last Month, or Last year. • It will also show you whether any new responses have been posted to questions that you have asked and whether there are any new responses to questions that you have responded to previously. • Just click on the view you want then expand either questions asked or new answers to ‘your Questions’ or new responses to ‘questions you responded too’. • Older questions or responses can be found by using the search function.
  22. 22. EXPERTISE LOCATOR
  23. 23. Purpose • Allows staff to identify other people with particular interests and experience and contact them as appropriate • As the approved Community tool, it is the central on-line place for a community to come together, collaborate and share their knowledge in a positive and focused environment. Connect Communities support Forum and Wiki functionality to enhance knowledge sharing within communities. How can this help? • Helps staff network with others who have similar roles and varying levels of experience so they can identify other people who might help How can this support be accessed? • Available on the intranet • Keep the system effective by updating your page!
  24. 24. Connect profile
  25. 25. Connect
  26. 26. Simple questions - only one right answer: Best practice Question example: What safety inspection should be conducted on “x” piece of equipment? Response example: Create Q+A (expert) database or checklist or new Standard Operating Procedure 1 Complicated questions - better or worse answers: Better Practice Question example: What is the best way to stop duplication of effort on technical projects? Response example: Create a lessons learned portal or decision map or “expert search” 2 Complex questions - no apparent right answer: Emergent Practice Question example: Why is demand dropping in “x” and “y” markets? Response example: Engage a Community of Practice or Action Learning event 3 Fundamentally Undefined Questions: Novel Practice Question example: What disruptions will this organization need to respond to in 2025 and what do we need to do in order to be prepared? Response example: Convene a Knowledge Hacking event 4 © K3Cubed Ltd. 2014 www.k3cubed.com Developed by D. Griffiths, PhD © K3Cubed Ltd. 2015 Questions drive knowledge acquisition, storage, sharing and development KC Questioning Gap-Response
  27. 27. COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE
  28. 28. Community Model Industry1/General Communities • Ensure community activities address business issues • Ensure there are clearly stated goals • Ensure high levels of sponsor expectation • Engage members in developing good practice • Improve the usefulness of tools provided • Promote CoPs ability to help employees solve daily work • Provide funding for face to face events • Provide CoP leader training • Ensure CoP leaders are given sufficient time in role Enterprise Communities • Model is federal by nature and so aligned with the revised performance contract • The way for the enterprise to leverage its technical knowledge across the organization • Consistent messages about the Community role: • Connectivity across business units and center • Improve efficiency by copying what’s already done • Sharing best practices and efficiently documenting our knowledge • Opportunity to standardize on an “enterprise way” over longer term • Supporting short term plant issues, a virtual knowledge pool 1. Data from Communities of Practice Benchmarking Report – Using CoP’s to improve individual and organizational performance, Knowledge & Innovation Network, Warwick Business School, 2006. Survey of 1286 CoP members, across 10 global organizations including 3 Oil & Gas companies
  29. 29. ACTION LEARNING EVENTS
  30. 30. Peer Assists and Peer Reviews • Peer Assist • Individuals or teams request support or assistance from any employee in the company • The horizontal part of the “T-shaped management approach“ where teams share knowledge freely across the organization • Peer Reviews • Required reviews conducted as input to the decision to move projects into future stages • Incremental funding is contingent on successful peer review results • Other incentives can be made contingent on successful peer review
  31. 31. Simple questions - only one right answer: Best practice Question example: What safety inspection should be conducted on “x” piece of equipment? Response example: Create Q+A (expert) database or checklist or new Standard Operating Procedure 1 Complicated questions - better or worse answers: Better Practice Question example: What is the best way to stop duplication of effort on technical projects? Response example: Create a lessons learned portal or decision map or “expert search” 2 Complex questions - no apparent right answer: Emergent Practice Question example: Why is demand dropping in “x” and “y” markets? Response example: Engage a Community of Practice or Action Learning event 3 Fundamentally Undefined Questions: Novel Practice Question example: What disruptions will this organization need to respond to in 2025 and what do we need to do in order to be prepared? Response example: Convene a Knowledge Hacking event 4 © K3Cubed Ltd. 2014 www.k3cubed.com Developed by D. Griffiths, PhD © K3Cubed Ltd. 2015 Questions drive knowledge acquisition, storage, sharing and development KC Questioning Gap-Response
  32. 32. Global and Regional F2F • Technology conferences • Global and/or regional face-to-face meetings (organized by CoP) • Technology Advisor taught training courses
  33. 33. References Prokesch, Steven E. 1997. “Unleashing the Power of Learning: An Interview with British Petroleum’s John Browne.” Harvard Business Review 75(5):147-168. Hansen, Morten T. and Bolko von Oetinger. 2001. “Introducing T- Shaped Managers: Knowledge Management’s Next Generation.” Harvard Business Review 79(3): 106-116. Archibald, Douglas, Richard McDermott, Paul Conville, and Andrew Parker. 2006. “Communities of Practice Benchmarking Report: Using CoPs to Improve Individual and Organisational Performance”. Knowledge & Innovation Network, Warwick Business School, University of Warwick:.
  34. 34. Contact Valeria L. Hunter Independent Information Services and Research Advisor Twitter: @KnowMgr_Hunter KM and Org Learning content website: http://www.huntvale.info Higher Education blog: http://www.huntvale.info/blog KM and LIS reblogs: http://www.lis750.wordpress.com January 1, 2016 – All content consolidated at Business website: http://www.valerialhunter.com Email: valeria@huntvale.info Email: valeria@valerialhunter.com

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