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Inclusion and differentiation in the Geography classroom ‘Differentiation is the process whereby teachers meet the need for progress through the curriculum by selecting appropriate teaching methods to match the individual student’s learning strategies, within a group situation’. Visser 1993 David Drake (AST) – November 2012 Abbeyfield SchoolNB: This is a collection of resources I have created and have collected – but not sure of all the sources. Please contact me if you know of the source for me to credit
Remember Blooms Taxonomy?• Bloom’s Taxonomy is a spectrum of task difficulty.• It goes from easy tasks such as recalling knowledge to harder tasks such as evaluating an argument.
In order to ensure inclusion, there should be a mix of:Mastery Tasks• Can be mastered by all learners in a short period of time regardless of their prior learning.• Allows weaker learners to succeed.• Without this success they will probably give up.Developmental tasks• Stretch the more able, develop the skills required for academic success, and for the world of work.• These tasks develop the skills required for progression to the next educational level.• They also create deep learning, that is, real understanding.
Mastery tasksFor example:• Copy and label a diagram of a hydroelectric power station‘Mastery’ tasks have the following characteristics:• They are easy, typically involving only knowledge and comprehension• They are not dependent on prior learning• They can be attained in a short time, perhaps minutes.• 100% of the students should be able to get them 100% right!• Because they are time rather than ability dependent mastery tasks allow weaker students can enjoy the success, reinforcement, self belief and motivation which makes learning possible.
Developmental tasksFor example:• Survey leisure time opportunities in Your nearest city, and report on your findingsDevelopmental tasks have the following characteristics.:• They are more difficult• They are highly dependent of prior learning• Students can’t get 100%. Development is slow and requires considerable effort.• They involve higher order skills such as evaluation, synthesis, etc.
Using a Learning ladder• Difficult Developmental tasks can be broken down into introductory mastery tasks, followed by a simpler developmental task.• The mastery tasks should prepare the student for the developmental task.• In this way Bloom’s Taxonomy is used as a ladder allowing all students to climb to success.
Using a Learning ladder “Survey leisure time opportunities in your nearest city, and report on your findings”• List ten or more leisure time activities which are available in your nearest city• Find sources of information on other leisure time activities such as local papers and Tourist Information Offices• Make a fuller list of leisure opportunities in your city.• Group these opportunities into general categories such as sport, music, theatre etc. You will need to make up some new general categories.• Group the opportunities by the age of those most likely to be interested in them• Group your activities by geographical area, and by cost.• Think of some other useful ways of grouping the activities.• Use the above to help you plan a report on leisure activities in Chippenham. Your plan could either be a mind-map, or an ordered set of headings.• Write a report on your survey of leisure time opportunities in your nearest city, using the writing frame provided
Helping students with their writing• Writing assignments, essays, and reports is a challenge for students at every level.• Differentiation requires that we break down the difficult task of writing extended pieces of work, giving students a ‘ladder’ up to this high-order skill.There are a number of ways of assisting students with their writing, including:• Breaking the writing task down into a series of tasks.• Help sheets• Planning clocks• Writing frames• Showing students exemplar work and asking them to grade this and learn from it• Making your assessment criteria and grade descriptors explicit and clear• Assessment proformas
Using a writing frameEssay Title: “Outline the trend in UK unemployment from 1991-2001. Explain the various causesof unemployment and describe the approaches governments may use to deal with each type”Possible sentence/paragraph Essay guidance Possible key termsstartsUnemployment can generally Explain what unemployment •Workforcebe defined as ………… is •LabourFrom 1990 to 2001 UK Describe the 1991-2001 •Sourcesunemployment has gone from figures and changes with •Trend…… to …… highs/lows and trend •Rate •Percentage •Increase/Decrease •High/low pointThere are five main types or Go through each type •Technicalcauses of unemployment. explaining how it happens •StructuralFirst there is …… An example with examples •Cyclical (demand)of this is …… •Frictional •SeasonalThe government can take Go through the government •Retrainingsteps to reduce each type of steps saying how they work. •Taxesunemployment for …… they Describe any disadvantages •Government spendingcan …… . The problem with with each step. •Grantsthis method of curing •Sunrise industriesunemployment is that …… •Sunset industries •Infrastructure •Interest rates •Investment •Inflation
Question•Key ‘instruction/Command’ words?•Therefore type of question?•Any terms/names/dates need explaining?IntroductionFirst sentence of first paragraph(Have you made your key point?)Development/explanation of point?Evidence to support your argument?1.2.3.Check: Have you referred back to the question/linked the point explicitly to the question?Link to next paragraph/point?First sentence of second paragraphHave you made your key point?Development/explanation of the point?Evidence to support your argument?1.2.3.Check: Have you referred back to the question/linked the point explicitly to the question?Link to next paragraph point?(History essay-planning proforma copied from a form by Solihull Sixth Form College. See:www.rqa.org.uk, choose Development Projects, then choose Solihull college to see the fullreport.)
Method for using writing frames Teacher models the process through explanation/demonstration Joint activity teacher jointly completes writing frame with class Scaffolded activity students individually use frames to support their writing – these frames can be differentiated to support/stretch the full range of students in a class Involving students in the process class given task of creating the frames that will structure the writing Independent activity students can now structure their writing without the help of the frameSource - National Literacy Trust
Can promote inclusion wellAssertive Questioning• Students are asked an open question. Students work on this individually, or better in pairs, for one to five minutes.• Teacher asks students if they have an answer. If they don’t, help is given.• Teacher nominates students to give their answers, (not volunteers).Buzz Group• Students work in a small group for a few minutes to answer a question or complete a task.• The teacher asks for volunteers to give their groups’ answers.
Explaining Tasks• Students explain the key points of a lesson to each other at the end of that lesson.• In both cases the teacher then gives modelIndividual writing task for students• Students are asked to write an assignment, essay or similar in class or on their own.Worksheet• Students are given a worksheet with a range of graduated questions: that is, starting easy and getting harder.
Experiment/practical ‘discovery style’• Students are given a task to do but not told how to do it.• Students plan a method, then check this with the teacher before starting.• Students who cannot work out how to do it are given a ‘recipe’ style help sheet or helped in some other way.Student Presentation• Students are given a topic to explain to the class. They may work alone or in a small group to prepare, plan and deliver the presentation.• Materials and plans are checked by the teacher before the presentation.
Improving inclusion using weaker methodsTeacher questions, students answer:• mix mastery and developmental questions; use substantial ‘wait time’ and have high expectations of the quality of the answers; use ‘assertive questioning’; etcStudents watching a video or film:• Give students questions that the film will answer before showing it. Make some questions mastery and some developmental.Past Paper exam questions:• If there are no easy questions, write some, and ask students to do these before the past paper question. Many exam questions differentiate well, it depends on the exam.Experiment/practical ‘recipe style’:• Use the ‘discovery style’ or set developmental ‘extension tasks’ for students who have competed the ‘recipe’ satisfactorily.
By task1. Use an able pupil to quickly recap on the previous lesson’s learning for the other pupils.2. Many starter activities require pupils to find a number of examples. An able pupil can be set a higher target, eg Level 4 pupils find five synonyms for the word ‘pleased’, Level 7 pupils find 103. If you are taking feedback during the lesson, enlist an able pupil to record ideas on the board while you lead the discussion.4. Ask able pupils to model their writing or thinking, by explaining their answer/solution to a task to a neighbour.
5. The best way to prove understanding of a topic is to teach it. Get able pupils to teach the less able a key learning point.6. Use AG&T pupils to provide the plenary. Alert them at the start of the lesson to be ready to present their findings to the class at the end of the lesson.7. Ask able pupils to come up with questions to ask during the plenary to test other pupils’ understanding of the lesson.8. Use higher-level questioning and direct questions at particular pupils rather than waiting for the hands up approach. Be ready to probe beyond the first answer in order to make them really think: ‘Why do you think that?’ ‘How did you come to that conclusion?’
Anchor activities A task to which a student automatically moves when an assigned task is finishedTRAITS OF EFFECTIVE ANCHOR ACTIVITIES:• Related to key knowledge, understanding, and skill,• Interesting—appeals to student curiosity, interest, learning preference,• Allows choice—students can select from a range of options• Seldom Graded—teachers should examine the work as they move around the room.• Students may get a grade (Effort grade/Credit) for working effectively, but seldom for the work itself.• The motivation is interest and/or improved achievement.
Examples of Anchor activities• Reading from supplementary material• Working on final products• Free reading• Journal writing• Vocabulary extension• Learning about the people behind ideas• Independent mini project related to the topic• Current events reading• Designing a starter, quiz or plenary• An idea for an improvement, invention, innovation
Bingo extension Abbeyfield Geography - Anchor activity gridLetter to the Teaching it to the Game it Read all about it! editor Year 5’s 3 minute Newspaper Make it Skit or interview biography front page 3 minute What would you Advertisement/overview of Free choice do? Cartoon strip learning Letter to thePoem of the Acrostic review teacher/Blog Webpage learning entry
By support & task1. While other pupils are working on a simple starter use the time to explain to able pupils how they can excel in the lesson, which lower-level tasks they can bypass and which tasks they should tackle to stretch them.2. Ascribe the roles of chairperson or lead learner to able pupils who will then take on the mantle of responsibility and help maintain momentum and focus during tasks.3. Plan your groups carefully. Sometimes able pupils will learn most productively together, sharing and extending their more developed thinking; sometimes it is helpful for them to advise a less-able pupil and have to work harder to successfully articulate their ideas4. Rather than repeating or summarising instructions yourself in front of the whole class, get an able pupil to do so.
By outcome1. Use the now familiar ‘Must do’, ‘Could do’, ‘Should do’ ascribed to classroom tasks or homework to direct the type and length of activities pupils might complete.2. Provide opportunities for pupils to respond in ways other than writing: display work, role play, short video films etc.3. Remember that ‘less is more’ in some cases. Prescribe the number of words to be used to make G&T pupils think hard about what they write, and make every word count.
A real exampleContext:Planned for inclusionDeveloping independent learning skillsLittle teacher inputMixed ability groupingsRelevant – real life exampleOfSted Oct 2012 grading: ‘Outstanding’
LO: To describe and explain the causes and impacts of recent weatherevents in the UKStarter - How would you feel?http://abbeyfieldhumanities.blogspot.co.uk/2012/09/stormy-weather-expected-thi
LO: To describe and explain the causes and impacts of recent weatherevents in the UKSuccess criteriaYour presentation is clear and easy to understandYour presentation covers both causes and effectsYou work well as a team - all contributing equally to the tasks setYou describe and explain the causes and effects - using appropriateconnectivesYou link effects with specific places in the UK - labelling the locationsaccurately on the map
LO: To describe and explain the causes and impacts of recent weatherevents in the UK YOUR TASK: In your groups, you will need to investigate the causes and effects of the stormy weather this week Your resources: ·Sugar paper ·UK blank map ·Newspaper articles ·Laptop You should designate tasks within the group to work towards a common goal - making sure that you fulfil the requirements of your role within the teamhttp://abbeyfieldhumanities.blogspot.co.uk/2012/09/stormy-weather-expected-this-week.html
We are a Business and Enterprise School. In any business, everyone has a specific role andresponsibility so that the business works properly and targets can be met. So what are the roles andresponsibilities on your table to help with the business of learning in Geography?
Roles and Responsibilities for Geography group work Geography Classroom Chief Executive – Mr Drake I am the person with the ultimate responsibility for the working environment and everyone in it. My job is to make sure that the Assistant Chief Executive on your table is fulfilling their role as outlined below. Assistant Chief Executive (one person)You have the job of ensuring that those on your table do their jobs properly. You are the Chief Executive’s main assistant. You should help others and solve problems to make sure that the whole table meets the aim of the lesson set by the Chief Executive. You are the only person who is allowed to ask the Chief executive a question during tasks. You therefore need toensure that you listen to instructions very carefully so that you can deal with any issues or questions that arise on your table.
Health and Safety Quality Assuror Resources Co- Officer (up to 2 people) ordinator (up to 2 people) You are the person with (one person) You are the person the responsibility for You are alsowho is responsible for ensuring that the work responsible forthe safe management produced by all collecting any of the table during members of the table is equipment including tasks. You need to of good quality and exercise books, make sure that the completed to a high textbooks, table is working in a standard. You must worksheets and constructive way, ensure that work paper. Any following the Code of completed in exercise equipment required Conduct and working books follows the by members of the hard and safely, to presentation rules as table must be complete the tasks outlined on the yellow collected and that have been set. wall poster. You may returned by you. It is also be called upon to also your give out credit stamps responsibility to and stickers. ensure that the resource tray is kept clean and tidy.
LO: To describe and explain the causes and impacts of recent weatherevents in the UK Level 3 - You can identify areas affected and list some causes and effects Level 4 - You can describe some causes and effects Level 5 - You describe in detail the causes and effects. Plus you are beginning to explain the impacts on people Level 6 - You describe and explain in detail the causes and effects. Annotating the map to illustrate the areas affected Level 7 - You describe and explain in detail the causes and effects of the stormy weather. You also offer ideas of how such impacts can be reduced in the future
Additional informationMy AST website for lesson ideas, training materials etc:Search for ‘Humanities AST Wiltshirehttp://humanitiesastwiltshire.blogspot.comAbbeyfield Humanities website for lesson resources:Search for ‘Abbeyfield Humanitieshttp://abbeyfieldhumanities.blogspot.comOn Twitter:@_DavidDrake@AbbGeography@TeachingBites
Inclusion and differentiation in the Geography classroom ‘Differentiation is the process whereby teachers meet the need for progress through the curriculum by selecting appropriate teaching methods to match the individual student’s learning strategies, within a group situation’. Visser 1993 David Drake (AST) – November 2012 Abbeyfield School