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Bruno Latour’s scriptsLatour’s concept for describingthe mediation of action byartifacts is called a ‘script’.Like the script of a movie or a atour runo Ltheatre play, an artifact can B‘prescribe’ its users how to actwhen they use it.
This lecture has also a scriptYou walk inYou look for you favourite spotYou sit downTake your notebookListen to the lectureMake notesApplauseLeave the auditoriumWrite a review
Examples of scriptsSpeed bumps, the scriptis: ‘Slow down!’
Examples of scriptsPaper coffee cup, thescript is: ‘dispose meafter use’
John Chris Jones onthe objectives of adesignerIn Design Methods (1970)“The designer must be able topredict the ultimate effects oftheir proposed design as well asspecifying the actions that areneeded to bring these effectsabout.”
You’ll ﬁnd scripts throughout the life of a productConception Manufacturing Distribution Sales Installation Maintenance DisposalSelling it to Should be Should be Should catch Should be easy Should be easy Should bethe client possible and lightweight the attention to install clean and good for theBuilding cheap to of the buyer replace the environmentprototypes produce and bulb? easy to How can it be assemble repaired when it breaks?
Examples of scriptsStriping of DutchPolice cars
Examples of scriptsStriping of Dutch Police cars:Roadblocks, visual presence,applicable to many vehicles
Examples of scriptsPassword strength indicator
Examples of scriptsPassword strength indicator:Persuade or challenge peopleto select a safe password
Examples of scriptsWii: playing together andmoving instead of sittingon a couch?
I consider scripts a bit like ‘Automator’ scriptsWith a sequence of actions
The designer has intentionshow the artefact shouldinteract with its user(s)and context.
A design script intends toaffect the user behaviour(or mind) in a predictiveway.
You will ﬁnd theprinciples of scriptsin many ﬁelds Cognition & Economics & Political Sciences Schemata theory Event schemata (Scripts) Choice architecture Usecues Mandler, Schank & Abelson Richard Thaler, Cass Sunstein, Kanis, Rooden, A ordances John Balz Green Donald Norman Behavioural Scripts Craig Anderson Usability Cognitive structures In uencing public of knowledge behaviour Legislation Error prevention, ease of use Architectures of control Lawrence Lessig Education In uencing public behaviour Persuasive Intervention scripts Barnett, Bauer, Bell, et al technology Acquisition of knowledge, Persuasive technology skills and values BJ Fogg Design with Philosophy Intent Dan Lockton Game ‘Enscription of artefacts’ Bruno Latour, Madeleine Akrich Design Change attitudes or behaviors Serious games through persuasion How technology a ects Educating, training and peoples life developing behaviour , mindsets
Design as learning“As a designer you graduallygather knowledge about thenature of the design problemand the best routes to taketowards a design solution. “Kees Dorst in ‘Understanding Design’ (2003)
John Chris Jones onthe problems of adesignerIn Design Methods (1970)“The fundamental problem isthat designers are obliged touse current information topredict a future state that willnot come about unless theirpredictions are correct.”
Kolb Learning CycleLearning from Experiencing a phenomenaexternal phenomena FeelingDoing an intervention What do I feel see, hear, taste, Doing Reviewing smell etc.? Thinking Understanding the phenomena, drawing conclusions What does it mean?
Kolb Learning Cycle Learning from internal My gut feeling mental processes Feeling Evaluating my feelings Running a scenario: “What do I feel?”Envisioning the intervention Reviewing Doing “What if...?” Thinking Understanding my feelings, contemplating my intentions, deﬁnition of objectives n of “Why, how. what?” C onceptio a script
Why this learning process isimportant Trending topics Design as Value Creation Design to fuel Innovation For example: Service Design Transformation designWe design for a world where technology is becoming moreand more complex and more integrated in our daily livesDesign is becoming more holistic, less tangible and aproduct of multidisciplinairy teamwork.
My best tip...In order to predict the outcome ofyour design (the behaviour itinvokes), you have to learn about‘the world’ (context, user behaviour,technology).But learning is not enough, the makethe outcome of your designpredictable, you also have to makesimple and robust scripts.